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^ 



o 

THE 



ENCYCLOPiEDIA BRITANNICA 



s [ 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



ARTS,' Sciences, and General Literature 



VOLUME L 



CHICAGO 
K. S. PEALE & CO. 

. 1890 



I ■ MI^MA i. 



6wi. 



.3cr 



DlC 17 1' 






Encyclopagdia Britannica. 
Vol. I. — (A-A.NA). 

Total namber of Articles^ 9661 

PRINCIPAL CONTSNTa 

ABBE7 Aim ABBOT. Bet. EDicirvD Vwablms, Preoeator.and Cuion of Unooln. 

ABELABD. 0. Choom Bobsetbom, M.A, Profestor of Logic, UniYonity College. London. 

ABERDEEN. Audl CEmcKBfLjJXK, HA 

ABRAHAM. Rbv Bamuxl Datzdior, D.D., Aathor of *' IntrodnctioD to the Old and New Testaments.*' Ao. 

ABYSSINIA. Datd> Eat, Fellow of the- Royal Qeographioal Sodoty 

AOADEHT. Fbavcib Stobs, M.A., Aathor of " Tables of liregolar Greek Verba." 

ACCENT. Jomr U. Robs, LL.D., late Editor of the **Gk>be Encyclopedia. 

ACCLIMATISATION. Alfred K WaluloM, Aathor of ** Theory of Natora) Selection ' 

ACHILLES. A. Stuabt Kitrbat, Britieh Mnwoin, London. 

ACHIN. CoL HxNBT YitlB, C. B., P.R.O.S., Aathor of *' The Book of Maroo Polo." 

ACOUSTICS. David Thoiiboh. M. A., Jate Profenor of Natoial Philosophy, Unirersity of Aberdeen. 

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Principal Donaldsoh, LL.D.. Author of ** Early Christian Literature and Doctrine.*^ 

ACTINOZOA. T. H. Huzuet, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor in the Royal School of Mines, London. 

ADAM. Rer. Samubl Davidson. D.D 

ADDISON. WiLUAM Spaldwo, LRD^ late Professor of Rhetoric and BeUes Lettres, University of Edinburgh. 

ADMIRAL AHD ADMIRALTY. F. W. Rowsbll, C.B., Soperintendent of Naval Contracts, H.M. Admiralty. 

ADULTERATION. Dr Hbnbt Lsthrbt, Ph.D., formerly Medical Officer of Health to the City of London. 

AERONAUnOS. Jaiob Olaibhxr, F.RS., Soperintendent of the Meteorological Section, Greenwich Observatory 

iESCH YLtrS. J. Stuart Blaokib, late Professor of Greek. Univeiaity of Edinbnigh. 

iBSIR. Miss S. a drrt, Translator of Homboldt's " Cosmoa * 

jESTHETICa Jaksb Sullt, LL.D.. Aathor of *' Sensation and Intuition. 

AFGHANISTAN. Col Yulb, jC.B: 

AFRICA. ERnn JOENBTOV, FIbHow of the Royal Geographical Society. 

AGASSIZ. W. C. WiLUAMSOSi, LL.D., F.R.S.« Professor of Natural History, Owens College, Manchester. 

AGRARIAN LAWS. Grorob Frrovbok, LL.D., formerly Professor of Humanity, University of Aberdeen. 

AGRICITLTURE. Johh Wilbon, Member of Oooncil. Highland and Agricaltural Society, and W. T. Thorrtok. 

Aathor of " A Plea for Peasant Proptietora ** 
ALCHEMY. JvLRS Andriev. 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Rev. Sir Groror W. Cox. Baronet, Aathor of *' A History of Greece," Ac 
ALEXANDER TL Riobard Garnrtt, British Mosenm, Aathor of " Idylls and Epigrams from Greek Anthology.'' 
ALFORD, DEAN. Charles Krmt, Authpr of " Charles Dickens as a Reader.** 
ALGiL Dr J. Hnrroif BALFoim, F.R.S., late PTOfesBor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 
ALGEBRA. Philip KjttLAKD, r.R.S., late Professor of Mathematics, University of Edinbnrgh. 
ALGERIA. David Eat, F.R.G.S. 

ALPHABET. JoxK Pul^ M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Oambridga 
ALPS. JoHir Baol, F.R.8., late President of the Alpine Club. 
ALTAR. Rtfv. G. H. Forbrs. 

ALUM. Jahxb DkWAR, F.BJ9., Jaokflonian PrafeBsor of Natural Ezperimeatal PhiloBophy, Cambridge. 
AMAZON. A. Stuart Murrat. British MuBeom. 

AMBASSADOR. Hrhrt Rrivb, C.B., D.CL, BeglBtiBr of H.M. Privy CoondL 
AMBULANCE. Thoxab LoxaMORR, aB., ProfesBor of Army Suigexy, Netley. 

AMERICA (North axd Sovtb). Oharlrb Maolarxh, lata Fel of the Geolog. Soc. and of the Royal Soeiety. Edin. 
AMERICAN LITERATURE. John Niohoi^ LL.D., Professor of English Langoage. UniveiBlty of Glasgow. 
AMMON. Saicurl Birch, LLD., D.C.L., Keeper of Depsrtment of Oriental AntiqaitiBB» British Maaeom. 
AMMUNITION. Capt C. Ordr Brownr, R. A., Royal Laboiatoxy. Woolwich. 
AMOSw Rev. Canon T. K. Chrthr, Oriel Professor of Exegesis. Univerfliiy of Oxford. 
AMPHIBLA. Prot T. H. HXTZLBT. 
AMPHITHEATRE. Rev. G. H. Forbes. 
ANALOGY AMD ANALYSI& Prot Crook Robertbon. 

AH JESTHESIA. Dr. Jakea O. Aefleck, Examiner, Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. 
ANATOMY. Sir Wm. Turhbr, M.a, F.B.&. Profeesor of Anatomy in the University of Edinbargfa. 



A QenenU Index to the EsoroLOPiEDiA U now in preparaHon, and mU rtftr in detail to (h^ 
various miX^eeU embodied in the artidea throughout the Work. 



PREFATORY NOTICE. 



THE Encyclop.<edia Britannioa lias long dcscrveoJy hcia a foremost place amotiget 
English Encyclopaedias. It secured this position by its plan and method of treatment 
the plan being more comprehensive, and the tre«atment a happief blending of popular and 
scientific exposition than had previously been attempted in any undertaking of the kind 
The distinctive feature of the work was that it gave a connected view of the more important 
subjects under a single heading, instead of breaking them up into a number of shortei 
articles. This method of arrangement had a twofold advantage. The space afforded for 
extended exposition helped to secure the services of the more independent and productive 
minds who were engaged in advancing their own departments of scientific inquiry. As 
a natural result, the work, while suryeymg in outline the existing field of knowledge, waft 
able at the same time to enlarge its boundaries by embodying, in special articles, the fruits 
of original observation and research. The Encyclopaedia Britannica thus became, to some 
extent at least, an instrument as well as a register of scientific progress. 

This characteristic feature of the work will be retained and made even more prominent 
in the New Edition, as the list of contributors akeady published sufficiently indicates. 
In some other respects, however, the plan will be modified, to meet the multiplied requite* 
ments of advancing knowledge. In the first place, the rapid progress of science during the 
last quarter of a century necessitates many changes, as well as a considerable increase in 
the number of headings devoted to its exposition. In dealing with vast wholes, such as 
Physics and Biology, it is always a difficult problem how best to distribute the parts under 
an alphabetical arrangement, and perhaps impossible to make such a distribution perfectly 
consistent and complete. The difficulty of distribution is increased by the complexity of 
divisions and multiplication ©f details, which the progress of science involves, and which 
constitute indeed the most authentic jiote of advancing knowledge. This sign of progress 
is reflected in extensive changes of terminology and nomenclature, vague general headings 
once appropriate and sufficient, such as Animalcule, being of necessity abandoned for more 
precise and significant equivalents. 

But, since the pubUcation of the last edition, science, in each of its main divisions, may 



vi yREPATORY NOTICE, 

be said to have changed as much in substance as in foirnu Thd new conceptions introduced 
into the Biological Sciences have revolutionised their points of view, methods of prooedure» 
and systems of classification. In the light of larger and moreillimiinating generalisati(»ks, 
sections of the subject, hitherto only partially explored, have acquired new piominenee^and 
value, and are cultivated with the keenest inj^erest. It is enough to specify the researches 
^ into the ultimate structures; aenal gradations, and progrjessiver.changes of organic formB, into 
the laws of their distribution in space and time, and into the causes by which these pheno- 
mena have been brought about The results of persistent labour iix these comparatively new 
fields of inquiry will largely determine the claafidfications of the future. Meanwhile the 
whole system of grouping, and many points of general doctrine, are in a transition state ; 
and what is said and done in thesa directioDfi must ]i)e regarded, to a certain extent at least, 
as tentative and provisional In these circumstances, the really important thing is, that 
whp^tever may be said on such unsettled questLOi:is should be said with the authc»rity of the 
fullest knowledge and insight, and every effort has been made to secure this advantage for 
the New Edition of the Encyck^sBdia. 

The recent history of Physics is marked by changes both of conception and classifica- 
tion almost equally great. In advancing £com the older dynamic to the newer potential and 
kinetic conceptions of power, this Ixrancb of science may be said to have ^[itered on a 
fresh stage, in which, instead ef r^aiding natocal jriienomtna as the re^t of forces acting 
between one body and 'aaeiher, the energy of a material system is looked Ttpon as deter- 
mined by its configniatioQ and motion, and the ideas of configuration, motion, and force 
are generalised to the utmost extent warranted by their definitions. This altered point of 
view, combined with the far reaching doctrines of the correlation of forces and the 
conser^tion of energy, has produced extensive changes in the nomenclature and classifi- 
cation of the various sections of physics ; while the fuller investigations into the ultimate 
constitution of matter, and into the phenomena and laws of light, heat, and electricity, 
have created virtually new sections, which must now find a place in any adequate survey 
of scientific progress. The application of the newer principles to the mechanical arts and 
industries has rapidly advanced during the same period,^^ and will require extended illustra- 
tion in many firesh directions. Mechanical invention has, indeed, so kept .pace with the 
progress of science, that in almost every department of physics improved machines and 
processed have to be described, as well as fresh discoveries and altered poijnts of view. In 
recent as in earlier times, invention and discovery have acted and reacted on each other 
to a marked extent, the instruments of finer measurement and analysis having directly 
contributed to the finding out of physical properties and laws. The spectroscope is a 
signal instance of the extent to which in our day scientific discovery is indebted to 
appropriate instruments of observation and analysis 

These extensive changes in Physics and Biology involve corresponding changes in the 
method of their exposition. Much in what was written about each a generation ago is now 
of comparatively little value. Not only therefore does the system of grouping in these 



PREFATORY . NOTICE vii 

sciencesr require alteration and enlargement ; the articles themselves must, in the majority 
of instances, be written afresh rather than simply revised. . The scientific department of 
the work will thus be to a great extent new. In attempting to distribute the headings 
for the new edition, so as fairly to cover the ground occupied by modern science, I have 
been largely indebted to Professor Huxley and Professor Clerk Maxwell, whose valuable 
help in the matter I am glad to have an opportunity of acknowledging. 

Passing from Natural and Physical Science to Literature, H istory, and Philosophy, it 
may be noted that many sections of knowledge connected with these departments display 
frcdh tendencies, and are working towards new results, whicl^, if faithfully reflected, will 
require a new style of treatment, i* Speaking generally^ it may be said that human nature 
and human life are the great objects of inquiry in these departments. : Man, in his indi- 
vidual powers, complex relationships,' associated activities, >nd^ collective progress,; is dealt 
with alike in Literature, History, and Philosophy.* "v In this >ider aspect, the rudest and 
m<»t fragmentary records ef savage and barbarous races^ the earliest stories and traditions 
of every lettered people, no less than their developed literatures, mythologies, and religions, 
are found to have a meaning and value of their own. As yet the rich materials thus 
supplied for throwing light on the central problems of human life and history have only 
heei| vory partially turned to account. ^ It may be said, indeed, that their real significance 
is perceived and appreciated, almost for the first time, in our own day ' But under the 
influence of the modem spirit, they arc now being dealt with in a strictly scientific manner 
The available fjpts of human history, collected over the widest areas, arc carefully co-ordi- 
nated and grouped togethu^ in the hope of ultimately evolving the laws of progress, moral 
and material, which underlie them, and which, when evolved, will help ^ to' connect and 
ii^erpret the whole onward movement of the race. , Already the critical use of the com- 
parative method has produced very striking results in this new and stimulating field of 
research. Illustrations of this arc seen in the rise and rapid development of the compara- 
tively modem science of Anthropology, and the successful cultivation of the assistant sciences, 
such as ArchsBology, Ethnography, and Philology, which directly contribute materials for 
its use. The activity of geographical research iu both hemispheres, and the large addi- 
tions recently made to our knowledge of older and newer continents by the discoveries of 
eminent travellers and explorers, aflbrd the anthropologist additional matenals for his work. 
Many branches of mental philosophy, again, such as Ethics, Psychology, and ^Esthetics, 
while supplying important elements to the new science, are at the same time very largely 
interested in its results, and all may be regarded as subservient to the wider problems raised 
by the philosophy of history. In the new edition of the Encyclopasdia full justice wiU, it is 
hoped, 1^ done to the progress made in these various directions. 

It may be well, perhaps, to state at the outset the position taken by the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica in relation to the active controversies of the time — Scientific, Religious, and 
PUilosophicaL This is the more necessary, as the prolific activity of modern science has 
naturally stimulated speculation, and given birth to a number of somewhat crude conjee- 



viii PREFATORY NOTICE. 

tures and hypothesca 'The air is fuU of novel and extreme opinions, ansmg often from 
a hasty or one-sided intefT)retation of the newdr aspects and results of modem inquiry. 
The higher problems of philosophy and religion, too, are being investigated afresh from 
opposite sides in a thoroughly earnest spirit, as well as ^ith a' directness and intellectual 
power, which is certainly one of the most striking signs of the times. This fresh outbreak 
of the inevitable contest between the old and the new is n fruitful source of exaggerated 
hopes and fears, and of excited denunciation and appeal In this conflict a work like the 
Encyclopaedia is not called upon to take any direct part. It has to do with knowledge rather 
than opinion, and to deal with all subjects from a critical and historical, rather than a 
dogmatic, pomt of view. It cannot be the organ of any sect or party m Science Religion 
or Philosophy Its main duty is to give an accurate account of the facts and an impartial 
summary of results in every department of inquiry and research. _ This duty will. I hope, 
be faithfully performed. 

T. S. BAYNEa 



EKCYCLOPiEDIA BRITANNICA. 



A 



A THE firat symbol of eveiy Indo-Loropean alphabet, 
« denotes al^o tJie primary vowei sound. Thiis coin- 
cidence is probably only accidental The alphabets of 
Europe, and perhaps of India also, were of Semitic origin, 
and in all the Semitic alphabets except one, this same 
symbol (in modified forms) holds the first place; but it 
represents a peculiar breathing, not the vowel a, — the 
rowels in the Semitic languages occupying a subordinate 
place, and having originally no special symbola When 
the Greeks, with whom the vowel sounds were much more 
important^ borrowed the alphabet of Phoenicia, they re- 
quired symbols to express those vowels, and used for this 
purpose the signs of breathings which were strange to 
them, and therefore needed not to be preserved ; thus the 
Phoenidan equivalent of the Hebrew aUph became alpha; 
it denoted, however, no more a guttural breathing, but the 
purest vowel sound. Still, it would be too much to 
assume that the Greeks of that day were so skilled in 
phonetics that they assigned the first symbol of their bor- 
rowed alphabet to the a-sound, becawe they knew that 
sound to be the most essential vowcL 

This primaiy vowel-sound (the sound of a in father) is 
produced by keeping the passage through which the air \& 
vocalised between the glottis and the hps in the most open 
position possibla In sounding all< other vowels, the air- 
channel is narrowed by the action either of the tongue or 
the lips. But here neither the bock of the tongue is 
raised (as it is in sounding o and other vowels), so that a 
free space is left between the tongue and the uvula, nor 
is the front of the tongue raised (as in soundmg €\ so that 
the space is clear between the tongue and the palate. 
Again, no other vowel is pronounced with a voider opening 
of the lips ; whereas the aperture is sensibly reduced at 
tsich aide when we sound o, and still more when we sound 
u (t£at is, yoo). The whole channel, therefore, from 
the glottis, where the breath first issues forth to be modi- 
fied in the oral cavity, to the lips, where it finaUy escapes, 
is thoroughly open. Henco^risos the great importance of 
the sound, by reason of its thoroughly non-consonantal 
cbaiactec Ail vowels may be defined as open positions 



of the speech-organs, in which the breath escapes without 
any stoppage, friction^ or sibilation arising from .the con- 
tact of those organs, whereas consonants are heard when 
the organs open after such contact more or less complete. 
Now, all vowels except a are pronounced with a certain 
contraction of the organs; thus, in sounding the % (the 
English ^-sound), the tongue is raised so as almost to 
touch the palate, the passage left being so dose, that if 
the tongue were suffered for a second to rest on the palate, 
there would be heard not i but y; and a simikr relation 
exists between u and w. This is commonly expressed by 
calling y and w semi-^owols. We might more exactly caU 
t and V consonantal-vowels; and as an historic fact, % doe^ 
constantly pass into y, and u into ir, and vice vena. But 
no consonant has this relation to the a-sound ; it has abso- 
lutely no affinity to any consonant ; it is, as we have called, 
it, the one primary essential vowel 

The importance of this sound may be shown ;by historf'' 
cal as well as by physiological evidence. We find by. 
tracing the process of {Phonetic change in different Ian. 
guages, that when one vuwel passes into another, it is the 
pure a-sound which thus assumes other forms, whereas 
other vowels do not pass mto tlio a-sound, though some- 
times the new sound niay have this symbol Boughly 
speaking, we might express the gene- 
ral character of vowel change by draw- 
ing two lines from a common point, 
at which a is placed. One of these 
lines marks the progress of an original 
a (abound) through e (a-sound), till 
it sinks finally to i (c-sound) ; the other 
marks a similar degradation, through 
to u (o»-sound). This figure omits ^' 
many minor mocLifications, and is sub- 
je^t to some exceptions in particular bngnagea. But it 
represents fairly in the main the general process of vowel- 
change. Now, we do not assert that there ever was a 
time when a was the only existing vowel, but we do main- 
tain that in numberless cases an original a has passed into 
^ther sounds, whereas the reverse process is excessivetj 




A — A A R 



c^ira. Cousemientlyy the farther we trace back the history 
of language, Uie more instances of this vowel do we find; 
tbft more nearly, if not entirely, does it become the one 
starting point from which all Towel-sound is derived. 

It is principally to the effort required to keep this 
sound pure that we must attribute the great corruption of 
it in oU languages, and in none more than our own. In- 
deed, in English, iJie short <^«oimd is never heard pure ; it 
28 heard in Scotland, e.g., in man, which is quite different 
from the same woi4 on English lips. We have it, how- 
ever, long in father, &c, though it is not common. It' has 
]ias8ed into a great many other sounds, ail of which are 
denoted in a most confusing way by the original symbol, 
and some by other symbols as well. Thus a denotes — (I.) 
l*he English vowel-sound in man, perhaps the must common 
of all the substitutes, dating from the 17th century. (2.) 
It appears in want; for this sound o ia also emplpyed, as in 
on, (3.) A more open sound is heard in all (also denoted 
by au in auk, and aw in awl). (4.) Very commonly it re* 
fnresents the continental «, as in o^ (here also we have the 
symbol ai in ail). (6.) It is found in dare and many 
aimilar- words, where the sound ia really the e of den, pro- 
longed in the utterance; here alao ai is sometimes an 
equivalent, as in air. Then (6) there is a sound which is 
not that of a either io man or in father, bjit something 
between the two. It is heard in such worda aa ask, pass, 
grant, kt. All these may be, and often are, pronounced 
with the sound either of man or offtUher; still, we do often 
hear in them a clearly distinguiHhable intermediate sound, 
which ought to have a special symbol. Lastly (7), there 
is the dull sound heard in final unacoentuated syllables, e.g,, 
in the word final itself. It ia that to which all unacoen- 
tuated syllables tend ; but it is also often heard even in 
monosyllables, where it is represented by every other vowel- 
symbol in the language, e.g., in her, sir, son, sun. ' This 
Protean sound is commonly called the neutral vowel; it 
occurs in all languages, but perhaps in none so frequently 
as in English. This great variety of sounds, which ore all 
denoted among us by one symbol, clearly shows the in* 
sufficiency of our written alphabet, ' 

As 10 EngUsh, so in Sanskrit, the short oA-eound was 
lost, and was replaced regularly by the neutral sound. 
This was regarded by the grammarians as inherent in eveiy 
^usonaot, and therefore was only written at the beginning 
of a word ; in fact, it is the smallest amount of vowel- 
sound requisite to float a consonant. Long a, however, 
kept its sound pure, and does so still in the vernaculars of 
India. In Latin the sound was probably pure, both short 
and long, and it has been preserved so in the Romance 
languages down to the present day. In Greek there was 
considerable variation, proved in one case at least by a 
variation of symbol ; in Ionic a commonly passed into 
fj, a symbol which probably denoted the modem Italian 
open e , bi^t^ssibly the close e, that is, the English a in 
ale. On the other hand, it is probable that the Doric a 
Approximated to an o, being sounded as a in our word 
loaTU; and it is likely that this variation was the vAarcuur- 
uo^ which the grammarians attribute to the Dorians. This 
is commonly supposed to have been the retention of a where 
the Ionic had 17 ; but that was not peculiar to the Dorians, 
being common to all the Greeks except the lonians. In 
the north of IJurope we find a similar tendency to give to 
tf an o-sound; thus in Norse, aa is sounded as on open o. 
By a further extension in the north of England, at least in 
'such parts as have been specially exposed to Norwegian 
influence, au has the sound of ; e.g., law is pronounced lo, 

A is frequently used as a prefix in lieu of some fuller 
form in old English. Thus it stands for the preposition 
on (O.E. an) in away, again, afoot, ojdeep; for offmadown 
f O.E. of-dum) ; and seems to be intensive in aihirst iO.K 



cf4hirst). Sometimes, especially with verbs, It represents 
Uie old English d, which in old High German appeacs as 
v,r or er, and in modem German as er, which signifies the 
Vxtmpletion of an action, as in erwa/Jun^ to wluch awake 
corresponds. Frequently no special force seems to be 
added h^ the prefi;^, as in abide, arise, dsc Sometimes a 
appears as the Tepresentative of the prefix commonly used 
in past participles, which has the form ge in German, and 
ge and y in old English, e.<7„ in ago or agvne; compare 
aware (O.E. gewaere), among (O.E. gemang), &c. A also 
stood for the preposition an (on) in such expressions (now 
obsolete) as Ordoing, Ormaking, where doing and making are 
verbal nouns. Lastly, it represents the prepositions on or 
of in the phrases novhOrdays, Jack-Orlantem, and others. 

The place that A occupies in the alphabet accounts fur 
its being much employed as a mark or symbol It is used» 
for instance, to name the sixth note of Uie gamut in music ; 
in some systems of notation it is a numeral (see Anirn- 
METic); and in Logic it denotes a universal affirmativo. 
proposition (see Looio). In algebra, a and the first letters, 
of the alphabet are employed to represent kno\7n quanti- 
ties. AI marks the best dass of vessels in Lloyd's Re- 
gister of British and Foreign Shipping. In the old poets» 
" A per se" is found, meaning the highest degree of excel- 
lence ; as when Chaucer calls Crese^e " the floure and A 
per se of Troye and Grece," 

A was the first of the eight literce nvnduudes at Rome, 
and on this analogy it stands as the first of the seven Domini- 
ca] letters. 

It is often used as an abbreviation, as in JLD. for aiuio 
domini, A.M. for ante meridiem, A.B. and A.M. for artium 
baocalaureus and artium magistsr. In commerce A stands 
for accepted, (j. p.) 

AA, the name of about forty small European .rivers, v 
The word is derived from the old German aha, oognatt 
to the Latin aqtui, water. The following are the more 
important streams of this name : — a river of Holland, in 
North Brabant, which joins the Dommd at Bois-le-Duc ; 
two 'rivers in the west of Russia, both falling into the 
Gulf of Livonia, near Riga, which is situated between 
them ; a river in the north of France, falling into the sea 
at Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; and a 
river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Luceme and Aargau, 
which carries the waters of Lakes Baldeker and Hallwylcr; 
into the Aar. 

AACHEN. See Aix-la-Chapelle. . 

AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, is situated on^ 
the Liimfiord, about 15 miles from its junction with the, 
Cattegat It is the capital of the district of the s^me; 
name, one of the subdivisions of the province of Jutland.] 
The city is a place of considerable commercial importance^ 
and contains a oathedrol and a school of navigation. Soap,' 
tobacco, and leather are manufactured ; there are several^ 
distilleries ; and the herring fishery is extensively prosecuted.] 
Grain and herring are laigely exported, as are also to a: 
smaller extent wool, cattle^ skins, taUow, salt provisions, and; 
spirits.. The harbour, which is good and safe, though^ 
difficult of access, is entered by about 800 vessels annually^ 
and there is direct steam communication with Copenhagen.. 
The district is celebrated for its breed of horses. Popula-J 
fcion (1870), 11,9D3. 

AALEN, a walled town of Wurtemberg, pleasantly^ 
situated on the Rocher, at the foot of the Swabian Alps^ 
about 50 miles K of Stuttgart Woollen and linen gooda 
are manufactured, and there are ribbon looms and tanneries 
in 'the town, and large iron works in the neighbourhood.' 
Aalen was a free imperial city from 13G0 till 1802, when 
it was annexed to Wiirtembeig. Population ( 1 87 1 ), 5552. 

AAR, or Aare, the most considerable river in Switzer«s 
land, after the Rhine and Rhone. Xt rises in the glaciers 



A A R~ A'A E 



of tho FluBter-aanioniy Schreckhom, and Qrimsel^ in the 
cantoa of Bern; and at tlie Handeck in the yalley of Haali 
fonns a magnificent water-fall of abo^e 150 feet in height 
It then faUs succeasirely into the lakes Brieos and Than, 
and, emexging from the lattery flows through the cantons of 
Bern, Soleore, and ijtfgan, emptying itself into the JEUiine^ 
apposite ' Waldshat^ after a course of about 170 miles. 
Ita principsl tributary streams are the Eander, Saane, and 
Thide on the left, and the Emmen, Suiin, Aa, Reuss, and 
lammat, on the right On its banks are situated Unterseen, 
Thnny Bern, Soleure or Solothum, Aarbuig, and Aarau. 
The Aar is a beautiful sUvesy river, abounding in fish, and 
la navigable from the Rhine as far as the LaJi:e of Thun. 
Several small rivers In Germany have the same name: 

AARAU, the chief town of the canton of Aargau in 
Switxerhind, is situated at the foot of Hie Jura mountains^ 
on the right bank of the river Aar, 41 miles N.E. of Bern. 
It is well built^ and contains a town«hall, barracks, several 
small museums, and a library rich in histories of Switzer- 
land. There^iB a cannon foundry at Aarau, afid among the 
principal manufactures are silk, cotton, and leather ; also 
cutlery and mathematical instruments, which are held in' 
greai repute. The sbpes of the neighbouring mountains 
are par^ally covered with vines, and the vicinity of the 
town is attractive. About ten nulea distant along the 
right bank of tho Aar are the famous baths of SchinznacL 
Population, 5449. . 

AARD-VARK {earth'pig\ an animal very common in 
South Africa, measuriLg upwards of three feet in length, 
and having a general r^^blance to a short-legged pi^. 
It feeds on ants, and . > of nocturnal habits, and veiy timid 
and harmless. Its flesh is used as food, andgwhen suitably 
preserved is considered a delicacyi The animal is. the only 
known species of Its genus (Oryeterqpus), and belongs to 
the order Edentata of the mammalia. The same prefix 
Aard appears in the name of the Aaed-wolp (Protetea 
■Lalanditj, a rare animal found in Caffraria, which is said 
to partake of tho characters of the dog and dvet :. See 

MiUOfALIA. 

\ AAROAU (French,' Aboovib), one of the cantons of 
Switzerland; derives its name from the river which flows 
throDgh it, Aar-gaa being the province or district of the 
j Aar. It is boundeid on the north by the Rhine, which divides 
it from the duchy of Baden, on the east by Zurich and Zug, 
on the south by Lucerne^ and on the west by Bern, Soieure 
[or Solqthum, siid Basel It has an area of 502^ square milea 
jBy the 'census of 1870, the number of inhabitants was 
198,873, showing an increase during the preceding ten yesis 
'of 4665. Aargau stand^ sixth among the Swiss canto)QS in 
clcnsity of popiQation, having 395 inhabitants to the square 
:xnil& The statistics of 1870 show that of the inhabitants 
[107,703 were Protestants, 89,180 Catholics, and 1541 Jews. 
German is the language ahnost universally spoken. i 

I Aaigaa is the L^t mountainous cantoa of Switzerland. 
It forms part of a great table-land to the north of the Alps 
and the east of the Jura^ having a general elevation of 
from 1200 to 1500 feet v The hills do not rise to any 
greater* height than 1800 feet above this table-land, or 
3000 feet above the level of the sea. The surface of the 
country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and 
^well-wooded hiUs alternating with fertile vaUeys watered 
by the Aar and its numerous tributaries, and by the rivu- 
1^ which flow northward into the Rhine. Although 
Aoist and variable, the climate is milder than iu^most 
parts of Switzerland. 

{. The minemls of .'Aaigan are unimporCant, but remarkable 
palaMmtologiea] remains are found in ita rocks. 3^ The soil to 
the left of the Aar is a stiff day, bat to the right it is light 
aad prodnctiva ' Agriculture is in an advanced state, and 
great attention is given to tho tearing of cattle. ...There 



are many vineyards, an;l much fruit is 'grownup Thd.^n* 
ton is distinguished by its industry and its gcn^Uly 
diffused prosperity. Many of the inhabitants are employed 
in the fishings on the Aaur, and in the navigation 'of tho 
river. In Uie villages and towns there are oonsiderablo 
manufactures of cotton goods, silk, and linen. The chief 
exports are cattle, hides, cheese, timber, raw cotton, yam,^ 
cottou cloUis, silk, machineiy, and wooden wares; and 
the imports include wheat, wine, salt, leather, and ironj 
The. most important towns are Aarau, Baden, Zofingen* and 
Laufenburg, and there are mineral springs at Baden, Schinz- 
nach, Leerau, and NiederweiL The Swiss Junction 
Railway crosses the Rhine near Waldshnt, and runs south 
through the canton to Turgi, whence one line proceeds S.E. 
to Zurich, and another S.W. to Aarau and 01ben« 

Until 1708, Aargau formed part of the canton of Bcn^' 
but when the Helvetic Republic was proclaimed, it was 
erected into a separate canton. In 1803 it received a 
considerable.accession of territory, in virtue of the arrange- 
ment under which the French evacuated Switzerland. 
According to the law whereby the cantons are represented 
in the National Council by one member for every 20,000 
inhabitants, Aargau returns ten representatives to tliat 
assembly. The internal government is vested in a Icgia- 
lative council elected by the body of the people, while a 
smaller council of seven members is chosen by the larger 
body for the general administration of -affairs. -. Tho re- 
sources of Aargau are stated to amount to about a million 
sterling; its revenue in 1867 was nearly £82,000, and the 
expenditure slightly greater. There is a public debt of 
about £40,000. The canton is divided into eleven districts,^ 
and these again are subdivided ihto forty^^ight circles^ There 
is a court of law for each district, and a superior court for 
the whole canton, to which tas^ involving susis above 160 
francs can be appealed. Education is compulsory ; but in Uie 
Roman Catholic districts the law is not strictly enforced. By, 
improved schools and other appliances great progress has 
been made in education within the last thirty or forty years.^ 

AABHUUS, a city and seaport of Denmark, situated 
on the Cattegat,.in kt 56'' 9' N., long. 10'M2' £. It is' 
the chief town of a fertile district of £e same liame, one 
of the subdivisions of Jutland. The cathedral of Aarhuua 
is a Gothic structure, and the largest church in Denmark.' 
The town also contains a lyceum, museum,' and library.* 
Aarhuus is a place of extensive trade. It has a good and 
safe harbour, has regular steam commimication with 
Copenhagen^ and is connected by rail with Viborg and the 
interior of the country. Agricultural produce, spirits, 
leather, and gloves are exported, and there are sugar re- 
fineries, and manu&ctures of wool, cotton, : and tobacco.^ 
Popubtion (1870), 15,020. 

»i AARON, the first high-priest of the Jews, eldest son' 
of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, and brother 
of Moses and Miriam. -- When Meses was commissioned to 
conduct thB Israelites frpm Egypt to Canaan, Aaron was 
appomted to assist him, principally, it would appear, ou 
account of his possessing; in a lugh .degree, {)er8uasivo 
r<^^dines8 of speech. .' On the occasion' of Moses' absence 
in Mount Sinai (to whiish he had gone' up to receive the 
tables of the law), the Israelites, regarding Aaron as their 
leader, clamorously demanded that- he should provide tlieni' 
with a visible symlytlie image of their Cod for worsbi|i.| 
He weakly complied with ti^ demand, and out of tlie 
ornaments of gold contributed for the purpose cast the 
figure of a calf, this form being doubtless chosen in^ recol- 
lection of the idoh of ISgypt .; In obedience to instructions 
given by^God.to Moses, Aanm was appointed high-priest ;' 
his sons and descendant^. priests; and his tribe was set 
apart aa 1^ sacerdotal caste.- Thence of high-priest wh ) 
held by Aaion for nearly fbrty yeai^ till the time of his 



4 



A A R— A B A 



death, which took place on Mount Hor, when he was 123 
years old. 

AARSSENS, FEANas Vak (1572-1641), one of the 
greatest diplomatists of the United Provinces. He re- 
presented the States-General at the Court of Franco for 
many years, and was aho engaged in embassies to Venice, 
Germany, and England. His great diplomatic ability 
appears from the memoirs he wrote of ixis negotiations 
in 1624 with Richelieu, who ranked him among the three 
greatest politicians of his time. A deep stain rests on the 
memory of Aarssens from the share he had in the death of 
Bameveldt, who was put to death by the States-General, 
after the semblance oi a trial, in 1619. 

ABABDE, an African tribe occupying the. country be- 
tween the Red Sea and the Nile, to the 6. of Kosseir, 
nearly as far as the latitudo of Derr. Many of the race 
have settled on the eastern bank of the Nile, but the 
greater part still live like Bedouins. They are a distinct 
race from the Arabs, ysnd are treacherous and faithless in 
their dealings. They have few horses ; when at war with 
other tribes, diey fight from camels,, their breed of which 
is famed. They possess considerable property, and trade 
in senna, and in charcoal made from acacia wood, which 
they send as far as Caira 

ABACA or Abaka, a name given to the Musa lextUis, 
the plant that produces the fibre called Manilla Hemp, 
and also to the fibre itself. 

ABACUS, an architectural term (from the Or. ifia(, a 
tray or tLo^t board) applied to the upper part of the capiud 
of a column, pier, £c. The early form of an abacus is 




Forms of tho AbacuSi ^ 

simply a square flat stone, probably derived from the 
Tuscan order^ In Saxon work it is frequently simply 
chamfered, but sometimes grooved, as in the crypt at 
Repton (fig. 1), and in the arcade of the refectory at West- 
minster. The abacus in Norman work is square where 
the columns are small; but on larger piers it is sometimes 
octagonal, as at Walthanl Abbey. The square of the 
abacus is often sculptured, as at the White Tower and 
at Alton (fig. 2). In early English work the abacus is 
generally circular, and in larger work a continuation of 
circles (fig. 4), sometimes octagonal, and occasiondlly square. 
The mouldings are 
generally rounds, 
which overhang 
deep hollows. The 
abacus iu early 
French work is 
generally sauare, as 
at Blois (fig. 3). 
The term is ap- 
plied in its diminu- 
tive form (Abacis- 
cus) to the chequers 

or squares of a tes- _ ^ ^ , 

eeUated pavement Fig. &. -Roman Ab««. ^ 

Abacus also signifies an ins^ment employed by the 
ancients for arithmetical calculations; pebbles, bits of bone, 
or coins, being used as counters. The accompanying figure 
(5) of a Roman abacus is taken from an ancient monu* 
tucnt. It contains seven long and seven shorter rods or 
tars, the former having four perforated beads running on 



llllllll 



IXlcolsio^d oe C X 





them, and the latter one. The bar marked I indicatei 
units, X tens, and so on up to millions. The beads on the 
shorter bars denote fives, — five units, five tens, <&& The rod 
and correspond- 
ing short rod are 
for marking ounces; 
and the short quar- 
ter rods for fractions 
of an oimce. 

The Swan-Pan of 
the Chinese (fig. 6) 
closely resembles the 
Roman abacus in its Fig. 6.— Chiuese Swan-Pan. 

eonstniction and us& Computations are made with it by 
means of balls of bone or ivory miming on slender bam* 
boo rods similar to the simpler board, fitted up with beads 
strung on wires, which i9 employed in teaching the nidi- 
ments of arithmetic in elementary schools. 

AB^, a town of ancient Greece in the R of Phocis, 
famous for a temple and oracle of ApoUa The temple was 
plundered and burned by the Persians (B.a 480), and again 
by the Boeotians (aa 346), and was restored on a smaller 
s^e by Hadrian. Remains of the temple and town may 
still be traced on a peaked hill near ^rkho. See Leake's 
Northern Greece, 

ABAEANSR, a fortified town of Siberia^ in the govern* 
ment of YeniseiBki on the river Abakan, near its coiSuence 
with the Yenisei Lat 64^ N. ; long. 9V 14' R This U 
considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, 
and is remarkable for the tumuli in its neighbourhood, and 
for some statues of men from seven to nine' feet high, 
toveredi with hieroglyphica Population about 1000. 

ABANA and Pbarpab, " riven of Damascus " (2 Kings 
v. 12), are now generally identified with the Barada and 
the Awaj respectively. The former flows through the city 
of Damascus; the Aw^, a smaller stream, passes eight 
miles to the south. Both run from west to east across the 
plain of Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, 
and lose themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, 
on the borders of the great Arabian desert Mr Macgreffor, 
who gives an interestiog description of these rivers in his 
Hob Boy on the Jordan, affirms that *' as a work of 
hydraulic engineering, the system and construction of tho 
canals by ^hich the Abana and Pharpar are used for 
irrigation, may be still considered as the most complete 
and extensive in the world." 

ABANCAT, a town of Peru, in the department o! 
Cuzco, 65 miles W.S. W. of the town of that name. It lies 
on tho river Abancay, which is here spanned by one of tho 
finest bridges in Peru. Rich crops of sugar-cane are pro* 
duced. la the district, and the town has extensive sugar 
refineiles. Hemp is also cultivated, and silver is found in 
the mountains. Population, 20,000. 

ABANDONMENT, in Marine Aesuranee, is the surren* 
derin^ of the ship or goods insured to tho insurers, in the 
case of a constructive total loss of the thing insured. 
There is an absolute total loss entitling the assured to 
recover the full amount of his insurance wherever the thing 
insured has ceased to exist to any useful purpose,—- and in 
such a case abandonment is not required. Where the thing 
assured continues to exist in specie, yet is so damaged that 
there is no reasonable hope of repair, or it is not worth the 
expense of bringing it, or what remains of it, to its destina- 
tion, the insured may treat the case as one of a total loss 
(in this case called constructive total loss), and demand 
the full sum insured. But, as the contract of insurance is 
one of indemnity, the insured must, in such a case, mako 
an express cession of all his right to the recovery of tho 
subject insured to the underwriter by abandonment Tbo 
insured must intimate his intention to abandon, within a 



A B A — AB A 



reasonable time after receiving correct information as to' 
the loss; any nnneoessary delay being held as an indicar 
tioa of his intention not to abandon. An abandonment 
when once accepted Ib iirevocable; but in no circumstances 
is the insured obliged to abandon. After abandonment, 
Che captain and crew are stiU bound to do ail in their 
power to save the property for the underwriter, without 
prejudice to the right of abandonment; for which they are 
entitled to wages and remuneration from the insurers, at 
least so. far as what is saved will allow. See Amould, 
Marahall, and Park, on the Law of Inturaiuie, and the 
judgment of Lord Abinger in Rous v. Salvador, 3 fiing. 
N.C. 266. Tudor's Leading C(ues, 139. 

ABAjnx>HKBKT has also a legsd signification in the law 
6i railways. Under the Acts 13 and 14 Vict c. 83, 14 
and 15 Vict c. 64, 30 and 31 Vict c. 126, and 32 and 33 
Vict c. 114, the Board of Trade may, on the application 
of a railway company, made by the authority and with the 
consent of the holders of three-fifths of its shares or .stock, 
and on certain conditions specified in the Acts, grant a war- 
rant authorismg the abandonment of the railway or a por- 
tion ol it ^iter due publication of this warrant, the 
company is released from all liability to make, maintain, 
or work the railway, or portion of the railway, authorised 
to be abandoned, or to complete any contracts relating to 
It, subject to certain provisions and exceptions. 

AfiAHDONiNO a young child under two years of age, so 
that its life shall be endangered, or its health permanently 
iiQured, or likely to be so, is in England a misdemeanour, 
punishable by penal servitude or imprisonment, 24 and 25 
Vict c 100, § 273. In Scotland abandoning or exposing 
an ipfai&t is an offence at common law, although no evil 
oonseqnenoes should happen to the child. 

ABANO, a town of Northern Italy, 6 miles S.W. of 
Padua. There are thermal springs in the neighbourhood, 
which have been much resorted to by invalids for bathing, 
both in ancient and modem times. They were called by 
the Romans Aponi Fom^ and also Aquas Patamnae. Popu- 
latiou of Abano, 3000. 

ABANO, PiBTBO d\ known also as Petrus de Afxmo or 
Apon^nnSf a distrnguiahed physician and philosopher, was 
bom at the Italian town from which he takes his name in 
1250, or, according to others, in 1246. After visiting the 
east in order to acquire the Greek language, he went to 
8tudy at Pans, where he became a doctor of medicine and 
philosophy. In Padua, to which he returned when his 
studies were completed, he speedily gained a great reputa- 
tion as a physician, and availed himself of it to gratify his 
avance by refusing to visit patients exc^t for an exorbitant 
fee. Perhaps this as well as his meddling with astrology 
caused the charge to be brought against him of practising 
magic, the particular accusations being that he brought 
back into his purse, by the aid of the devil, all the money 
he paid away, and that he possessed the philosopher's stone. 
He was twice brought to trial by the Inquisition , on the 
first occasion he was acquitted, and he died (1316) before 
the second trial was completed. He was found guilty, 
however, and his body was ordered to be exhum^ and 
burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the 
[nqvisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public 
proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in 
effigy. In his writings he expounds and advocates the 
medical and philosophical systems, of Averrhoes and other 
Arabian writers. His best known works are the Cot^ 
cUuUar differerUiamm qwx inter philosophos et mecUcoa 
WTMnter (Mantua, 1472. Vemce, 1476), and De venenia 
eorumtpie rtmediiB (1472), of which a French translation 
WBB published at Lyons in 1593. 

' ABARI8, the Hyperborean, a celebrated sage of anti- 
qimty, who visited Greece about 570 B.C., or, according to 



others, a century or two earlier.^ The particulars of his 
history are differently related by different authors, but ail 
accounts are more or less mythical He is said to have 
travelled over sea and land, riding on an arrow given him 
by At)oUo, to have lived without food, to have delivered 
the whole earth from a plague, &c Various works in proee 
and verse are attributed to Abaris by Suidas and others, 
but of these we have no certain information. 

'ABATEMENT, Abate, from the French abattre, abater^ 
to throw down, demolisL The onginal meaning of the 
word IS preserved in various legal phrases. The abatement 
of a nmsance is the remedy allowed by law to a person 
injured by a public nuisance of destroying or removing it 
by his own act, provided he commit no br^ich of the peace 
in doing so. In the« case of private nuisances abatement 
is also allowed, provided there be no breach of the peace, 
and no damage be occasioned beyond vhat the removal of 
the nmsance requires. 

Abatement of freehold takes place where, after the death 
of the person, last seised, a stranger enters upon lands 
before the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter 
out of possession. It differs from mtrusion, which is a 
similar entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for 
life, to the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man ; . 
and from disseisin, which is the. forcible or fraudulent ex- 
pulsion of a person seised of the freehold. 

Abatement among legatees (de/aleatis) is a proportionate 
deduction which their legacies suffer when tht funds out< 
of which they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in 
full. 

Abatement in pleading is the defeating or quashing of a 
particular action by some matter of fact, such as a defect 
in form or personal incompetency of the parties suing, 
pleaded by the defendant Such a plea is called a plea in 
abatement , and as it does not involve the merits of the 
cause', it leaves the right of action subsisting. Since 1852 
it has been competAit to obviate the effect of such pleas 
by amendment, so as to allow the real question in contro- 
versy between the parties to be tried in the same suit 

In litigation an action is said to abate or cease on the 
death of one of the parties. 

Abatement, or Rebate, is a discount aUowed for 
prompt payment;- it also means a deduction sometimea 
made at the custom-house from the fixed duties on certain 
kinds of goods, on account of damage or loss sustained in 
warehousea The rate and conditions of such deductions 
are regulated by Act 16 and 17 Vict. c. 107. 

ABATI, or Dell'Abbato, Nicoolo, a celebrated fresco- 

S inter of Modena, bom in 1512. His best works are at 
odena and Bologna, and hav& been highly praised by 
Zanotti, Algarotti, and Lanzi. He accompanied Primaticcio 
to France, and assistal in decorating the palace at Fontain- 
bleau (1552-1571). His pictures exhibit a combination of 
skill m drawing, grace, and natural colouring. Some of 
his easel pieces m oil are in different collections ; one of the 
finest, now in the Dresden Qallery, represents the martyr, 
dom of St Peter and St Paul AlMvti died at Paris iii 
1571. 

ABATTOIE, from abaUre, primarily signifies a slaughter- 
house proper, or place where animals are killed as distin- 
guished from boucKariu and itav^ publics, places where 
the dead meat is offered for sala Bnt the term is also- 
employed to designate a complete meat market of which, 
the abattoir proper is merely part 

Perhaps the first indication of the existence of abattoirs 
may be found m the system which .prevailed under the 
Emperors m ancient Rome. A corporation or guild of 
butchers undoubtedly existed there, which delegated to its 
officers the duty of slaughtering the beasts required to 
supply the city with meat The establishments requisite. 



A B A T T I R 



for this purpose were at first scattered about the various 
« streets, but were eW^ntoally confinedi'to one quarter, and 
formed the puHie n^eat market This market, in the time 
iof Nero^ was oaejH the most imposing structures in the 
kiity^ and some id^ ojf its magnificence has been transmitted 
(to us by a delineation of it preserved on an 'ancient coin. 
I As the policy and customs of the Romans made themselves 
I felt iu Oaul, the Roman system of abattoirs, if it may be 
'SO called^ was introduced there in an imperfect form. A 
'clique of families in Paris long ^ercisod the special func- 
tion of catering for the public wants in respect of meat 
*6ut as the city increased in magnitude and population, the 
necessity of keeping slaughter-houses as much as possible 
apart from dweUing-bouses became apparent As early as 
|the time of Charles IX., the attention of the French' author- 
Sties was directed to the subject, as is testified by a decree 
passed on the 25th of February 1567. But although the 
■importance of the question was frequently recognised, no 
definite or decided step seems to have been taken to efl^ect 
jthe contemplated' reform until the time of Napoleon I. 
>The evil hod then reached a terribly aggravated form. 
<Slaughter-house8 abutted on many of the principal thorough- 
fares ; the traffic was impeded by the constant arrival of 
foot-sore beasts, whose piteous cries pained the ear; and 
rivulets of blood were to be seen in the gutters of the. public 
streets. < The constant accumulation of putrid offal tainted 
the atmosphere, and the Seine was polluted by being used 
as a common receptacle for slaughter-house refuse. This 
condition of things could not be allowed to continue, and 
km the dth- of February ISlOT^ decree was passed authoris- 
ing the construction of abattoirs in the outskirts of Paris, 
■^nd appointing a Commission, to which was committed the 
consideration of the entire question, 
p. The result of the appointment of this Commission was 
^he construction of the five existing abattoirs, which were^ 
'formally opened for business on the 15th of September 
;181& The Montmartre abattoir occupies 8} English acres; 



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I. Menilfflootant Abattoir. 



A. Reildeac« of Offldnls. 

Bl St»«ep and Ca:tlt! Shctfik 

C SUnffhter-Hooaaa. 

D. Yards to do. 

K. Store*. 

r. TaUow-aelUng Bouei. 



G. Steam Enfrtne. 

B. Stable vith Water Tank* 

above. 
I. Dana Pita. 
L. Pnviea 
M. Laycn for Cattle 



'M6nilmontant, 10^ acres; Crenelle, 7}; Du RouIp, 5}; 
and Villejuif, 5 J. The first two contain each 64 slaughter- 
bouses ai^d the same number of cattle^eds; the third, 48 ; 
)«nd each .of the others 32. The dimensions of each of the 
iBlaughter-houses is about 2^ feet by 13. ^ The general 



arrangement of the abattoirs will be understood from tie 
preceding phn of that of Mdnilmontant • 

The component parts of a French abattoir are— l/^ 
Echaudoirs, which is the name given by the Paris butcher' 
to the particular division allotted to him for the purpose of, 
knocking down his beasts ; 2. Bcuveria et Bcrgerus, the 
places set apart for the animals waiting to be slaughtered, | 
where the animals, instead of being kUled at once, after ai 
long and distressing journey, when their blood is heated aDd-* 
their flesh inflamed, arc allowed to cool and rest till the 
body is restored to its normal healthy condition ; 3. /W 
deurt^ or boiling-down establishments ; and, 4. Triperies,'. 
which are buildings set apart for the cleaning of the tripe! 
of bullocks, and the fat, heads, and tripe of sheep and' 
calves. Besides these, a Paris abattoir contains Logcmentt 
des agens, Magasins, Reservoirs^ Voiries, Lieux daisance,^ 
Routes f Jiemises ei ecuries. Para aux BosufSf &c, and is' 
provided with an abimdant supply of water. All the abat-1 
toirs are under the control of the municipal authorities,* 
and frequent inspections are made by persons regularly, 
appointed for that purpose. 

The abattoirs are situated within the barriers, each at a 
distance of about a mile and three^uarters from the heart 
of the city, in districts where human habitations are still 
eomparativcly few. There are two principal markets from 
which the abattoirs at Paris are supplied, — ^the one at 
Poissy, about 13 miles to the north-west, and the other at 
Sceaux, about 5 miles and a quarter to the south of the 
city. There are also two markets for cows and calves, 
namely. La ChapcUc and Lcs Bemadins. 
; The Paris abattoirs were until recently the most perfect 
specimens of their class ; and even now, although in some 
of their details they have been surpassed by the new 
Islington meat market, for their complete and compact 
arrangement they, remain xmrivalled. 

The etample set by Paris in this matter has been f ol-' 
lowed in a more or less modified form by most of the prin*^ 
cipal Continental towns, and the system of abattoirs has 
become almost universal in France. 

The condition of London in this important sanitary 
respect was for a long period little more endurable than 
that of Paris before the adoption of its reformed system.- 
Smithfield market, situated in a veiy populous neighbour- 
hood, continued till 1852 to be an abomination to the town- 
-and a standing reproach to its authorities. No fewer than 
243,537 cattle and 1,455,249 sheep were sold there in 
1852, to be afterwards slaughtered in the crowded courts 
and thoroughfares of the metropolis. But public opinion 
at length forced the Legislature to interfere, and the corpora- 
tion was compelled to abandon Smithfield market and to 
provide a substitute for it elsewhere. 

The site selected was in the suburb of Islington, and the 
designs for the work were prepared by Mr Bimning. The 
first stone was Isld March 24, 1854, and the market was 
opened by Prince Albert, June 15, 1855. The Islington 
market is undoubtedly the most perfect of its kind. It occu- 
pies a space of some 20 acres on the high land near the Pcn4 
tonville prison, and is open to both native and foreign cattle^' 
excepting beasts from foreign countries under quarantine. ^ 
' In connection with the Islington cattle market arc a few. 
slaughter-houses, half of which were originally public, and 
half rented to private individuals ; but at present they are' 
all practically private, and the majority of the cattle sold 
are driven away and killed at private slaughter-houses. In 
this respect the London system differs from that of Paris ; 
and it may be said for the former that the meat is less 
liable to be spoiled by being carted to a distance, and is 
therefore probably delivered in better condition ; but the 
latter secures that great desideratum, the practical eztino^ 
tion of isoUted slaughter-house& 



A B A — A B A 



Tlitt Cdiubtirgb abattoir, erected to 1851 by the corpom- 
tiiAi. from desi£n3 prepared by Mr David Cousin, the city 
arclritecU a the best ab regards' both coostniction and 
nianagcmeDt to the United Kingdom, [t occupies an area 
of four acres and a quarter, surrounded by a screen-wall, 
from which, along the gigsater part of its length, the build- 
ings are separated by a considerable open spare Opposite 




1 Bdinbun^b Slaughter- Houses. 

A Ccnrral RAodwai Q RaiMd Wvvr TtnK 

R. Slsuffhtertof BuotiM H- Tripery 

C i;«ttle Sherts (. Plg-tlaughrennff HooM 

D Rndond YuxU K. Court (or CaUla 

e. WdL L. Sheds 

V SK««iii-C&fbie ' SI. Blood Boose, now Albumoo raetocy. 

the principal gateway is a double row of buildings, extend* 
iQg in a straight bne to about 376 feet in length, with a 
central voadway (marked AA m the annexed plan), 25 feet 
wide There are three separate blocks of building on each 
side of the roadw.ay, the central one bemg 140 feet m 
length, and the others 100 feet each — cross-roads 18 feet 
wide sepnmting the blocks These ranges of building, as 
well 4s two tmaller blocks that are placed transversely 
behiud the eastern central block, are divided into conpart- 
metita, numbenng 42 in all, and all arranged on the same 
plan Next the roadway is the slaughtenng-booth (B£), 18 
feet by 24. and 20 feet m height, and behiud this is a shed 
(CO) 18 feet by 22. where the cattle are kept before being 
slaughtered All the' cattle ace driven into these sheds by 
a back-entrance, through the small enclosed yards (DDi 
The large doors of the booths are hung by balance weights, 
and slide up and aown, so as co present no obstruction 
either within the booth or outside By a series of Urge 
ventilators along the roof, and by other contnvances, the 
slaaghtenng-booths are thoroughly ventilated. Great pre- 
Ciiitions have been used to keep rats out of the buildings. 
To effect thw, the booths are laid with thick well-dressed 
pavement, rosans on a stratum of concrete 12 inches 
thick, and the walls, to the height oi 7 feet, are formed of 
solid ashlar, the lundways, coo. are laid with concrete, 
and causewayed with dressed whmstone pavement; and the 
drainage consists entirely of glazed earthenware tubes 

The ground on which the abattou is built was previously 
connected with a distillery, and contains a well 100 feet 
deep (E), which, with the extensive system of tunnels 
otuushod to It, provides the establishment with an abundant 
supply of pure water By means of a steam-engme (F), 
lutrodoced in 1872. the water is pumped up mto a raised 
tank (O). whence it is distributed to the different booths 
and sheds, as weQ as for scouruig the roadways and drams. 
The steam from the engine is utilised m heating water for 
the omnerous cast-iron tanks required m the operations of 
cleansing and dressing the tnpery (H) and pig slaugh- 
conng* house (I\ By an ingemous arrangement of 
fotasT brushes driven by the steam-engine, — ^the inven- 
tion of Mr Rutherfoid, the superintendent, — ^the tnpe is 
dressed in a superior mnnner, and at greatly less cost 



than by the tedious and troublesome method of Land- 
cleaning. 

- By the Edinbui'gfa Slaughter- Houses Act of 1850, tlie 
management is vested m the city authorities. E^otha 
are let at a statutory rent of £8 each per annum, and, in 
addition to this, gate-dues- are payable for every boasX 
entering tlie establishment The present rates for tenants 
of booths are l^d. for an ox or cow, jd. for a calf or> 
pig, and Id. for a sheep. Common booths are provided 
for butchers who are not tenants, on payment of double 
gate-dues. The city claims the blood, gut, and manura 
Tlie tripe and foet ore dressed for the trade without extra 
charga 

The blood was formerly collected in large casks, and dis- 
posed of for manufactunng purposes. This necessitated 
the storage of it for several days, causmg m warm weather 
a very offensive efHuvium. It even happened at times, 
when there was little demand for the commodity, that 
the blood had to be sent down the drama All nuisance 
IS now avoided, and the amount received annually for 
the blood has nsen from between ^00 and X450 to 
from £800 to £1200, by a contract mto which Mcssra 
Smith and Forrest of Manchester have entered with 
the city authorities, to take over the whole blood at 
a dxed price per beast They have erected extensive 
premises and apparatus at their own cost, for extracting 
from the blood the albumen, for which there is great 
demand in cahoo^pnntmg, and for <K)QY^ing the dot into 
4nannr& * 

In connexion with the establishment is a boiHng-house, 
where all meat unfit for human food is boiled down and 
destroyed The number of carcases seized by the msp6c> 
tor, 'and sent to the boiling-house, during ihe 5| years 
ending with the close of 1872, amounted to 1440, giving 
I a weight of upwards of 400,000 pounds. 

Befoi^e the erection of these bmldings, pnvate slaughter 
houses were scattered all over the city, often in the mo»t 
populous districts, where, through want of dramage and 
imperfect ventilation, they contaminated the whole neigh- 
bourhood. Since the opening of the public abattoir, all 
pnvate slaughtering, in the city or within a mile of it, is 
stnctly prohibited 

Few of the provmcial towns m Great Bntam have as yet 
followed the example of London and Edinburgh. In some 
mstances improvements on Che old system have been 
adopted, but Great Britain is still not only far behind her 
foreign neighbours in respect of abattoirs, but has even 
been excelled by some of her own dependencies. In 
Amenca abattoirs are numerous, and at Calcutta and other 
towns m Bntish India, the meat markets present a very 
creditable appearance from their oleaniiness and systematio 
arrangement^ (c. N. B.) 

ABAUZIT. PrRMiN. a learned Frenchman, was boro ' 
of Protestant parents at Uses, m Languedoc, m 1679. 
His father, who was of Arabian descent, died when ho 
was but two years of age , and when, on the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes m 1685. the authorities took stc^ 
to have him educated m the Roman Catholic faith, hia 
mother contnved his escape. For two yeare his brother 
and he lived as fugitives m the qiyuntains of the Cevenncs, 
but they at last reached Geneva, where their mother aftcr^ 
wards jomed them on escaping from the imprisonment in 
which she was held from the time of their flight Abauzit's 
youth was spent in diligent study, and at an early age h» 
acquired great proficiency m languages, physics, and 
theology. In 1698 he travelled into Holland, and there 
became acquainted with Bayle, Juncu, and Basnage 
Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaoo 
Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders 
of the great truths his discovencs disclosed to the world 



8 



A B B— A B B 



8ir Isaac correctod uj the-sacond editiou of bit» Prtnxnpia an 
error pointed out by Abauzit The high estimate Newton 
entertained of his ments appears from the compliment 
^he paid to Abauzit. when, sending him the Commercivm 
£pUt(Uieum, he said. " You are weU worthy to judge 
between Leibnitz and me " The reputation of Abauzit 
induced William III to rf>quest bun to settle in England, 
but he did not accept the kings offer, prefcrnng to return 
to Geneva There f rom i 7 1 5 he rendered valuable a.ssi8tance 
U> a society that had been formed for translating the New 
Testament into French He declined the ofler of the 
chair of philosophy in the University m 1723. but ac- 
cepted, in 1727. the sinecure office of li^Jrarian to the city 
of bis adoption Here he died at a good old age, m 1767 
Abauzit ivos a man of great learning and of wonderful 
ver^tility The varied knowledge he possessed was so 
well digested and arranged in his retentive mind as to be 
always within •his reach tor immediate use. Whatever 
chanced to be discussttd. it used to be said of Abauzit. as 
(>/ Professor Wbewell of our own times, that he seemed to 
have made it a subject of part.icular study Rousseau, 
who was jealously spanng of his praises, addressed to 
him. ID his Nouveile HMnuie, a fine piiiiog3mc . and when a 
stranger fiattcnngly told Voltaire he had come to see a great 
man. the philosopher asked him if he had seen Abauzit. 
Little remains of the labours of this intellectual giant, his 
heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers that came into 
their possession, because theu religious opinions differed 
from those of Abauzit A few theological, archieological, 
end astronomical articles from his pen appeared id tiie 
Joumal IJeluetvfju and elsewhere, and he contributed 
several papers to Rousseau's Dicttonary of Musm, A 
work he wrote throwing doubt on the canonical authority 
of the Apocalypse was answered — conclusively, as Abauzit 
himself allowed — by Dr Leonard Twclls He edited, and 
snade valuable additions to Spon s Ilutory of Geneva. A 
collection of his wntings was publish^ at Qeneva in 
1770, and another at Ixmdon in 1773 Some of them 
were translated into English by Dr Harwood (1770, 1774). 
information regarding Abauzit will be found in Senebier's 
Utstnvre Luttraxre dt Geneve, Harwood's Mucdlaniea^ and 
Ormes Biblujtheca Bihltca, 1834 

ABB, a town of Yemen in Arabia, situated on a moun- 
tain in the midst of a very fertile country, 73 miles N.R 
of Mocha Lat 13** 68' N., long 44** 15' R It contains 
uhout 800 houses, and is surrounded by a strong wall ; 
rhe streets are well paved , and an aqueduot from a neigh- < 
bounng mountain supplies it with water, which is received 
ID a reservoir m front of the principal mosque. The 
population IS about 6000. 

ABBADIE, James, an eminent Protestant divine, 
was born at Nay m Bern about 1657 His parents 
^ were poor, bat through the kindness of discenimg friends, 
he received an excellent education He prosecuted his 
studies with such success, that on completing his course 
at Sedan, though only seventeen years of age, he had con- 
ferred on him the degree of doctor m theology After 
spending some years in Berbn as minister of a French 
Protestant church, he accompanied Marshal Schomberg, 
in 1 688, to England, and became minister of the French 
church in the ^voy, London. His strong attachment to 
the cause of King William appears in his elaborate 
defence of the Revolution, as well as m his history of 
rhe conspiracy of 1696, the materials- of which were 
furnished, it is said, by. the secretaries oi sttite The' 
king promoted hiin to the deanery of Killaloe ih Iralandr 
He died m London in 1727 Abbadie was a man of 
great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known 
b>^hi8 religious treatises, several of which were translated 
from the original French into other languages, and had a 



wide circulation all over Eiiropa The most important of 
these are Traiti de la VenU de la ReUgvon CAretienne ; 
its continuation, TraitS de la DtvmUi de JStus-Ckrtst ; 
and L*Ari de ee. connaitre S<n^m£me. 

ABBAS L, surnamed the Great, one of the most 
celebrated of the sovereigns of Persia, was the youngest 
son of Shah Mohammed Khodal>endeh. After heading a 
successful rebellion against his father, and causing one of 
his brothers (or. as some say, both) to be assassinated, he 
obtained possession of the throne at the early ago of 
eighteen (1685). Determined to raise the fdlen fortunes 
of his country, he first directed his efforts against the 
predatory Uzbeks.' who occupied and harassed Khorasan. 
After a long and severe struggle, he defeated them in a 
great battle near Herat (1597), and drove them out of his 
dominions. In the wars he earned on with the Turks 
during nearly the whole of his reign, his successes were 
numerous, and he acquired or regamed a large extent of 
temtory By the victory he gamed at Bassorah (1605), 
he extended his empire beyond the Euphrates , Achmed I. 
was forced to cede Shirwan and Kurdistan m 1611 , the 
united armies of the Turks and Tartars were completely 
defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made pcsice 
on ver}' favourable terms . and on the Turks renewing the war. 
Baghdad fell into his hands after a year's siege (1623). 
In the same year he took the island of Ormuz from the 
Portuguese, by the assistance of the British. When ho died 
m 1 628. his doifimions reached from the Tigris to the Indus. 
Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his successes 
in arms, and by the magnificence of his court, but also by 
his reforms m the administration of his kingdom. He 
encouraged commerce, and. by constructing highways and 
building bndges, did much to facilitate it To foreigners, 
especially Christians, he showed a spint of tolerance , two 
Englishmen, Sir Anthony and Sir Robert Shirley, were 
admitted to his confidence, and seem to have had much 
miluence over him. His fame u tarnished, however, by 
nimierous deeds of tyranny and cruelty His own family, 
especially, suffered from his fits of jealousy , lus eldest son 
was slam, and the eyes of his other children were put out, 
by his orders. 

ABBAS MmZA (h 1786 d 1833), Prince of Persia, 
third son of the Shah Foth Ab, was destmed by his father 
to succeed him in the government, because of his mother's 
connection with the royal tnbe of the Khaci^ars. He led 
vanous expeditions against the Russians, but generally 
without success (1803, 1813, 1826). By a treaty made 
between Russia and Persia m 1828, the nght of Abbas 
to the succession was recognised. When the Russian 
deputies were murdered by the Persian populace in 1829, 
Abbas was sent to St Peteisburg, where he received a 
hearty welcome from the Czar, and made himself a 
favourite by his courtesy and literary taste. He formed a 
design against Herat, but died shortly after th^ siege had 
been opened by his son, who succeeded Feth All as the 
Shah Mohammed Mirza. He v^'sa truthful — a rare quality 
in an Eastern — plain in dress and style of livmg, and fond 
of litemturc 

ABBASSIDES, the caliphs of Baghdad, the most 
famous dynasty of the sovereigns of the Mahometan or 
Saracen empire They derived their name and descent 
from Abbas (b. 666, d 652 a.d ), the uncle and adviser of 
Mahomet, and succeeded the dynasty of the Ommiads, the 
cahphs of Damascus. Early m the 8th century the 
family of Abbas had acc]uired great influence from their 
near relationship to the Prophet , and Ibrahim, the fourth 
in descent from Abbas, supported by the province of 
Khorasan, obtauied several successes over the Ommiad 
armies, but was captured and put to death by the Caliph 
Merwan (747). Ibrahim's brother, Abnl-Abbas, whom Le 



A B B— A B B 



9 



liad namod his heir, assumed the title of caliph, and, hy a 
decisive victory near the river Zab (750), effected the over- 
throw of the Oumiad dy;iasty. Merwan fled to Egypt, 
but was pursued and put to death, and the} vanquished 
family wa8<rcatod with a severity which gained for Abul- 
Abbas the sumapc of Al-Saflah, the Blood-shedder. ' 
From this time the* bouse of Abbas was fully established 
in the government, but the Spanish provinces were lost to 
the empire by the erection of an independent caliphate of 
Cordova, under Abderrahman. • ' _ •;••..;».• 

On the death of Abul-Abbas, Almansur succeeded to 
the throne, and founded Baghdad as the seat of empire. 
He and his son Mohdi waged war successfully against the 
Turkomans and Greeks of Asia Minor ; but from this time 
the rule of the Abbassides is marked rather by the . 
development of the liberal arts than by extension of 
territory. The strictness of the Mohammedan religion fvas 
relaxed, and the faithful yielded to the seductions of luxury. 
The caliphs Harun AlRashid (78C-S09) and Al-Mamun 
(813-833) attained a world-wide celebrity by their gorgeous 
palaces, their vast treasures, and their brilliant and nume- 
rous equipages, fn all which their splendour contrasted 
strikingly with the poverty of European sovereigns. The 
former is known as one of the heroes of the Arabian 
NighU; the 'latter more worthily still as a liberal patron 
uf literature and science. - It is a mistake, however, to 
look in the rule of these caliphs for the lenity of modem 
civilisation. "No Christian government," says Hallam, 
" except perhaps that of Constantinople, exhibits such a 
series of tyrants as the caliphs of Baghdad, if deeds of 
blood, wrought through unbridled passion, or jealous 
policy, may challenge the name of t3rranny." 
•: The territory of the Abbassides > soon suflcred dismem- 
berment, and their power bc^n to decay. « Rival sove- 
reignties (Ashlabites, Edrisites, d^c.) arose in Africa, and 
an independent government was constituted in Khorasan 
(820), under the Taherites. In the Wr^\ a^ain, the Greclgs 
encroached upon the possessions of the Saracens in Asia 
Minor. Ruin, however, came from a Ibss civilised race. The 
Icaliphs had continually been waging war with the Tartar 
jhordesof Turkestan, and many captives taken in these wars 
were dispersed throughout the empira Attracted by their 
bravery and fearing rebellion among his subjects, Motassem 
(833-842), the founder of Samarah, and successful oppo- 
nent of the Grecian forces under Theophilus, formed body- 
guards of the Turkish prisoners, who bccaoie from that 
time the real governors of the Saracen empire. Mota^ 
vrakkcl, son of Motassem, was assassinated by them in the 
pobce (861) ; and succeeding caliphs became mere puppets 
in their hands. Radhi (934-94 1 ) was compelled by the 
disoi^ganiscd condition of his kingdom to delegate to 
Mohammed ben'Rayek (936 A.D.), under the title of Emir- 
al'Omara^ commander of the commanders, the government 
df the army and the other functions of the caliphate. 
Pftyvince after province proclaimed itself independent ; 
the caliph's rule became narrowed to Baghdad and its 
vicinity ; and the house of Abbas lost its power in the 
East for ever, when Hulagu, prince of the Mongob, set 
Baghdad on fire, and slew Mutassem, the reigning caliph 
(20th Feb. 1258). The Abbassides continued to hold a 
semblance of power in the merely nominal caliphate of ^ 
Egypt, and feebly attempted to rccovec their ancient scat. 
The last of them, Motawakkcl III., was taken by Sultan 
Sclim I., the conqueror of Egypt, to Constantinople, and 
detained therq for some time as a prisoner. lie afterwards 
returned to Egypt, and died at Oxiro a ponsionaiy of the 
Ottoman government, in 1538. '- . 
i ABB£ is the French word corresponding to Abbot, but, 
from the middle of the sixteenth century to the time of 
the French Revolution, the term had a wider application. 



Tlic assumption by a numerous' class of the name and 
style of dhht appears to have originated in the right oon« 
ceded to the King of France, by a concordat between Pope 
Leo X. and Francis I., to appoint abbia commendataires to 
225 abbeys, that^is, to most of the abbeys in France. 
^Tbis kind of appointmei. , whereby the living wb6 cofl»- 
'mencUd to some one till a proper election could take 
place, though ostensibly provisional, really put the norni* 
nee in full and permanent possession of the l>endice. 
He' received aboutlpne-third of the revenues of the abb^, 
but had no share in its government, the charge of the 
house being intrusted to a resident officer, the prteur 
dauairaL^ The abbes commendataires were not nec^sarily 
priests ; the papal bull required indeed that they should 
take orders within a stated time after their appointment, 
but there seems to have been no difficulty in procuring 
relief from that obligation. The expectation of obtaining 
these sinecures drew 'young men towards the Church in 
considerable numbers, and the class of abb^ so formed — 
abbis de ccvr they were sometimes called, and sometimeB 
(ironically) ahbia de sainte espiranee^ abb^ of 8t Hope — 
came to hold a recognised position, that perhaps Fp^^ M 
great an attraction as the hope of preferment : The con- 
nection many of them had with the Church was of the 
slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting tke name 
of abb^, after a remarkably moderate course of theo« 
logical study ; practising celibacy ; and wearing a distinO' 
tive dress — a short dark-violet coat with narrow collar. 
Being men of presumed learning and undoubted leisure, 
many of the class 'found admission to the houses of the 
French nobility as tutors or advisers. Nearly every great 
family had its abbd. As might be imagined from tiie 
objectless sort of life the class led, many of the abb^ were 
of indifferent character ; but there are not a few instances 
of abbds attaining eminence, both in. political life and in 
the walks of literature and science. The Abb6 Siey^ may 
be taken as a prominent example of the latter type. 

ABBEOKUTA, or Abeokuta, a town of West Africa' 
in the Yoruba Country, situated in N. lat 7^ 8', and 
E. long. 3'' 25', on the Ogun River, about 50 miles north 
of Lagos, in a direct line, or 81 miles by water. It lies 
in a beautiful and fertile country, the surface of which is 
broken by masses of grey granite. Like most African 
towns, Abbeokuta is spread over an extensive area, being 
surroimdcd by mud walls, 18 miles in extent The houses * 
are also of mud, and the streets mostly narrow and 
filthy^ There are numeroua markets in which native pro- 
ducts and articles of European manufacture are exposed 
for sale. Palm-oil and shea-butter are the chief articles of 
export, and it is expected that the cotton of the country 
will become a valuable article of commerce. The slave 
trade and human sacrifices have been abolished ; but not* 
withstanding the efforts of English and American mission- 
aries, the natives are still idle and degraded. The state 
called Egbaland, of which Abbeokuta is the capital, 
has an area of about 3000 square miles. Its progress has 
been much hindered by frequent wars with the king of 
Dahomey. Population of the town, about 150,000; of the 
state or adjacent territory, 50,000. (See Burton's Abbeo* 
kuta and the Cameroon Mountains, 2 vols.) 

ABB£SS, the female superior of an abbffjr or convent 
offiuns. The mode of election, position, rights, and 
authority of an abbess, correspond generally with those 
of an abbot TJic office was elective, the choice being by 
the secret votes of the sisters from their own body. The 
abbess was solemnly admitted to her office by episcopal 
benediction, together with the conferring of a staff and 
pectoral^ and held it for life, though liable to be deprived 
for misconduct The Council of Trent fixes the qualifying 
age at forty, with eight years of profession. Abbesses had 



10 



A B B— A B B 



a right to demand absolute obedience of. their nuns, over 
whom they exercised discipline, extending even to the 
power of expulsion, subject, however, to the bishop.. As 
ft female an abbess was incapable of performing the 
spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an 
abbot. She could not ordain, confer the veil, nor excom- 
mimicate. In the eighth century abbesses were censured 
for usurping priestly powers by presuming to give the 
veU to virgins, and to confer benediction and imposition 
of hands on men. In England they attended ecclesiastical 
councils, e,g, that of Becanfield in 694, where they signed 
before the presbyters. 

By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of 
monks and nuns. This custom accompanied Celtic mon- 
astic missions to France and Spain, and even to Borne 
itself. At a later period, a.d. 1116, Robert, the founder 
of Fontevraud, committed the government of the whole 
order, men as well as women, to a female superior. 

Martene asserts that abbesses formerly confessed nuns, 
but that their undue inquisitiveness rendered it necessary 
to forbid the practice. 

The dress of an English abbess of the 12ih centuiy 
eonsisted of a long white tunic with close sleeves, and a 
black overcoat as long as the tunic, xrith large and loose 
eleeves, the hood covering the head completely. The 
abbesses of the 14th and 15th centuries had adopted 
secular habits, and there was little to distinguish them 
from their lay sisters. (e. v.) 

ABBEVILLE, a city of France, in 'the department of 
the Sommc, is situated on the Biver Somme, 12 miles 
from its mouth in the English Channel, and 25 miles 
N.W. of Amiens. It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, 
and is built partly oh an island, and partly on both sides 
of the river. The streets are narrow, and the houses are 
mostly picturesque old structures, built of wood, with 
many quaint decaying gables and dark archways. The 
town is strongly fort^ed on Vauban's system. It has a 
tribunal and chamber of commerce. The most remarkable 
edifice is tlie Church of St Wolfran, which was erected in 
the time of Louis XII. Although the original design was 
not completed, enough was built to give a good idea of 
the splendid istructure it was intended to erect The 
fa9ado is a magnificent specimen of the flamboyant Gothic 
style, and is adorned by rich tracery, while tiie western 
front is flanked by two Gothic towers. A doth manufac- 
tory was established here by Van Bobais, a Dutchman, 
under the patronage of the minister Colbert, as early as 
16G9 ; and since that time Abbeville has continued to be 
one of the most thriving manufacturing towns in Francei 
Besides black cloths of the best quality, there are produced 
velvets, cottons, linens, serges, saclongs, « hosiei^, pack- 
thread, jewellery, soap, and glass-wares. It has also 
establishments for spinning wool, print-works, bleaching- 
works, tanneries, a paper manilfactory, dsc. ; and being 
situated in the centre of a populous district, it has a con- 
siderable trade with the surrounding country. . Vessels of 
from 200 to 300 tons come up to the town at high-water. 
Abbeville is a station on the Northern Bailway, and is also 
connected with Paris and Belgium by canals. Fossil 
remains of gigantic mafnmalia now extinct, as well as the 
rude flint weapons of pre-historic man, have been dis- 
covered in the geological deposits of the neighbourhood. 
A treaty was concluded here in 1259 between Henry 
III. of England and Louis IX. of France, by which the 
province of Guienne was ceded to the English. Popula- 
tion, 20,058. 

ABBEY, a monastery, or conventual establishment, 
londer the government of an abbot or an abbess. A 
priory only diflfered from an abbey in that the superior 
bore the name of prior instead of abbot This was the 



case in all the English conventual cathedrals, e.^., Canter- ABley* 
bury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the archbishop or bishop 
occupied the abbof s place, the Superior of the monastery 
being termed prior. Other priories were originally ofi*- 
>ehoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots of which they 
continued subordinate ; but in later times the actual'^diih 
tinction between abbeys and priories was lost 

Beserving for the article Monasticisu the history of the 
rise and progress of the monastic system, its objects, benefits, 
evils, its decline and fall, we propose in this article to con« 
fine ourselves to the structural' plan and arrangcment-of 
conventual establishments, and a description of the variou) 
buildings of which these vast piles were composed. 

The earliest Christian monastic communities with which OtViM, 
we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or huti 
collected about a common centre, which was. usually the 
abode of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or 
singular asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly 
arrangement The formation of such communities in tho 
East does not date from the introduction of Christianity. 
The example had been already set by the Essenes in Judea 
and the Therapeutae in Egypt, who may be considered the 
prototypes of Uie industrial and meditative communities of 
monks. * ^^,• 

In the earliest age of Christian monastidsm the ascetics 
were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, 
at no great distance from some village, supporting them- 
selves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing 
the surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to 
the poor. Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecu- 
tion, drove them further and further away from the abodes 
of men into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts. The 
deserts of £!gypt swarmed with the cells or huts of these 
anchorites. Antony, who had retired to the £g3rptian 
Thebaid during the persecution of Maximin, a.d. 312, was 
the most celebrated among them for his austerities, his 
sanctity, and his power as an exorcist His fame collected 
round him a host of followers, emulous of his sanctity. 
The deeper he withorew into the wilderness, the more 
numerous his disciples became. They refused to be sepa- 
rated from him, and built their cells round that of their 
spiritual father. Thus arose the first monastic community, 
consisting of anchorites living each in his own little dwdj* 
ing, united together under one superior. Antony, as 
Neander remarks {Church History, vol iii. p. 316, Clark's 
Trans.), " without any conscious design of his own, had 
become the founder of a new mode of living in common, 
Coenobitism." By degrees order was introduced in the 
groups of huts. They were arranged in lines like the tents 
in an encampmenl, or the houses in a street From this 
arrangement these lines of single cells came to be known 
as LaurcB, AaOpa^ " streets " or ** lanes." 

The real founder of ccenobian monasteries in the modem Ccet^cbia. 
sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the 
4th' century. The first community established by him was 
at Tabennae, an island of the Nile in Upper Egypt Eight 
Others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 monks. 
Within 50 years from his death his societies could reckon 
50,000 members. These coenobia resembled villages, peopled 
by a hard-working religious community, all of one sex. 
The buildings were detached, small, and of the humblest 
character. £^ch cell or hut, acoordbig to Sozomen (H. K 
iii 14), contained three monks. They took their chief 
meal in a common refectory at 3 p.m., up to which hour 
they usually fasted. They ate in silence, with hoods so 
drawn over their faces that they could see nothing but what' 
was on the table before them. The monks spent all the 
time, not devoted to religious services or study, in manual 
labour. Pallamus, who visited the Egyptian monasteries 
about the close o! the 4th centuiy^ found among the 300 



ABBEY 



11 



Gce&o^. 



membeiB of the Coenobima of BuiopoliB, nnd^ the 
l^achomian role, 15 taJloray 7 smiths, 4 carpentmy 12 
camel-driven, aiid 15 tamien. Each separate oommVmity 
had its own cBecmomM, or atewardy who was subject to 
a chief oKononnct stationed at the head establiahment All 
the pro9nce of the monks' kbour was conmiitted to him, 
and by him shipped to Alexandria. The money raised by 
the sale was expended in the purchase of stores for the 
«iil^rt <tf the oonmiunities, and what was over was devoted 
to d)ari^. Twice in the year the supenors of the seveikl 
comMa met at the chief monastery, under the presidenqr 
of an Arehimandnte (" the chief of tiie lold,** from iidj^pa, a 
f<^X ^^ ^ ^ ^^ meeting gave in reports of their 
administration for the year. • 

The eomobia of Syria belonged to the Pac^mian institu- 
tion. We learn many detuls concerning those in the 
tieinity of Antioch from Chiysostom's writings. The 
monks lived in separate huts, icAv^ac, forming a religious 
hamlet on the mountain side. They were subject to an 
abbots and observed a common rule. (They had no refeo- 
toiy, but ate their common meal, of bread And water only,, 
when the day's labour was over, redining on strewn grass, 
s<niietimes out d doors.) Four times in the day they 
joined in prayers and psalms. 

The neceasi^ for defence from hostile attacks, edbnomy 
of space, and convenience of access from one part of the 
oommuni^ to another, by degrees dictated a more compact 
and orderly arrangement of the buildings of a monastic 
coenobiiun. Large piles of building were erected, with 
strong outside walls, capable of resisting the assaults of an 
enemy, within which all the necessary edifices were ranged 
round one or more open courts, usually surrounded with 
cloisters. The usual Eastern arrangement is exemplified 
in the plan of the convent of Santa Laura, Mt Athos 
^^']2>j^ (Lawra^ the designation . of a monastery ^nerally, bein^ 
^^'eonverted into a female saint). 



eiota 




Itoiarttiy of Sante Laura, Mount Athoa (Lenoir). 

This monastery^ like th6 Oriental monasteries generally 
Is snnounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall 
endoeing an area of between 3 and 4 acres. The longer 
«de extoids to a lengUi of about 500 feet There is only 
one tnain entrance, on the .north side (A), defended by 
three separate iron doors. Near the entrance is a large 
tower (M), a constant feature in the monasteries of the 
Levant Inhere is a small postern gate at (L.) The 



etieeinie eomprises two large open courts, smronnded with 
buildings connected with doister gallaies of wood or stonei 
The outer court, which is much the larger, contains the 
granaries and storehouses {K), and the kitchen (H)^ and 
other offices connected wiw the refectory (Q). unme- 
diately adyacent to the gateway is a two-storied guest- 
house, opening from a doister (C). The inner court ii 
surrounded by a doister (EE), from which open the monkaf 
cells (n). In the centre of this court stands the cathoUoon 
or«conventual church, a square building with an apse of 
the cruciform domicd Byzantine type, approached l^ a 
domed narthex. In front of the churdi stands a marble 
fountain (FX covered by a dome supported on columns. 
Opening from the western side of the doister^ but actually 
standing in the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large 
cruciform building, about 100 feet each way, decorated 
within with frescoes of saints. At the upper end is a semi- 
circular recess, recalling the Tridinium of the Lateran 
Palace at Bcune, in wh£h is placed the seat of the Hegu 
memoi or abbot This apartment is chiefly used as a hall 
of meeting, the Oriental monks usually taking their ^eals 
in their separate cells. St Laura is exceeded in magnitude 
by the Convent of Yatopede, also on Mount Athos. This Vatoped*. 
enormous establishment covers at least 4 acres -of ground, 
and contains so many separate buildings within its n^flasive 
walls that it resembles a fortified town. It lodges alcove 
300 monks, and the establishment of the Hegumenos is 
described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign 
prince. The immense refectory, of the same cruciform 
shape as that of St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at 
its 24 marble tablea 

The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir^ 
shows us a diurch of three 
aisles, with cellular apses, and 
two ranges of ceils on either 
side of an oblong gallery. 

Monastidsm in the West 
owes its extension and de- 
vdopment to Benedict of 
Nursia (bom A.D. 480). His 
rule was diffused with miracul- 
ous rapidity from the parent 
foundation on Monte Cassino 
throu^ the whole of Western 
Europe, and every country wit- 
nessed the erection of monas- 
teries far exceeding anything 
that had yet been seen in spad< 
ousness and splendour. Few 

great towns in Italy were without their Benedictine conven^ 

and they quickly rose in all the great centres of population in tins. 
England, France, and Spain. The number of these monas- 
teries founded between a.i>. 520 and 700 is amazing. 
Before ^e Council of Constance, a.d. 1005, no fewer than 
15,070 abbeys had been established of this order alone. 
The Benedictine rule, spreading with the vigour of a young 
and powerful life, absorbed into itself the older monastic 
foundations, whose disdpline had too usually become dis- 
gracefully relaxed. In the words of Milman {Latin 
Chrittianity, voL i p. 425, note x.), "The Benedictine 
rule was universally received, even in the older monas- 
teries of Gaul, Britain. Spain, and throughout the West, 
not as that of a rival order (all rivalry was of later 
date), but as a more full and perfect rule of the mOnas^ 
tic life." Not only, therefore, were new monasteries 
feunde4, but those aheady existing were pulled down, 
and rebuilt to adapt them to the requirements of the 
new rule. 

The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly 
arranged after one n^an, modified where neceBsary (as al 




Plan of Coptic Monastoj. 

A. Nartbez. 

B« Cbnrcti. 

C Corridor, wiUi oella <m e«eb d4<k 

D.Sulicua. 



I'i 



ABBEY 



[siNEDICIIirK* 



Doxiiam and Wbioester, where tike monastexies stand dose 
to the steep bank of a river), to accommodate the airenge- 
ment to local dxenmatances. 

We have no existing examples of the eadier monasteries 
of 'the Benedictine oider. They have all yielded to the 
ravages of time and the violence of man. But we have 
fortunately proserved to as an elaborate plan of the great 
Swiss monastery of St G^all, erected about a.d. 820, which 
puts us in , possession of the whole arrangements of a 
monastery of the first dass towards the early part of the 
9th century. This curioos and interesting plan has been 
made the subject of a memoir -both by Keller (Zurich, 
1844) and by Ftofessor Willis {Arck. Journal, 1848, vol. 
V. ppi 86-1 17)i To the latter we are indebted for the 




nff C3 


Q h 


i 





HiE-a SEJH 









prrpR 



Cbdsoi. 
A. High Altar. 
B AJtar of St PaoL 
C Altar of 6t Petec 

D. Nave. 

E. Paradise. 
FF. Tow«n. 

O. Cloister. 

R. Calefactory, with Donnttoiy orer. 

L Neoeasary. 

J. Abbot'ahooae. 

K. Rcfeetoiy. 

L, KUchejL 

H Bakeliooio and BrewboiiM 

N. Cellar. 

Ol Parlonr. 

P, Scriptorlnin, with LRMrary orer. 

Pf Sacrlity and Veatry. 

Q. Bonae of Novteea— L ChapcU a. 

Refectory;. 8. Calefaaory. 4. 

- '- SI'S Boom) 



Qronsd-plan of fit Gall. 

O. BouM for blood4dttlBi|. 

V. School. 

W. Schoolmaater'i Lodglsga. 

XiZi. Gaeat^oaie for ttiOM. of 



Dormitory s ^ Maatei'a 

6. Cbambera. 
a. Infinnary— l-S at above 

Hooae of MoTioae . 
A. Doctoi's Honaa * 

T. Pbyale Oardea 



the 



Z«Zs. Gneat^hooae for the poor. 

T. Qaeat-chamber for etrasfle aoaka. 



Zi Factory, 

a. Threahhic^OQl^ 

& Workshops 

Elln. 
c SUblea. 
f, Cowiheda. 
ff. Ooataheda 

iPiC-etlea. 4 6beep4blda. 
K ^ ^ fierraata* and 



I Oardener'a faonsei 

m,nk Hen and Duck 

a. Poultiy-keeper'a hoaie. 

o. Garden. 

p. Cemetery. 

q. BakehonaefbrSaeruBeotal 

r. Unnamed In Plaa. 

*.«.J. 

ftCI. 



substance of the following description, as well as f dr the 
•hove woodcut, reduced from his elucidated transcript of 



the origuial preserved in the archiTes of the convents 
The general appearance of the convent is that oi a town ol 
isolated houses with streets nmning between them. It is 
evidently planned in compliance wiui the Benedictine raie^ 
which enjoined that, if possible, the monasteirshould contain 
within itself every necessary of life, as weu as the build* 
ings more intimately connected with the religious and 
social life of its inmates. It should com^irise a^miU^ a 
bakehouse, stables and cow-houses, together with acoom- 
mociation for carrying on all necessary mechanical arts 
within the waUs, so as to obviate the necessity of the 
monks going outside its limita The general distribution 
of the buildings may be thus described: — ^The churchy 
with its cloister to the south, occupies the centre of a 
quadrangular area, about 430 feet square. The build* 
ings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into 
groups. The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of 
the religious life of the community, in closest .oonneo- 
tion with the church is the group of buildings appropriated 
to the monastic life and its daily requirements — ^the refec* 
toiyfor eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common 
room for social intercourse, the duster-house for religious 
and disciplinaty conference. These essential elements of 
monastic life are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded 
by a covered arcade, affordiiig communication sheltered from 
the elements, between the various buildings. The infirmaiy 
for sick monks, with the physician's house and physic gar* 
den, lies to the east In the same group with the iofiimaiy 
is the school for the novices. The outer school, with ita 
head-master's house against the opposite wall of the church, 
stands outside the convent enclosure, in close proximity 
to the abbot's house, that he might have a constant eye 
over them. The buildings devoted to hospitality are divided 
into three groups, — one for the reception of distinguished 
guests, another for monks visiting the monasteiy, a third 
for poor travellers and pilgrims. The first and third are 
placed to the right and left of the common entrance of the 
monasteiy, — ^the hospitium for distinguished guests being 
placed on.the north side of the church, not far from the ab* 
Dot's house; that for the poor on the south side next to the 
farm buildings. The monks are lodged in a guest-house 
built against the north wall of the church. The group of 
buildings connected with the material wants of the esta- 
blishment is placed to ^e south and west of the churchy 
and is distinctly separated from the monastic building 
The kitchen, buttery, and offices, are reached by a passage 
from the west end of the refectory, and are connected with 
the bakehouse and brewhouse, which are placed still fur- 
ther away. The v^ole of the southern aoid western sides 
is devoted to workshops, stables, and farm-buildings. The 
btdldings, with some exceptions, seem to have been of one 
story only, and all but the church were probably erected 
of woodC The whole includes thirty-three separate blocks. 
The church (D) is cruciform, with a nave of nine bays, and 
a semicircular apse at either extremity. That to the -west 
is surrounded by a semicircular colonnade,, leavix^ an open 
" Paradise" (£) between it and the wall of the church. 
The whole area is divided by screens into various chapels. 
The high altar (A) stands immediately to the east of the 
transept^ or ritual choir; the altar of St Paul (B) in the 
eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in the western apse. A 
cylindrical campanile stands detached from the church on 
either side of the western apse (FF). 

The '' cloister court" (G) on the south side of the nave 
of the church has on its east sid^ the " pisaUs" or '' calefao* 
tory" (H),the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed 
by flues, beneath the floor. On this side in lat^^ monas- 
teries we invariably find the chapter-house, the absence of 
which in this plan is somewhat surprising. It app^are^ 
however, from the inscriptions on the plan itself^ that the 



VESKDIOnHB.] 



ABBEY 



13 



oorth walk of the cloisters served for tlie pnrposeB of a chap- 
ter-house, and was fitted ap with benches on the long sides. 
Above the calefactory is the ** dormitoiy' opening into the 
south transept ol the choroh, to enable Uie monks to attend 
the noctninal services with readiness. A passage at the 
other end leads to.the ** neoefleahom" (I), a portion of ihe 
monastio. buildings always planned with Extreme cara The 
southern side is occupied by the " refectory*' (K), from the 
west end ci which by a vestibule the kitchen (L) is reached. 
Thia is separated from the main buildings of the monastery, 
and is connected by a long passage with a buOding containing 
the bakehouse and biewhouse (M), and the sleeping-rooms (Xf 
the servants. The upper stoxy of the refectory is the '^ves- 
tiarium," where the ordinary clothes of the brethren were 
kept On the western side of the cloister b another two 
story building (N). The cellar is below, and the larder and 
store-fo<»n abova Between this building and the church, 
opening by one door into the cloisters, and by another to the 
outer part of the monastery area, is the " parlour" for inter- 
views with visitors from the external world (0). On the 
eastern side oi the nortfi transept is the "scriptorium" 
ot writing-room (PX with the library abova 

To the east of tne church stands a group of buildings 
comprising two miniature conventual establishments, ea^ 
complete in itself. Each has a covered cloister surrounded 
by the usual buildings, %.€., refectory, dormitory, &a, and 
a church or chapel on one side, placed back to back. A 
detached building belonging to ^ch contains a bath aud a 
kitchen. One of these diminutive convents is appropriated 
to the " oblati" or novices (Q), the o(iher to the sick monks 
ss an "infirmary" (B)l 

The " residence c^ the physidans" (S) stands contiguous 
to the infirmary, and the physic gajden (T) at the north-east 
comer of the monastery. Besides other ixx)m8, it contains 
a drug store, and a chamber for those who are dangerously 
ilL The " house for blood-letting and purging" adjoins it 
on the west (U). 

The ** outer school," to the north of the convent area, con- 
tains a large school-room divided across the middle by a 
screen or partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, 
termed the dwellings of the scholars. The head-master's 
house (W) is opposite, built against the side wall of the 
church. The two "hospitia" or "guest-houses" for the 
entertainment ol strangers, of difierent degrees (X| X,) 
comprise a large common chamber or refectory in the 
centre, surrounded by sleeping apartments. Each is pro- 
vided with its own brewhouse and bakehouse, and that for 
travellers of a superior order has a kitchen and store-room, 
with bed-rooms for their servants, and stables for their 
horses. There is also an " hospitium" for strange monks, 
abutting on the north wall of the church (Y). 

Beyond the doister, at the extreme verge of the con- 
vent area to the south, stands the " factory" (Z), contain- 
ing workshops for shoemakers, ^saddlers (or shoemakers, 
teUarii), cutlers and grinders, trencher-makers, taimers, cur- 
riers, fullers, smiths, and goldsmiths, with their dwellings 
in the rear. On this side we also find the farm-buildings, 
the large granary and threshing-floor (a), mills (c), malt- 
house {d). Fadnff the west are the stables (0), ox-sheds 
(^, goat-etables (^ piggeries (A), sheep-folds (t), together 
.with the servants' and labourers' quarters (i;). At the south- 
east comer we find the hen and duck house, and poultry- 
yard (m), and the dwelling of the keeper (n). Hard by is 
the kitchen garden (o), the beds bearing the names of the 
vegetables growing in thenk, onions, garlic, celery, lettuces, 
poppy, carrots, cabbages, &a, eighteen in alL In the same 
way the physio garden presents the names of the medicinal 
herbs, and the cemetery (p) those of the trees, apple, pear, 
plum, quince, &a, planted thera 

It is evident, from this most curious and valuable docu- 



ment, that by the 9th century monastic establishments 
had become wealthy, and had aofuired considerable import 
ance, and were occupying a leading place in education, 
agriculture, and the industrial arta The infiuenoe such ao 
institution would di£Fuse through a wide district would be 
no less beneficial than powerful 

The curious bird's eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and C«nt« 
its annexed conventual buildiugs, taken about 1165, pie- ^rj- 
served in the Qreat Psalter in the library of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, as elucidated by Professor Wiilis with such 
admirable skill and accurate acquaintance with the existing 
remains,' exhibits the plan of a great Benedictine monas- 
tery in the 12th century, and enables us to compare it with 
that of the 9th, as seen at St QalL We see in both the 
same general principles of arrangement, which mdeed be- 
long to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling us to deter- 
mine with precision the disposition of the vanous build- 
ings, when little more than fragments of the walls exist. 
From some local reasons, however, the cloister and monastic 
buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far more 
commonly the esse, on the south of the church. There 
is' also a separate chapter-house, which is wanting al 
StOalL -o 

The buildings at Canterbury, as at St Gall, form separate 
groupa The diurch forms the nudeua In immediate con- 
tact with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the 
group of buildmgs devoted to the monastic life. Outside 
of these, to the west and east, are the "halls and chambers 
devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every 
monastery was provided, for the purpose of receiving as 
guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, tra- 
vellers, pilgrims, or paupera " To the north a large open 
court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, in- 
tentionally placed as remote as possible from the conven- 
tual buildings proper, the stables, granaries, bam, bake- 
house, brewhouse, laundries, &a, inhabited by the lay ser- 
vants of the establishmsnt At the greatest possible distance 
from the church, 'beyond the precinct of the convent, is 
the ele^osynary department The alnumrp for the relief of 
the poor, with a great haH annexed, forms the pauper's 
hospitium. 

The most miportant group of buildings is natnimlly that 
devoted to monastic lif a This includes two cloisters, the 
great cloister surrounded by the buildings essentially con- 
nected with the daQy Ufe of the monks, — the church to the 
south, the refectory or frater-house here as always on the 
side opposite to the church, and furthest removed from it, • 
that no sound or smell of eating might penetrate its sacred 
precincts, to the east the dormitory, raised on a vaulted 
undercroft, and the chapter-house adjacent, and the lodg- 
ings of the cellarer to the west To this officer was com- 
mitted the provision of the monks' daily food, as well as 
that of the guesta He was, therefore, appropriately lodged 
in the immediate vicinity of the refectory and kitchen, and 
close to the guest-haU. A passage under the dormitory 
leads eastwards to the smaller or infirmary cloister, appro- 
priated to the sick and infirm monks. Eastward of this 
cloister extend the hall and chapel of the infirmary, resem- 
bling in form and arrangement the nave and chancel of an 
aisled church. Beneath the dormitory, looking out mto 
the green oourt or herbarium, lies the " piaalis" or ^* cale- 
factory," the common room of the monks. ' At its north 
east comer access was given from the dormitory to the 
neeessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman 
haU, 1 45 feet long by 25 broad, contaming fifty -five seats It 
was, in common with all such offices in ancient monastenes, 
oonstmcted with the most careful regard to cleanliness and 



' Th0 ArchileetumU History ^ tks Conventual BMldiatgs 0/ thm 
Monastery qf Cknst Church in Oantsrhmy. Bj the Rer Robert 
Willis. Printed for the Rent Archaological Sodsfy, 1869. 



14 



ABBEY 



[BENEDXCnNE; 



health, a stream of wai^ limning through it from end to 
end. A second smaller donnitory runs from east to west 
for the.aooommodation of the conventual officers, who were 
bound to sleep in the dormitory. Close to the refectory, 
but oataide the cloisters, are the domestic offices connected 
with it; to the north, the kitchen, 47 feet sottare, sor- 
moonted by a lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; 
to the west, the butteries, pantries, &a The infirmary had 
a small kitohen of its own. Opposite the refectory door in 
the cknster are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a 
monastic dining4iall, at which the monka washed before and 
after taking food. 

The buihiings devoted to^ hospitality were divided into 
three groups. The prior's group " entered at the south-east 
angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part 
uf the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or 
nobility who were assigned to.him." The cellarer's buildings, 
were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary 
visitors of the middle class were hoiq^tably entertained. 
.Hie inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to thei 
north ball or almoniy, just within the gate, as far as possible 
from the other twa 

Westminster Abbey is another example ol a great Bene- 
dictine abbey, identical in its general anangements, so far as 
they can be traced, with those described above. The cloia- 
ter and monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church. 
Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the doister, was 
the refectory, with its kvatoiy at the door. On the eastern 
side we find the remains of the dormitofy, raised on a 
vaulted substructure, and communicating with the south 
transept The chapter-house opens out <n the ^ame alley 
of the ddster. The small doistar Ues to the south-east.c^ 
the larger doister, and still farther to the east we have the 
remains of the infirmary, with the fable hall, the refectory 
of those who were able to leave their chambers. The 
abbot's house formed a small court-yard at the west 
entranoe, dose to the inner gateway. Considerable por- 
tions of this remain, induding the abbof s parlour, cele- 
brated as "^ the Jenualem duunber," his hall, now used 
for the Westminster King's scholars, and tlie kitchen 
and butteries b^ond. 

St Mary's Abbey, Tork, of whidi thd ground-plan is 
annexed, exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements. The 
precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three 
sides, the river Ouse being sufficient protectioi) ori the 
fourtli side. The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) 
to the north. Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is 
now the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new comers paid 
their devotions immediately on their arrival Near the 
gate to the south was the guest's-hall or hospitium (T). 
The buildings are oompletdy ruined, but enough remains 
to enable us to identify the grand cruciform diurch (A), 
the doister-oourt with the chapter-house (B), the refectoiy 

S, the kitchen-court with its offices (K, O, 0), and the 
ler prindpal apartmenta The inflrmaiy has perished 
completdy. 

Some Benedictine houses dispky ezceptional arrange- 
ments, dependent upon local circumstances, s.^., the dormi- 
tory oi Worcester runs from e;^ to west, horn the west 
walk of the doister, and that <^ Durham is built over the 
west, instead of as usual, over the east walk ; but, as a 
genml rule, the arrangements deduced from the examples 
described may be regarded as invariabla 

The historr of Monasticism is one of alternate periods 
of decay and revival With growth in popular esteem 
came increase in material wealth, leading to luxury and 
worldliness. The first religious ardour cooled, the strict* 
ness of the rule was relaxed, imtil by the 10th century the 
decay of disdpline was'. so complete in Ptance that the 
monks are said to have been frequently imacquainted with 



the rule of St Benedict, and even ignorant that they were 
bound by any rule at aU. (Bobertson's Church Eutory, 
ii p. 538. ) These alternations are reflected in the monastio 
bmldings and the anangements ol the establishment. 




dt Italy's AbhtfTt Y<A (BeDedietine).— Chmtaa'sManaitto Bafatt.. 
A. Ohnrdu 0. .OfllOM 



B. CauRUNuMua 
a V em>tt te to dtt. _ 
& Ubmj <tf ScrtoliOXlBflL 

r. <ueeMtoi7. 

O. B e e e w M y . 

H.r 



L Befeetonr* 

K. Great K&6km §aA OsortT 

L. OaOam'f Offlot. 

ILOdtam 

& ftMi«eloOtoM«k 



P. Cdlan. 

a Unoartain. 

B. PuH«e to AVbot9 Hoist. 

8. Panagv to CoBaMB Hom^ 

T. HoipUhun 

U. QrutQ«to. 

T. Poiter't Lodf*. 

W.CharehofSKMAt 

X. Tower 

T. SDtmoe tna Bootluua 



The reformation of these ftrevaient abuses generally took 
the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with 
uew and more stringent rales, requiring a modification <rf 
the architectural arrangements. One of the earliest of 
these reformed orders was the ClwUac. This order took CS wnxr 
its name from the little village of Cbagpjf 12 miles N.W. 
of Maoon, near which, about a.d. 909, a reformed Bene- 
dictine abbey was founded by William, Duke of Auvergne^ 
under Beno, abbot of Beauma He was succeed by 
Odo, who is^often regarded as the foondnr of the^vder. 
The fame of Chigny spread far and wida Its r^pd rule 
was, adopted by a n^ number of the old Benedifitinft ab- 
beys, who placed themsdves in affiliation to the mother 
society, whole new foundations sprang im in large nnm- 
bers, all owing aUegianee to the ^ an^abrxyt," establfahed 
at Chigny. By the end of the 12th century the numbei 
«f monasteries affiliated to Clngxiy in the various oonn- 
tries ol Western Europe amounted to 2000. The monas- 
tic establishment of Qugny was one of the most extensive 
and magnificent in France. We may form some idea of 
its enormous dimensions £rom the fact recorded, that when, 
AJ>. 1245, Pope Innocent IV.^ accompanied by twdva 



'cumuaj 



ABBEY. 



15 



cttidisals^ a patriaidi, tloee archbishops, the two generals 
a£ tiifr OarthasiauB and Cistercians, the long (St Lonis), 
ond^hree of his: sons, the ^pieen mother, Baldwin, Count 
of Flanders and Emperor of Constantinople, the Dnke of 
Bpigandy, and six' lords, visited the abbey, the whole 
party, With their * attendants, were lodged within Uie 
monastery. without. disarranging the monki, 400 in num- 
ber. Neatly the whole of the abbey buildings, including 
the Tnagnificent church, were swept away at the close of the 
last century. When the annexed ground-plan was taken, 
ahortly before, its dejstruction, nearly all the monastery, with 
the exception of the church, had been rebuilt. The diurch, 
the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable resemblance 
to theit l>f.Xinooln Cathedral, was of vast. dimensions. Jt 
was. 656 feet by 130 foot wide. The nave was 102 feet, 
and the aisles 60 feet high. Thd nave (G) had double 




Abbe^ of Ctagpft from VioUet lo Duo; 



a Owlr. 

a HUeb-AlliB. 



F. Tomb of St Boclb 

H.Ciaiiter. 
1 K; Abbot's HodSib 
: L. GvMt-Hoiuc 



M. Ft)r»)miirft 
N. Abbey aaUdlngs., 
0. Gaixlea. 
r.Bafectory. 



vaulted" aialfil on either side. Like- Lincoln^ it had an 
eastern aa well as a western transept, each fnnilshed with 
apoidal chiq;>ela to the east . The western transept was 213 
feet loDgt and the eastern 123 feet The choir terminated 
in ajiiBBQieixeokx'.apee (F), surrounded by five chapels, alio 
fwmiclTOtoA.lJie western entrance was approached by an 
anteHoIinrehf or noitAer (B),it8elf an aisled church of no meai^ 
^^dimenskms^-^anked by two towers, rising irom a statelv 
Ifl^B^-of -steps -bearing a large stone cross. To, the south 
(Cf 4he chmch lay the doistereourt (H), qt immense size, 
'pSaoed .nmch further to the west than is usually the case. 
On €bb sooth sideof the cloister stood the refectory (P), an 
immense building, 100 feet long and 60. feet wide, accommo- 
dating six loxigitudinal and t^ree transverse rowsx>f tables. 
It was adorned with the portraits of the chief benefactors 
df the abbey, and with Soiptural subjects. The aid wall 
displayed the Last Judgment We are unhappily unable to 
identify anyotherof theprincipal buildings(N)u The abbof s 
residence ^K), stfll pertly standing, adjoined the entrance: 
ga^i..The giie8t4ioQ8a^(I*)jwa8.clib6e by* ^The bakehouse 



(M), also remaining, is a detached buihiing of immense 
size. The first English house of the Cluniac order was that £nglab 
of Lewee, founded by the Earl of Warren, dr. A.D. 1077. Cluniac. 
Of this only a few fragments of the domestic buildings enst 
The best presertad . Cluniac houses in England are Castle 
Acre, Norfolk, and Wenlock, in Shropshire. Oround-plans 
of both are given in Britten's Architectural Antiqndtiu, 
They show several departures from the.Benedictine anaoge' 
ment In each the prior's house is remarkably peifect 
All Cluniac houses in England, were French colonies, go^ 
vemed by priors of that nation. ^ They did not secure tl^ 
independence nor become ** abbeys " till the reign of Henzy 
YL The Chmiac revival, with all its brilliancy, was but 
short lived. The celebri^ of this, as of other ^ord^ 
worked its moral nun. With their growth in wealth and 
dignity the Cluniap foundations be<^e as worldly^ lifts 
and as relaxed in. discipline as their predecessonv and a 
fresh, reform was needed. The next great monastic re- 
vival, the Cistercian, aiisiog inthe last years of the lltfa 
century, had a wider diffusion, and a longer and- more 
honourable-exiBtencei Owing its real origin, as a distinct 
foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1096* 
to a countiymaa of our own, Stephen Harding (a native df 
Dorsetshire, ed uc ated in the monastery df Sherborne), and 
deriving its name from QkeixLL {Cistercium), a dcMlatei 
and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the' borders of 
Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide 
celebrity of the order is undoubtedly to be attributed to 
the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of 
the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick 
''8u<?ces8ion by the first Cistercian houses, the far^amec( 
abbey of Clairvanr (de Clara Valle), a.d. 1116. 
^'' The rigid self-abnegation, which wasthertllingprincipleCisterdu^ 
of this reformed congregation <^ the Benedictme order.' 
extcinded itself to the chtuches and other buildings erected 
by them. ' The characteristic of- the Cistercian abbeys was 
the extremest simpli^^ and a studied plainness. . Only onet 
tower — a centcalone — ^was permitted, and that was to be very 
low. Unneceesazy pinnacles and turrets were prohibited. 
Thetriferium was omitted. . The windows were to be phiin 
and undivided^ and it >nras forbidden to decorate them with 
stained gbss. All needless ornament was proscribed. ISie 
crosses must be of wood; the candlesticks of iron. The. 
renibiciation of the world was to be evidenced in all that 
met the eye The same spirit manifested itself in the. 
choice of the sites of their monasteries. The more dianal/ 
the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the; 
more did it please their rigid miood. But they came not 
merely as ascetics, but as improvers. The Cistercian, 
monasteries are, as' a rule,* found placed in deep well* 
watered valleys. They always stand on. the border of a 
stream; not rarely, as at Fountains,- the buildings extend 
over it These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a 
very different aspect when the brethren first chose them ai 
the place of their retirement Wide swamps, deep mo^^ 
rasses, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their 
prevafling features. The " Bright Valley," Clara YaUU of 
St Bernard, was known as the '' Valley of Wormwood,", 
infamous as a den of robbers. '' It was a savage dreaiy 
solitude, so utterly barren that at first 3emard and his 
companions were reduced to live on boech leaves."— (Mil- 
man's Lot. Chrigt. voL iiL p. 335.) 

AH Cistercian monasteries, unless the'drcmiisihinces of 
the locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan.) 
The general arrangement and distribution of the various 
buildings, which went to make up one of these vast esta^' 
blishments, may bei gathered- from that, of St Bernard^ 
own Abbey of Clabvaux, which is here given. X' . , CUirYsax. 

It will be obe^ved that tho abbey precincts aresurrounded 
by a strong ^waU, ^furnished at ^intervals ^with . watch^: 



Iff 



ABBEY 



[ciSTERaAN* 



towers and* other defensive wonks. ^ The woD ia nearly 
encircled by a stream of water. artificiaUy diverted from the 
small rivulets. which flow through the precincts, furnishing 
the ^tablishment with an abundant sujpply m every part, 
for the umgation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary 
requirements of th6 brotherhood, and for ^e use of the 
offices and workshops. The precincts are divided across 
the centre by a'^Jirall, running from N to S . mto an 
outer and tuner ward, — ^the former containing the menial* 
the latter the monastic buildings. The precmcts are 
entered by a gateway (P), at the extreme western ex- 
tremity, giving admission to the lower ward Here the 
bams, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops, and work- 
men's lodgmgs were placed, without any regard to sym- 




Clainraux, No. 1 (CistercUiD), Oeneml PUn. 



B 0v«n«. and Corn tad 

Oiumtna. 
OL 81 Beraartrt Cell, 
D Chief Boiranctt. 
B. T&nkt for FHh 
£. Oaekt R0UB6. 
Abbott BottM. 



n. StabiM 

L Wine-pre« u4 fUy- 

eJi*rob«r. 
K. Parlour. 
L. Workihopeandvork- 

men'i Codglnfa. 
M. SUughter>hoiia«. 
N. Banu and SUbloft 



O. pQbUe f 
P GaMway. 
B. Remaioa of 1 

Monaaiery. 
8. Oratory. 
V Tlle-work& 

Y 



>aetry, convenience being the only consideration. Ad- 
vancmg eastwards, we have before us the wall separatmg 
thCj outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording 
communication between the two. On passmg through the 
gateway^ the outer court of the inner ward waa entered, 
with the western facade of the monastic church m ffont 
Immediately on the nght of entrance was the abbot's 
house (G), m close proximity to the- guest-house (F). On 
the other side of the court were the stables, for the accommo- 
dation of the horses of the guests and their attendants <U). 
The church occupied a central position. To the south 
were the great cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monas- 
tic buildings!, and further to the east the smaller cloister, 
opening out of which were the infirmary, novices' lodgmgs, 
and quarters for the aged monks. Still further to the east, 
divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the 
v^etable gardens and orchards, and tank for fiah. Tho 



large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any eodesias* GUirvmns 
tical foimdation, on the formation of which Uie monka 
lavished extreme care and pains, and which oftea remiia 
as almost the only visible traces of these vast establish') 
ments, were placed outside the abbey walla 

The Plan No. 2 furnishes the ichnogiapliy ol the dl^ 
tinctly monastic buildings ou a larger scalei The usoally 
unvarying arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows na 
to accept this as a type of the monasteries of this order. 
The church (A) is the chief feature. It consists of a vast 
nave of eleven bays, entered by a narthez, with a transept 
and short apsidal choir. (Itmay beremarkedthat theeastem 
limb in all unaltered Cistercian churches is remarkably 
short, and usually square.) To the east of each limb of 




Cbirriox. No. 3 (CUtercUn), Monaatic Buildings. 



A. Charch. 

B. Cloister. 

C Chapter-Hoaee 

D. Honka* Parlour 

S. Calefactory. 

P. Kitchen and Ceut 

O. Refectory 

S. Cemetery. 

I Utile dolatef . 



K. loflmiary. I 5. Cellar* 

1* Lot^frtn^s of Mevleaa. I tiouaea 

U. Old Gueet-Houe. I T. Water-coona 

N Old Abbot's LodiciDga U. Sav.mili and OlUnm. 



O. Clolaier of Sup«nia- 

oierarv MoQju. 
P Abbot'eHalL 
aCeUofSt Beroard 
asubles. 



V Comer • Workabopeb 
X. Sacrlatry 
T. LitUeUbrary 
Z. UDdercren of Do^ 
mitory. 



the transept are two square chapels, divided according to 
Cistercian rule by solid walls. Nine radiating chapelt, 
similarly divided, surround the apse. The stalls of the 
monks, forming the ntual choir, occupy the four eastern 
bays of the nav& There was a second range of stalls in 
the extreme western bays of the nave for th». fratres convent, 
or lay brothers. To the south of the church, so as to 
secure as much sun as possible, the cloister waa invariably 
placed, except when local reasona forbade it. Round the 
cloister (B) were ranged the buildings cotmected with the 
monks' daily life. The chapter-house (C) always opened 
out of the east walk of tiie cloister in a Ime with tba 



CISTERCIAA.'] 



ABBEY 



17 



4lrnai. south transept In Cistercian houses this wss qnadion- 
guiar, and was divided by piJIars and arches into two or 
three aisles. Between it and the transept we find the 
sacristry (X), and a small book wum (Y), armariolum^ 
where the brothers deposited the volumes borrowed from 
the library. On the other side of the chapter-honse, to 
the south, is a passage (D) communicating with the courts 
and buildings beyond. This-was , sometimes known as the* 
parlour^ eoUoquii locus, the monks having the privilege of 
oonversation here. Here also, when d[iscipUne beoune 
relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of admission, were 
allowed to display their goods. Beyond this we often find 
the eale/actarium or day-room — an apartment warmed 
by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half- 
frozen during the night offices, botook themselves after the 
conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their 
sandals, and get themnelyes ready for the work of the day. 
In the plan before us this apartment (£) opens from the 
south cloister walk, a4)oining the refectory. The place 
usually assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substruo- 
ture of the dormUory (Z). The dormUory, as a rule, was 
placed on the east side uf the cloister, running over the 
ecUe/cLctory aud cAaptor-AoKSf, and joined the south tranaept, 
where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the 
church for nocturnal services. Opening out 04 the dor* 
mitory was always the necessarium, planned with the 
greatest regard to health and cleanliness, s water-course 
invariably running f ron^ end to end. The refectory opens 
out of the south doistet at ^G). The position ofthe refeo- 
t«>ry is usually a marked pomt of difference between Bene- 
dictine and Cistercian 'abbeys. In the former, as at Can- 
terbury, the refectory ran east and west parallel to the nave 
of the church, on the side of the cloister furthest removed 
from it In the Cistercuin roonastexies, to keep the noise 
and sound of dinner still further away froq;^ the sacred 
bmlding, the refectory was built north and south, at right 
angles to the axis of the church. It was often divided, 
sometimes into two, sometimes, as here,' into three aisles. 
Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory, 
where the monks washed their hands at dinner time. The 
buildings belonging to the material Ufe of the monks lay 
near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to 
the S.W. With a distinct entrance from the outer court 
was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery, and 
larder, and the important adjunct of a stream of running 
water. Further to the west, projecting beyond the line of 
the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments 
fSS), serving as oellarsand storehouses, above which was the 
ODrmitory of the eonveni. Detached from these, and sepa- 
rated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various 
workshops, which convenience required to be banished to 
the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned 
by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals and 
leathern girdles of the monks T^^re made and repaired. 
Returning to the cloister, a vatdted passage odmitted to 
' the small ckuster (I), opening from the north dde of which 
were eight small cells, assigned to the scribes employed in 
copying works for the library, which was pla^^in the 
upper story, accessible by a turret staircase.- To the 
south of the small cloister a long hall will be noticed. 
This was a Udwre-haU, or rather a hall for the religious 
disputations eustomary among the Cistercians. From this 
doister opened the infiftnary (K), with its hall, chapel, 
oeUs, blo<Ki-letting house, and other dependencies. At the 
eastern verge of the vast group of buildings we find the 
nomcat lodgings (L), with a third cloister" near the 
novices^ quarters aiid the original guest-house (M). De- 
tached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was 
the original abbot's house (N), with its dining-hall (P). 
Closely adjoining to thi^ so that the eye of the father of 

1—2 



the whole establishment should be constantly over thoso 
who stood the most in need of his watchful fare, — those 
who were training for the monastic life, and thoso who had 
worn themselves* out^n its duties, — was a fourth cloister 
(0), with annexed btdldiugs, devoted to the aged and 
infirm members of the establishment The cemetery, the 
last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of 
the na^ of the church (H). * 

It will bo seen that the arrangement of a Cisterdaa 
monastery was in accordance with a clearlyrdefined system, 
and admirably adapted to its purpose. 

The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the 
buildings belonging to the functions of the body as ogri- 
culturaUsts and employers of labour. "Advancing into the 
inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality ore found 
eloee to the entrance; while. those connected with the 
supply of the material nimts of the brethren,— the kitchen, 
cellars, dec, — ^form a court of themselves outside the cloister, 
and quite detached from, the church. The'church refec- 
tory, dormitory, and other buildings belonginff to the 
professional life of the brethren, surround the great 
cloister. The. small cloister beyond, with its soiibcs' 
cells, library, hall for disputations, ^, is the centre of the* 
literary life of the community. The requirements of sick- 
ness and old age are carefully provided for in the infirmary 
cloister, and t£it for the aged aud infirm members of the 
estabUshment Thio same group contains the quarters of 
the novices. 

This stereotyped arrangement is further illustrated by CltMa^ 
the accompanying bird's ^e view of the mother establiah' 



:^^^^^2iiSiSi^^S^3t^ 




Bird's eye ^ew of CiteMXc 



A.ORMiL 

a Qeto-tt.^ 
0. Almooiy. 



t 



loner Oat»>Rouc 
F. Stable. 
Q. Uonnttory ol Ley 

Brethren. 



n. AbboCeBoaia. 

h Kitchen. 

K. Itefeetory. 

L. SttlrcMetoDonnttory. 

M. Donnitoryi 

M. Chnreh. 

r. Uhrary. 



R.*lBflfmtr7. 
8. Door to Uie Ckortk 
for the Lny Brotben 
T. Bate Court. 
V. Greet Dotster. 
W. Small Qoister. 
2L BoiumUut WalL 



ment of Citeaux. A cross (A), planted on the high road. 



18 



ABBEY 



Citeaax. 



[ciSTEECUN. 



directs travellers to the gate' of the monastery, reached by. 
aa avenu9 of trees. On one side of the gate-house (B} 
is a long building (C), probably the ahnonry, with a 
donuitory above for the lower class of guests. On the other 
side is a chapel (D). iVs soon as the porteir heard a stranger 
knock at the gate, he rose, saying, Dto gratias, the oppor- 
^tunity for the exercise of hospitality being regarded as a 
•cause for thankfulness. On opening the door he-4velcomed 
the new arrival with a blessing — Bmedicite. He tell on 
liis knees before him, and then wenf to inform the abbot. 
However important the abbot's occupations might be, he 
at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had sent 
He also tln'ew himself at his guest's feet, and conducted' 
him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the gat& 
After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest to 
the care of the brother hospitaller, whos^ duty it was to 
provide fo.r his wants, q.nd conduct the beast on which he 
might bo riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the 
inner gate-house (£!). This inner gate conducted into 
the base court (T), round which were placed the bams, 
stables, cow-sheds, ^c. On the eastern side stood the 
dormitory of the lay brothers, yro^rc* converdXQt)^ detached 
from the cloister, with cellars and storehouses below. At 
(H), also outside the monastic buildings proper, was the 
abbot's house, and annexed to it the guest-house. For 
these buildings there was a separate door of entrance into 
the church (S).- The large cloister, with its surrounding 
arcades, b seen at V. On the south end projects the 
refectory (K), with its kitchen at (I), accessible from the 
base court The long gabled building on the east side of 
the cloister contained on the ground floor the chapter- 
house and caliefactory, with the monks' dormitory above 
(M), communicating with the south transept of the church. 
At (L) was the staircase to the dormitory. The small 
cloister is at (W), where were the carols or cells of the scribes, 
with the library (P) over, reached by a turret staircaje. 
At (11) we see a portion of the infirmary. The whole pre- 
cinct is surrounded by a strong buttressed* wall (XXX), 
pierced with arches, through wMch streams of water are 
introduced It will be noticed that the choir of the church 
is short, and has a square end instead of the usual apae. 
The tower, in accordance with the Cistordan rule, is very 
lew. The windows throughout accord with the studied 
simplicity of the order. 

The English Cistercian houses., of which there are such 
extensive and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx, 
Kiikstall, Tintem, Netley, Ac, were mainly arranged after 
the same plan, with slight local variations. As an example, 
we give the grotmd-plan of Kirkstall Abbey, which is one 
of the best ' preserved and least altered. The church here 
Kirksull. is of the Cistercian type, with a short chancel of two 
squares, and transepts with three eastward chapels to each, 
divided by solid walls (2 2 2). The whole is of the most 
studied plainness. The windows are unomamented, and 
the nave has no triforium. The cloister to the soudi (4) 
occupies the whole length of the nave. On the east side 
stands the two4iisled chapter house (5), between which and 
the south transept is a sinall sacristy (3), and on the other 
side two small apartments, one of which was probably 
the parlour (6). Beyond this stretches southward the 
calefactory or day-room of the monks (14). Above this 
whole range of buildingTuns the monks' dprmitory, opening 
by stairs into the south transept of the church. At the 
other end were the necessaries. On the south side of the 
cloister we have the remains of the old refectory (11), 
running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west, and 
the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the 
inmates of the house, superseded it,'stretching, as is usual 
in Cistercian houses, from north to south. Adjacent to 
this apartment are the remains of the kitchen, pontiy^and 



England. 



buttery. The arches bf the lavatory ore to be seen near 
the refectory entrance. The western side of the cloister 
is, as usual, occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the 
upper story the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Ex- 
tending from the south-east angle of the main group of 
buildings are the waUs and foundations of s secondary 
group of considerable extent. These have been idcnti£cd 
cither with the hospitium or with the abbot's house, but 
they occupy the position in which the infirmary is more 
usually found. The hall was a very spacious apartment, 
measuring S3 feet in length by 48 feet 9 indies in breadth 




^^ ^ 









t^^ 




KiTk«taU Abbey, Yorkahlw (Ciatcrdan). 


L ChOKh. 
9. Ghap«l& 

8. S«crl«t7. 

4. CloiBtftr. 

5. Chnpter-Hoiuo. 
C. Pat-lonr. 

7. PunUhment Cell (T) 

▼ersl over. 

9. GaestrHonBO. 


r eon- 


10. t/oromon Room. 

11. OW Re«fecioi7 
13. New Refectory. 

13. Kitchen Coart. 

14. CaJefactory or Dajr-Room. 
14. Kitchen and Olflcca. 

IC-IB. Uncertain; icrhaps OOBcos coa> 

.nect«d with t le Inflrmair. 
Sa Inflnnary or A >bot's Bouie. 



and was divided by two rows of columns. The fish-ponds 
lay between the monastery and the river to ths soutL The 
abbey mill was situated about 80 yards to the north-west. 
The mill-pool may be distinctly traced, together with the 
gowt o\ mill stream. 

Fountains Abbey, first founded A.D. 1132, deserves 
special notice, as one of the largest and >e8t preserved 
Cistercian houses in England. But the earlier buildings 
received considerable additions and alterations in the later 
period of the order, causing deviations from the strict 
Cistercian typ& The church stands a short distance to 
the north of the river Skell, the buildings of the abbey 
stretching down to and even across the stream. We have 
the cloister (H) to the south, vnth the three^led chapter- 
house (I) and (Refectory (L) opening from its eastern walk, 
and the refectory (S), ^th the kitchen (Q) and buttery (T) 
attached, at right angles to its southern walk. Parallel 
with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure 
(U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as cellars and 
store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the conversx 
above. This building extended across the river. At it3 



CISTERCIAK.J 



ABBEY 



19 



S. W. corner trare the necessaries (V), also Luilt, as asual, 
above the swiftly flowing stream. The monks' dormitory 
was in its usoal position above the chapter-house, to the 
south of the transept As peculiarities of arrangement 
may be noticed the position of tht kitchen (Q), between the 
refectory and calefactoiy, and of tke infirmaiy (W) ^unless 
there is some error in its designation) above th^ river to 




GrOoBd Flan of Fountains Abbe/, Torkshixe. 



A. Ksv* of Uie Ghmdi. 

II. Traosept 

C. Qupda, 

Dt Tower. 

E. Sacristy 

r. CtKrir. 

O. Clupel of lOno 

AJram ,, 
•L Clototer. 
I« Chapcer-HflitaJM^ 
K. BueCout. 
L. CaleCactoiy 
If . Wat«r CooTM^ 



N, CeUar. 

?. Brew Hooie. 
. Prisons. 
Q. Kitchen. 
R. Offices. 
S. Refectorr 
T. Buttery 
U. Cellars and 8t4>re- 

hOUMS. 

V. Necessanr. 
W. Inflnnary (?) 
X.* Gnest-Housca. 
T MIU Bridge. 



Z. Gate-Roue. 

Abbot** Hooia« 
1. Passage. 

S. Great RalL 
8. Refectory. 
4. Butter)-. 
A. StorehonaoL 
«. Chapel. 

7. Kitchen. 

8. Ashpit 

9. Yard. 
10..KltcbcnT«nk^ 



;he west, adjoining the guest-houses (XX). We may also call 
ittention to the greatly lengthened choir, commenced hy 
Abbot John of York, 1203-1211, and carried on by his 
fUGoeasor, terminating, like Durham Cathedral, in an 



eastern transept^ the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220- 
1247, and to the tower (D), added not long before the dis- 
solution hy Abbot Huby, 1404-1526, in a very unusual 
position at the northern end of the north transept The 
abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example ol 
this class of buildings in the. kingdom, stands south to 
the east of the church- and 'Cloistei>&om which it is divided 
bythe kitchen court (K), surrounded by the ordinary domestic 
offices. A considerable portion of this house was erected 
on arches over the SkelL The size, and character of this 
house, probably, at the time of its erection, the most 
spacious house of a subject in the kingdom, not a castle, 
bespeaks the wide departuse of the Cistercian order from 
l^e stem simplicity of the original foundation*^ The hall 
(2) was .one of the most spaaous and magnificent apart^ 
ments in medissval times, measuring 170 feet by 70 feet 
Like the hall in the castle at Winchester, and Westmixister 
Hall^ as originally built, it was divided by 18 pillars and 
arches', with B alftles. Among other apartments, for the 
designation of which we must refer to the ground-plan, 
was s domestic oratory or chapel, 46} feet by 23 leet, and 
a kitchen (7), 50 feet by 38 feet The whole arrangements 
and character of the building bespeak the rich and powerful 
feudal lord, not the humble father of a body of hard- 
working brethren^ bound by vows to a life of poverty and 
self-denyii^ toil In the words of Dean Mihnan, "the 
superior, onoe a man bowed to the earth with humility^ 
care-worn, pale, emaciated, with a coarse habit bound 
with a cord, wiUi naked feet, had be<;ome an. abbot on his 
curvetting palfrey, in rich atture, with his silver cross before 
him, travelling to take his place amid the. lordliest of the 
reaUn,"— (Zot. ChruL, voL iii. p. 330.)- 

The bjuldings of the Austin Canons or Black Canoni Blaclr e 
^so called from the colour of their habit) present fewAuUn 
distinctive peculiarities. . This order had its first seat in <^*noM 
England at Colchester, where a house for Austin Canons 
was founded about A.D. 1105, and it very soon spread 
widely. As an order of regular clergy, holding a middle 
position between monks and aecular canons, almost resem- 
bling a community of parish priests living- unde^ rule, 
they adopted naves of great length to accommodate large 
congregations. The choir is usually bug, and is somei- 
times, as at Llanthony and Christ Chun^ (Twynham^, 
shut off from the aisles, or, as at Bolton, Hirknamj <be., is 
destitute of aisles altogether. The nave in the northern 
houses, not imfrequently, had only a north aisle, as at 
Bolton, Brinkbum, and Lanercost The arrangement of 
the monastic buildings followed the ordinary type. The 
prior's lodge was al^iost invariably attached to the S.W. 
angle of tiie nare. The annexed plan of the Abbey of 
St Augpirtine'a at. Bristol, now the cathedral church of BrfftoL 




StAogustiQc'^wAJbbcy, Bristol (jBrUtol Cathedral). 



X Church. 

B. Great Clolrtef* 

C Little Goister. 

D. Chapter-Hona^ 

E. CaJc factory* 

F. Rpfeciory. 
O- ParMur 



'H.iatchet». - 
I. Kitchen Cotnt 
K. Cellars. 

!*► Abbot'B IfalL -^ 
T. Abbofc'a Gatev«Xk 
S. loflnoAiy. 



IS. Friars* Lodging. 
T. Klng'iHall. 
V. Gaeat-Honae. 
JW.AbbexOaUway. 
X Barnt, SUb!*£ ^ 
^T. LaTAtorf. 



20 



ABB E Y 



[CABTRCHfAlf 



that c<ty, shows the arrangement of th^ buildings, which 
departs very little from the ordinary Benedictine type. 
The Austin Canons' house at Thornton, in liinoolnshire, is 
remarkable for the size and magnificence of its gate-house, 
the upper floors of which formed the guest-house of the 
establishment^ and for possessing an octagonal chapter- 
house of Decorated data 

; The PremonstratensicM regular canons, or White Oanons, 
had as many as 35 houses in England, of which the most 
perfect remaining are those of Easby, Yorkshire, and 
Bayham, Sussex. The head house of the order in England 
was Welbedc This order teas a reformed branch of the 
Austin canons, founded, A.D. 1119, by Norbert (bom at 
Xanten, on the Lower Rhine, c. 1080) at Prdmontrd, a 
secluded marshy valley in the forest of Coucy, in the 
diocese of Laon. The order spread widely. Even in the 
founder's lifetime it possessed houses in Syria and Pales- 
tine. It long maintained its rigid austerity, till in the 
course of ^^ars wealth impaired its discipl^e, and its 
meitibers sank into indolence and luxury. > The Pcemon- 
stratenstans wore brought to England ^rtly after A.D. 
1140, and were first settled at Newhouse, in Lincolnshire, 
near the Humber. The ground-plan of Easby Abbey, 
owing io its situation on the edge of the steeply-sloping 
banks of a river, is singularly irregular. The doister is 
didy placed on the south side of the church, and the 
chief buildings occupy their usual positions round it 
But the cloister garth, as c^t Chichester, is not rectangu- 
lar, and aU the surrounding buildings are thus made to 
sprawl in a very awkward fashion. ■ The church follows 
the plan adopted by the Austin canons in their northern 
abbeys, and has oxdy one aisle to the nave — that to the 
north; while the choir is long, narroW| and aisleless. 
Each transept has an aisle to the east^ forming three 
chapels. ' 

The church at Bayham was destitute of aisle either to 
nave or choir. The latter terminated in a three-sided apse. 
This church is remarkable for its exceeding narrowness in 
proportion to its length. Extending in longitudinal dimen- 
sions 257 feet, it is not more than 25 feet broad. To 
adopt the words of Mr Beresford Hope — ^"Stem Fi-emon- 
stratensian canons wanted no congregations, and cared 
for no processiona; therefore they biult their church like a 
long room. 
CsnhnBiaD. The Carthusian order, on its establishment by St Bruno, 
about A.D. 1084, developed a greatly modified form and 
arrangement of a monastic institution. Thd principle of 
this order, which combined the coenobitie With the solitary 
life, demanded the erection of buildings on a novel plan. 
This plan, which was first adopted by St Bruno and his 
twelve companions at the original institution at Chartreux, 
near Qrenoble, was ^ maintained in all the Carthusiaa 
establishments throughout Europe, even after the ascetic 
severity of the order had been to some extent relaxed; and 
the primitive simplicity of their buildings had been ex- 
changed for the magnificence of decoration which charac- 
terises such foundations as the Certosas of Pavia and 
Florence. According to the rule of St Bruno, all the 
members of a Carthusian brotherhood lived in the most 
absolute solitude and silence. Each occupied a small 
detached cottage, standing by itself in a small garden 
surrounded by high waUs and connected by a common 
corridor or cloister. In these cottages or cells a Carthusian 
monk passed his time in the strictest asceticism, only 
leaving his solitary dwelling to attend the services of the 
Church, except on certain days when the brotherhood 
assembled in the refectory. 

The peculiarity of Uie arrangements of a Carthusian 
monastery, or charUr-kouse, as it was called in England, 
from a corruption of the French chartreux, is exhibited in 



the plan of that of Clermont, from VioUetle Due. ' The ClerooL 
whole estaUishment is surroooded with a wall, furnished 
at interrals with watch towers (R). The enclosure is 
divided into two courts, of which the eastern court, sur- 
rounded by a cloister, from which the cottages of the 
monks (I) open, is much the larger. . The two courts are 




J e . 

iSTTTTTjy-TTTf^, 



Gnnftiiot. 
B. Watch Tff«r«f^ 
a Little Gk>M«r 
T. 1 
^ V. KUehca. 
X RefccUHT. 
T. OMBtterjr. 
Z» PnioQ. 
ACeUofSab-rrlor 
k Oordeii of <!«. 



OfftSuubn MoDsstvzy of dermoiit 

divided 1^ the main bnfldings of the monasteiy, including 
the church, the sanctuary (A), divided from (B), the monks' 
choir, by a screcm with two altars, the smaller cloister to 
the south (S) surrounded by the chapter-house (E), tho 
refectory (X) — ^these buildings occupying their normal 
position— and the chapel of Pontgibaud (K). The kitchen 
with its offices (Y) lies behind tho refectory, accessible 
from the outer court without entering the cloister. To 
the north of the church, beyond the sacristy ^L), and the 
side chapels (M), we find the ceU of the sub-pnor (a), with 
its garden. The lodgings of the prior (G) occupy the 
centre of the outer court, immediately in- front of the west 
door of the church, and face the gateway of the convent (O^ 
A small raised court with a fountain (C) is before it This 
outer court also contains the guest-chambeis (P), the 
stables, and lodgings of the lay brothers (1^^ the bama 
and granaries (Q), the dovecot (H), and tho pakehooae (T). 
At (Z) is the prison. (In this outer court, in all the earlier 
foundations, as at Witham, thertf was a smaller church in 
addition to the huger church of the monks.) The outer and 
inner court are connected by a long passage (F), wide 
enough to admit a cart laden with wood to supply the 
cells of the brethren with fuel The number of cdls surw 
rounding the great cloister is 18. They are aU arranged 
on a uniform plan. Each little dwelling contains three 
rooms : a sitting-room (C), warmed with a stove in winter; 
a slcepiug-room (D), furnished with a bed, a table, a bench, 
and a bookcase; and a closet (E). Between tho cell and 
the cloister gallery (A) is a passage or corridor (B), cutting 
ofif the inmate of the cell from all sound or movement 
which might interrupt his meditations. The superior had 



CAJaKUSUX.] 



ABBEY 



21 



free access to this corridor, and tkrough open niches was able 
to inspect the garden without being seen. At (I) is the 
hatch or tiUTi-tiS>le, in which the daily aUowance of food was 
deposited bj a brother appointed for that purpose, afford- 
ing oo view either inwards or outwards. (H) is the garden, 




CtfthaauB GoU, CSmidooI 

coltivated by the occupant of the oeD. At (K) is the 
wood-house. (F) lb a covered walk, with the necessary at 
the end. These arrangements are found with scarcely any 
▼ariation in all the charter-houses of Western Europe. 
The Yorkshire Charter-house of Mount Oiaoe, founded by 
Thomas Holland the young Duke of Surrey, nephew <i 
Richard IL, and Mar^al of England, during the revival 
of the popularity of the order, about a.d. 1397, is the most 
perfect and best preserved English ezampla It is charac- 
terised by all the simplicity of the order. Tlie church is a 
modest building, long, narrow, and aialelesa. Within the 
wall of enclosure are two courta The amaUer of the two, 
the sonthy presents the usual arrangement of chunch, refeo^ 
tory, Ac, opening out of a cloister. The buildings are 
plain and solid. The northern court contains the cdUs, 14 
in number. It is snrrr^unded by a double stone wail, the 
two walls being about 30 feet or 40 feet apart. Between 
these, each in its own garden, stand the cells ; low-built 
two-storied oottagea, of two or three rooms oo the -ground- 
floor, lighted wiUi a larger and a smaller window to the 
sid^, and provided with a doorway to the court, and one at 
the bade, opposite to one in the outer waD, through which 
the monk may have conveyed the sweepings of his cell and 
the refoae of his garden to the ** eremus " beyond. By the 
aide of the door to the court is a little hatch, throngfa which 
the daily pittance of food was supplied, so contrived by 
turning at an angle in the wall that no Que could either 
look in or look out A very perfect example of this hatch 
— an arrangement beionging to all Carthusian houses — 
exists at Miraflores, near Buzgoa, whkk remains neariy as 
it was completed in 1480. 

Tliere were only nine Carthunan hoosei in Ibg^^nd. 
The earliest was t^ at Witham in Somenetshire, founded 
by Heniy H, by whom the order was first brought into 
England. The wealthiest and jnost magnificent was that 
of Shene or Richmond in Surrey, founded by Heniy V.. 
about I.D. 1414. The dimensions of the buildings at 
Sbene are stated to have b^sn remarkably large. The 
^^reat court measoied 300 feet by 250 feet ; the cloisters 
were a squaie of 600 feet ; the hall was 110 feet in length 
hj 60 feet in bresdth. The meet celebrated histori'cal) j is 
the Charter-house of London, founded by Sir Walter Manny 
A..D. 1371. the OBtmt id which is preserved by the Ounons 



public school established on the site by Thomas Sutton 
A.D. 1611.. 

An article on monastic arrangements would be incom- 
plete without some account of the convents of the Mendi- lf«idlev* 
cant or Preaching Friars, including the Black Friars or ''<■>«> 
Dominicans, the Grey or Frsociscans, the White or Carmel- 
ites, the Eremite or Austin Friars. These orders arose at 
the beginning of the 1 3th centuiy, when the BenodictineSi 
together with their various reformed branches, had termi- 
nsied their active mission, and Christiau Europe was rend) 
for a new religious revival Planting themselves, as a rule, 
in large towns, and by preference in the poorest and most 
densely populated districts, the Preaching Friars were 
obliged to adapt their buildings to the requirementa of the 
site. Beguiarity of arrangement, therefore, was not pos- 
sible, even if they had studied it' Their churches, buUt 
for the reception of large congregatioos of hearers rather 
than worshippers, form a class by themselves, totally unlike 
those of the elder orders in ground-pbn and character. 
They were usually long parallelograms unbroken by tran- 
septs. Tl^ nave very usually consisted of two equal bodies, 
one containing the stalls of the brotherhood, the other left 
entirely free for the congregation. The constructional 
choir is often wanting, the whole church forming one onin* 
terrupted structure, with a continuous range of windows. 
The east end was usually square, but the Friars Church at 
W i nchelsea had a polygonal apse. We not unfroquently 
find a single transept, sometimes of great sixc, rivalling or 
exceeding the nave. This arrangement is frequent in 
Ireland,* where the numerous small friaries afford admirable 
exemplifications of these peculiarities of ground-plan. The 
friars churches were at fiist destitute of towers ; but in tha 
14th and 15th centuries, tall, slender towers were con^ 
monly inserted between the nave and the choir. The Qrey 
Frian. at Lynn, where the tower is hexagonal, is a good 
example. The arrangement of the monastic buildings is 
equally peculiar and characteristic Wc miss entirely the ^ 

regulari^ of the buildings of the earlier orders. At the 
Jacobins at Puis, a cloister lay to the north of the long « 

narrow church of two parallel aisles, while the refectory— 
a room of immense length, quite detached from the cloister 
— etretched across the area before the west front of tha 
church. At Toulouse the nave also has two parallel aisles, 
but the choir is apaidal, with radiating chapels. The refcc* 
tory stretches northwards at right angles to the cloister, which 
lies to the north of the chtu^dh, having the chapter-house 
and sacristy on the east As examples of English friaries, 
the Dominican house at Norwich, and those of the Domini- Norwich, 
xans and Franciscans at Gloucester, may be mentioned. The OloacMtor. 
church of the Black Friare of Norwich departs from the 
original type in the nave (now St Andrew's Hall), in having 
re^^ilar aisles^ In this it resembles the earlier examples of 
the Qrey Friars at Reading. The choir is long and aislo- 
less ; an hexagonal tower between the two, like that exist* 
ing at Lynn, has perished. The cloister and monastic 
bmldings remain tolerably perfect to the norlL The 
Dominican convent at Gloucester still exhibits the cloister- 
court, on the north side of which is the desecrated church. 
The refectory is on the west side, and on the south the 
dormitory of the ISth century. This is a remarkably good 
example. There were 18 cells or cubicles on each sidoi 
divided by partitions, the bases of which remain. On the 
east side was the prior's house, a building of later date. 
At the Grey or Franciscan Friars, the chureh followed the 
ordinary type in having two equal bodies, each gabled/ 
with a continuous range of windowa There was a slender 
tower between the nave and choir. Of the convents of the 
Carmelite or White Friars we have a good example in the 
Abbey of Hulme, near Alnwick, the first of the order in Hstau^ 
En^^d, founded a.d. 1240. The church is a narrow 



22 



A B B- A B B 



Mendi^nt oblong, destitute of aisles, 123 feet long by only 26 feet 

Friars. wide. The cloisters are to the south, with the chapter- 
house, (Sec, to the east, with the dormitory over. The 
prior's lodge is placed to the west of the* cloister. The 
guest-houses adjoin the entrance gateway, to which a chapel 
was annexed on the south side of the conventual area. 
The nave of the church of the Austin Friars or Eremite 
in London is still standing. It is of Decorated date, and 
has wide centre and side aisles, divided by a very light and 
graceful arcade. Some fragments of the south walk of the 
cloister of the Grey Friars exist among the buildings of 
Christ's Hospital or the Blue-Coat School Of the Black 
Friars all has perished but the name. Taken as a whole, 
the remains of the establishments of the friars afford little 
warrant for the bitter invective of the Benedictine of St 
Alban's, Matthew Paris : — " The friars who have been 
founded hardly 40 years have built residences as the 
palaces of kingSL These are they who, enlarging day by 
day their sumptuous edifices, encircling them with lofty 
walls, lay up in thorn their incalculable treasures, impru- 
dently transgressing the bounds of poverty, and violating 
the very fundamental rules qf their profession," Allowance 
must here be made for jealousy of a rival order just rising 
in popularity. 
Every large monastery had depending upon it one or 

CellA. more, smaller establishments known as cdU. These ceUs 
were monastic colonies, sent forth by the parent house, and 
planted on some outlying estate. As an example, we may 
refer to the small religious house of St Mary Magdalene's, 
a ceU of the great Benedictine house of St Mary's, York, in 
the valley of the Witham, to the south-east of tho city of 
Lincoln. This consists of one long narrow range of build- 
ing, of which the eastern part formed the chapel, and 
Xhe western contained tho apartments of the handful of 
monks of which iv was tho home. To -the east may be 
traced the site of the abbey mill, with its dam and mill- 
lead. These cells, when belonging to a Cluniac house, 
were called Obedientia!, 

The plan given by VioUot le Due of tho Priory of St 
Jean des Bans JIamme$, a Cluniac cell, situa'^d between 
the town of Avallon and the village of Savigny, shows that 
these diminutive establishments comprised every essential 

, feature of a monastery, — chapel, cloister, chapter-room, 

refectory, dormitory, all grouped according to the recog- 
nised arrangcmeat 

These Cluniac obcdientm differed from the ordinary 
Benedictine cells in being also places of punishment, to 
which monks who had boon guilty of any grave infringe- 
ment of the rules were relegated as to a kiud of peniten- 
tiary. Here they were placed under the authority of a 
prior, and were condemned to severe manual labour, ful- 
611ing the duties usually executed by the lay brothers, who 
acted as farm-servants. 

The outlying farming estabEshments belonging to the 
monastic foundations were known as viUw or granges. 
They gave employment to a body of ccnversi and labourers 
under the management of a monk, who bore the title of 
Brother HospiialUr — the granges, like their parent in- 
stitutions, affording shelter and hospitality to belated 
travellers. 

Authorities. ' — ^Dugdale, Monattieon; Foebrooke, British 
MonacMsm; Helyot, Didionnaire des Ordres Religieuz; 
Lenoir, ArchUtdvre Monastique; Viollet le Due, Didior*.- 
naire Baisonnie de VArckUedwre Franeaiae; Walcott, 
Conventual Arrangement; Willis, Abbey of St Ocdl; Archooo- 
logical Journal, vol v., Cenventual Buildings of Canter' 
bury ; Curzon^ Mowisteries of the Levant. (e. y.) 

ABBLA.TE GKASSO, a town in the north of Italy, near 
the Ticino, 14 miles W.S.W. of Milan. It has silk manu- 
factures, and contains about 5000 inhabitants. 



ABBON or Fleury. or Abbo Floriacensis, a learned 
Frenchman, born near Orleans in 945. He distinguished 
himself in the schools of Paris and Rheims, and was a profi- 
cient in science, as known in his time. After spending two 
years in England, assisting Archbishop Oswald of York in 
restoring the monastic system, he returned to France, and 
was made Abbot of Fleury (970). He was twice sent 
to Rome by Robert the Wise (986, 996), and on each occa- 
sion succeeded in warding off a threatened papal interdict. 
He was killed in 1004, in endeavouring to quell a monkish 
revolt. He wrote an epitome of the Lives of the Boman 
Pontiffs, besides controversial treatises, letters, &c. 

ABBOT, the head and chief governor of a community 
of* monks, called also in the East Archimandrita, from 
mandrOf ** a fold," or ffegumenos. The name <d>bot is derived 
from the Hebrew a», Ab, or father, through the Syriac 
Abba, It had its origin in the monasteries of Syria, 
whence it spread through the East, and soon became 
accepted generally in all languages as the'^designation of 
the head of a monastery. At first it was employed as a 
respectful title for any monk, as we learn from St Jerome 
(in Epist. ad Gal. iv. 6, in Matt xxiii. 9), but it was soon 
restricted to the Superior. 

The name abbot, though general in the West, was not 
universal Among the Dominicians, Carmelites, Angus- 
tines, Ac., the superior was called Prasposiius, ** Provost," 
and Prior; among the Franciscans, Custos, "Guardian;" 
and by the monks of Camaldoli, Mqfor. 

Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was 
the abbot any exception. All orders of clergy, therefore* 
even the "doorkeeper," took precedence of him. r 
the reception of the sacraments, and for other religious 
offices, the abbot and hi^ monks were commanded to 
attend the nearest cb.uictL'-^NovellcB, 1 33, c ii.) This rule 
natumlly proved inconvenient when a monastery was 
situated in a desert, or at a distance from a city, and 
necessity compelled the ordination of abbota This innova- 
tion was not introduced without a stniggle, ecclesiastical 
dignity being regarded as inconsistent with the higher 
spiritual life, out, before the dose of the 5th century, at least 
in the East, abbots seem almost universally to have become 
deacons, if not presbyters. The change spread more 
slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly 
filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century, and 
partially so up to the 11th. Ecclesiastical Councils were, 
however, attended by abbots. Thus, at that held at Con- 
stantinople, A.D. (48, for the condemnation of Eutyches* 
23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops, and, 
cir, A.D. 690, Archbishop Theodore -promulgated a canon, 
inhibiting bishops from compelling abbots to attend 
councila Examples are not uncommon in Spain and 
in England in Siaon times. Abbots were permitted 
by the Second Council of Nicea, A.D. 787, to ordain 
their monks to the inferior orders. ' This rule was 
adopted in the -West, and the strong pr^udice against 
clerical monks having gradually broken down, eventually 
monks, almost without exception, belonged to some grade 
of the ministry. 

Originally no abbot was permitted to rule over more 
than one monastic community, though, in some exceptional 
cases, Gregory the Great allowed the rule to be broken. 
As time went on, violations of the rule became increasingly 
frequent, as is proved by repeated enactments against it. 
The cases of Wilfrid of York, cir, a.d. 675, who held the 
abbacy of the monasteries he had founded at Hexham and 
Ripon, and of Aldhelta, who, at the same date, stood iu 
the same double relation to those of Malmcsbury, Frome» 
and Bradford, are only apparent transgressions of the rule. 
We find more decided instances of plurality in Hugh of 
the royal Carlovingian house, dr. 720, who was at the saiuo 



ABBOT 



23 



time Bishop of Rouen, Parii, Baycux, and Abbot of Fonte- 
nelle and Jumii^gcs ; and Sidonius, Bishop of Constance, 
who, being already Abbot of Rcichenau, took the abbacy of 
St Gall alia Ilatto of Mentz, or. 912| annexed- to his 
see no less than 12 abbacies. 

In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, we find abbots 
f» chief or archimandriUt exercising juriisdiction oyer a 
large number of communities, each of which hod ita own 
abbot Thus, Cassian speaks of an abbot in the Thebaid 
who had - 500 monks under him, a number exceeded in 
other cases. In later times also, general jurisdiction was 
exercised over the houses of their order by the abbots of 
Monte Cassino, St Dahnatius, Clugny, &q, .. The abbot of 
Cassino was styled Abbas Abbaium, ■.., The chi^s of other 
orders had the titles of Abbas, OeneraliSf or Jfagistsr, or 
Minister Gensralis, 

Abbots were originally subject to epiiBCOpal jurisdiction, 
and continued generally so, in fact, in .the West till the 
11th century. The Codex of Justtjiian (liU L tit* iii de 
Ep. leg. xL). expressly subordinates the abbot to epis- 
copal oversight .The first case recorded of the partial 
exemption of an abbot from ^isoopal control is that of 
Faustus, Abbot of Lerins, at the Council of Aries, a.d. 
456 ; but the oppressive conduct, and exorbitant claims 
and exactions of bishops, to which this repugnance to 
episcopal control is to be traced^ far more than to the 
arrogance of abbots, rendetjed it increasingly frequent, 
and, in the 6th century, the practice of exempting rel^ous 
bouses partly or altogether irom episcopal control, and 
making them responsible to the Pope alone, received an 
impulse from Gregory the Great ^; These exceptbns, 
though introduced with a good object, had grown into a 
wide^read and crying evil by the 12th century^ virtually 
creating an vatperiuBi »n trnpsno/and entirely depriving 
the bishop of all authori^ over the chief centres of power 
tiud influence in his diocese. In the 12th.oentui7 the 
abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the Archbishop of 
CologncL Abbots more and more aped episcopal state, 
and in defiance of the express prohibition of early councils, 
and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the 
episcopal insignia of mitre, ring, gloves, and sandaU' A 
mitre is said to have been granted to the Abbot of Bobbxo 
by Pope Theodorus L, A.x>. 643, and to the Abbot of St 
Savianus by Sylvester. H, A.P. 1000. f Ducange asserts 
that pontifical insignia were first assigned to abbots by 
John XYUL, A.D. 1004-1009; but the first undoubted 
grant is said to be that to the Abbot of St MaTiminifln at 
Treves, by Gregory VIL (Hildebrand), a.d. 1073-^085. 
The mitred abbots in England wen^ ^ose of -Abingdon, 
St Alban's, Bardncy, Battle, Bury St Edmund's, St Augus- 
tine's Canterbury, Colchester, Croyland, Evesham, Glas- 
tonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, . Hyde, Mabnes- 
bury, Peterborough, Ramsey, Reading, Selby, Shrewsbury, 
Tavistock, Thbmey, Westminster, Winchcombe, St Mary's 
York. Of these the precedence was originally yielded to 
the Abbot of Glastonbury, until in a.d. 1154 Adrian IV. 
(Nicholas ' Breakspear) granted it to the Abbot of St^ 
Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought up. 
Next after the Abbot of St Alban's. lanked the Abbot of 
Westminster. 

To Hiatingniwh abbots from bishops, it was ordained that 
their mitre should be made of less costly materials, and 
should not be ornamented with gold, a rule which was 
soon entirely disregarded, ■ and t&i the crook of their 
pastoral staff should turn inwards instead of outwards, 
' indicating that their jurisdiction was Umited to their ewn 
bouse. The adoption .of episcopal insignia by abbots 
was followed by an encroachment on episcopal functions, 
which had to be specially but ineffectually guarded against 
by the Lateran Council, a.d. 1123. In the East, abbotSy 



if in priests' orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, 
as we have seen, permitted by the Second Niccne Counod, 
A.D. 787, to confer the tonsure and admit to the order of 
reader ; but they gradually advanced higher .claims, until 
we find them authorised by Bellarmine to be fssodatcd 
with a single bishop in episcopal consecmtions^ and per- 
mitted .by Innocent IV., a.o. 1489, to confer both the 
subdiaconatc and diaconate.. . . Of course, they always and 
everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks; 
and vesting them vdth the religious habit ' In the first 
instance, when a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese 
chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but 
the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to 
the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the con- 
firmation of the election and the benediction, of the new 
abbot. In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, th^ 
confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the/ 
Pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses 
of the new abbot's journey to Rome. By the rule of St 
Benedict, the consent of the laity was in some unde- 
fined way required ; but this seems never to have been 
practically enforced. It was necessary that an abbot 
should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate birth, a 
monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable tiii^ 
didate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from anoth<7 
convent^ well instructed himself, and able to instruct others, 
one also who had learned how to command by having prac- 
tised obedience. . In some exceptional cases an abbot was 
allowed to name his^wn successor. Cassian speaks of an 
abbot in Egypt doing this ; and in later times we have 
another example in the case of St Bruno: v Popes and 
sovereigns gradually encroached pn the rights of the 
monks, until in Italy the Pope had usurped the nomina- 
tion of all abbots, and the king ib France, with the ex- 
ception of Clugny, PrtoontnS, and other houses, -chiefs uf 
their order.. The. election was for life, unless the abbot 
was canonicaUy deprived by the chiefs of his order, or, 
when he was directly subject to them, by the. Pope or the 
bishop. " 

'■■■'. "The ceremony of the formal admission of a Benedictine 
abbot in JoieduBval times is thus prescribed b^ thp consuetu« 
dinary of Abingdon. The newly elected aboot was jto 
put off his shoes at the^ door of the ehmc^; and proceed 
barefoot, to meet the members of the house advancing iii 
a procession.. -\ After proceeding np the nave, he was to 
kneel and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the 
choir, into which he was to be introduced by the bishop 
or his commissary, and placed in 'his stall The monks, 
then kneeling, gave hiui the kiss of peace on the hand, 
and- rising, on the mouth, the abbot holding his staff of 
office. He then put on his shoes in the vestiy, and a 
chapter was held, : and the bishop or his commissary 
preached a suitable sermon. 

The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute; 
limited, however,' by the canons of the church,' and,fantil 
the ■ general establishment of exemptions; by episcopal 
control As a rule, however, implicit obedience was en* 
forced; to act without his orders was culpable; while it 
was a sacred duty to execute his orders, however unreai« 
sonable, until they werewithdrawn* Examples among the* 
Egyptian monks of this blind submission to the commands 
of the superiors, exalted into a virtue by those who rw 
garded the entire crushing of the individual will asthflf 
highest excellence, are detailed by Cassian and others,— fl.f^»' 
a monk watering a dry stick, day after day, for months, or 
endeavouring to remove a huge rock immensely • exceedi n g 
his powers. St Jerome, indeed, lays down, as the principle 
of the compact between the abbot and hismgnks^thafH^ey 
should obey their superiors in aU things, and f^orm wlmt* 
ever they commanded.— <Ep. 2, ad Eustoch. de custody 



24 



ABBOT 



▼i^gin.) So despotic did the tjranny become in the West, 
that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to re- 
strain abbots by legal enactments from mutilating their 
monks, and putting out' their eyes; while the rule of St 
Ck)lumba ordained 100 lashes as the punishment for very 
slight offences. An abbot also had the -power of excom- 
municating refractory nuns, which he might use if desired 
by their abbess. 

• The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and 
reverence by the brethren of his house. When he appeared 
either in chnrch or chapter all present rose and bowed. 
His letters were received kneebng, like those of the Pope 
and the king. If he gave a command, the monk receiving 
it was also to kneel No monk might sit in his presence, 
or leave it without his permission. The highest place was 
naturally assigned to him, both in church and at table. 
In the East he was commanded to eat with the other monks. 
In the West the rule of St Benedict appointed him a sepa- 
rate table, at which ho might entertain guests and strangers. 
This permission opening the door to luxurious living, the 
Council of Aix, a.d. 817, decreed that the abbot should 
dine in the refectory, and be content with the ordinary 
fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a guest. 
These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual to 
secure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature 
abounds with satirical remarks atid complaints concerning 
the inordinate extravagance of the tables of Ihe abbots. 
When the abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his 
chaplains waited upon him with the dishes, a servant, if 
necessary, assisting them. At St Alban's the abbot took 
the lord's seat, in the centre of the high table, and was 
served on silver plate, and sumptuously entertained noble- 
men, ambassadors, and strangers of quality. When abbots 
dined in their own private hall, the rule of St Benedict 
charged them to invite their monks to their table, provided 
there was room, on which occasions the guests were to ab- 
stain from quarrels, slanderous talk, and idle gossipping. 
.The complaint, however, was sometimes made (as by Matt. 
ParisofWulsig,thethirdabbotof St Alban's),thatthey invited 
ladies of rank to dine with them instead of their monks. The 
ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be the 
same as that of the monks. But by the 10th century the 
rule was commonly set aside, and we find frequent com- 
plaints of abbots dressing in silk, and adopting great 
Bumptuou^ness of attire. Nay, they sometimes laid aside 
the monastic habit altogether, and assumed a secular dress.* 
This was a necessary consequenceof their following the chase, 
which was quite usual, and indeed at that time only natural. 
With the increase of wealth and power, abbots had lost 
much of their special religious character, and become great 
lords, chiefly distinguished from lay lords by celibacy. 
Thus we hear of abbou going out to sport, with their men 
carr}*ing bows and arrows; keeping horses, dogs, and 
huntsmen ; and special mention is made of an abbot of 
Leicester, cir. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the 
nobility in hare-hunting. In magnificence of equipage and 
retinue the abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm. 
They rode on mules with gilded bridles, rich saddles and 
housings, canying hawks on their wrist, attended by an 
immense train of attendants. The bells of the churches 
were rung as they passed. They associated on equal terms 
with laymen of the highest distincuon, and shared ail tbcir 
pleasures and pursuits. This rank and power was, how- 
ever, often used most beneficially. For instance, we read 
of Whiting, the last Abbot of Glastonbury, judicially mur- 
dered by Henry VIII., that his house was a kind of well- 
ordered court, where as many as 300 sons of noblemen and 

> Wilwonh, the fourth Jibbot of St Alban's, circa 930, U cLareed by 
Mfttthew Pahs with aaopting the Attire of a ■portaisaji. 



gentlemen, who had been sent to him f6r virtiioQS educa* 
tion, had been brought up, besides others of a meaner rank, 
whom he fitted for the universities. His table, attendance, 
and officers were an honour to the nation. He would 
entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at one time, 
besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice o-week. 
He had his country hou^s and fisheries, and when ho 
travelled to attend Parliament his retinue amounted to 
upwards of 100 persons. The abbots of Clugny and 
Vendome were, by virtue of their ofiSoe, cardinals of the 
Romish Church. 

In process of time the title abbot was improperly trans* 
ferred to clerics who had no connection with the monastic 
S3r8tem, as to the principal of a body of parochial 
clergy ; and under the Carlovingians to the chief chaplain 
of the king, Al^>a8 Curias, or military chaplain of the em« 
peror, il&6a« CoHrenHa. It even came to be adopted by 
purely secular officials. Thus the chief magistrate of the 
republic at Genoa was called Abbaa Populi. Ducange, in 
his Glossary, also gives us Abbaa CampanUu^ Ckdurii^ 
Pcdatiit Sckolaris, £c. 

Lay abbota, so called, had their origin in the system of 
commundatien, in the 8th century. By this, to meet any 
great necessity of the state, such as an inroad of the Sara* 
cens, the revenues of monasteries weie temporarily com* 
mended. t.«., handed over to some layman, a noble, or even 
the king himself, who for the time became titular abbot. 
Enough was reserved to maintain the monastic brother- 
hood, and when the occasion passed away the revenues 
were to be restored to their rightful owners. The estates, 
however, had a habit of lingering in lay hands, so that in 
the 9th and 10th centiuies most of the sovereigns and 
nobles among the Franks and Burgundians were titular 
abbots of some great monastery, the revenues of which 
they applied to their own purposes. Tlicse lay-abbots 
were styled Abbacomites or Abbatu MUites. Hugh Capet, 
before his elevation to the throne, as an Abbaames held 
the abbeys of St Denis and St Germain in-comTncndam, 
Bishop Hatto, of Mentz, a.d. 891-912, is said to have held 
12 abbeys in commendam at once. In Eng^nd, as wc sec 
from the Acts of the Council of Cloveshoe, in the 8tb 
century, monasteries were often invaded and occupied by 
laymen. This occurred sometimes from the monastery 
having voluntarily placed itself under the protection of a 
powerful hyman, who, from its protector, became its op* 
pressor. Sometimes there were two linos of abbots, one of 
laymen enjoying the lion's share of the revenues, another 
of clerics fulfilling the proper duties of an abbot on a small 
fraction of the income. The gross abuse of lay commen- 
dation which had sprung up during the corruption of 
the monastic system passed away with its reformation in 
the 10th century, either voluntarily or by compulsion. 
The like abuse prevailed in the East at a later perloJ. 
John, Patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 1 2th 
century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had 
been handed over to laymen, lenefidarii, for life, or 'for 
part of their lives, by the emperors. 

In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop ooeupied 
the place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on 
the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior. 
In other convents the prior was the second officer next to 
the abbot, representing him in his absence, and fulfilling 
his duties. The superiors of the cells, 'or small monastic 
estabhshments depcadent on the larger monasteries, were 
also called pnors. They were appointed by the abbots, 
and held office at their pleasure. ^ 

A uthorities . — Bingham, Origines ; Ducange, Glossary , 
Herzog, Rcalicorterluch ;. Robertson, Ch. Hist , Martene, 
De Anti^. Alonast, Ritihis; Mocialcmbcrt, Monks of th$ 
West. (E. V.) 



ABBOT 



25 



V ABBOT, Chablbb^ speaker of the H<pise of Commons 
from 1802 to 1817, afterwards created Lord Colchester. 

6oe COLCHESTE&i 

ABBOT, Gboecb, ArchKshopof Canterbury, was bom 
October 19; 1562, at Guildford in Surrey, where ius father 
was a doth-worker. He studied at Balliol College, Oxford, 
and was cboeen Master of University College in 1597. 
lie was three times appointed to the office of Vice^han- 
cellor of the Univeisi^. When in 1604 the version of the 
Bible now in use was ordered to be prepared, Dr Abbot's 
name stood second on the list of the eight .Oxford divines 
to whom was intrusted the translation of the New Testa- 
ment, excepting the Epistles. In I608-he went to Scotland 
with the Earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between 
the Churches of England and Scotland, and his conduct in 
that negotiation laid the foundation of his preferment, by 
attracting to him the notice and favour of the king. With- 
out having held any parochial charge, he was appointed 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1 609, was trainslated 
to the see of London a month afterwards, and in less 
than a year was made Archbishop of Canterbury. This 
rapid preferment was due as much perhaps to his flat- 
tering bis royal master as to his legitimate merits. After 
his elevation he showed on several occasions firmness 
and courage in resisting the king. In the scandalous 
divorce suit of the Lady Frances Howard against the Earl 
of Essex, the archbishop persistently opposed the dissolu- 
tion of the marriage, though the influence of the king and 
oourt was strongly and successfully exerted in the opposite 
direction. In 1618, when a declaration was published by 
the king, and ordered to be read in all the churches, per- 
mittmg sports and pastimes on the Sabbath, Abbot had 
the courage to forbid its being read at Croydon, where he 
happened to be at the time. As may be inferred from 
the incident just mentioned. Abbot was of the Protestant or 
Puritan party in the Church. He was naturally, therefore, 
a promoter of the match between the Elector Palatme and 
the Princess Elizabeth, and a Ann opponent of the projected 
marriage <^ the Prince of Wales with the Infanta of Spain. 
This policy brought upon him the hatred of Laud cmd the 
court The king, indeed, never forsook him ; but Buck- 
ingham was his avowed enemy, and he was regarded with 
disdike by the Pnnce of Wales, afterwards Charles L 
In 1622 a sad misfortune befcU thQ|^ archbishop while 
fauntmg in Lord Zouch's park at BramzilL A bolt from 
his cross-brow aimed at a deer happened to strike one of' 
the kec[)er8, who died within an hour, and Abbot was so 
greatly distressed by the event that ho fell into a state of 
settled melancholy. His enemies maintained that the fatal 
issue of this accident disqualified him for his office, and 
argued tliat, though tlic homicide was involuntary, the 
sport of hunting which had led to it was one in which no 
clerical person could lawfully indulge. The king had to 
refer the matter to a commission of ten, though he said 
that " an angel might haye miscamed after this sort" A 
decision was given m the archbishop's favour; but to pre- 
vent disputes, it was recommended that the king should 
formally absolve him, and confer his office upon him anew. 
After this the archbishop seldom appeared at the council, 
chiefly on account of his infirmities. He attended the 
king constantly, however, in his last illness, and performed 
the ceremony of the coronation of Charles L A pretext 
was soon found by his enenues for depriving him of all his 
functions as primate, which were put in commission by 
the king. This high-handed procedure was the result-of 
Abbot's refusal to ticense a sermon preached by Dr Sibthorp, 
in whidi the king's prerogative was stretched beyond con- 
stitutional limits. The archbishop had his powers restored 
to him shortly afterwards, however, when the king found 
it absolutely necensary to summon a Parliament. His ore- 



sence being unwelcome at oourt, he lived from that timo 
in retirement^ leaving Laud and his parly in undiq)uted 
^cendency. He died at Crovdon-on-the 5th August 1633,: 
andwasburied at-Guildford, his nativo place, wl^re^he Imd 
endowed an hospital with lands ta-thjO-value-of X300 a year. 
Abbot wrote a large number of works, but» wiUi^thoexcep* 
tion of his Expontion on the Ptophet Jonah (1600), which 
was reprinted in 1845, they are now little known. His 
Geography^ or a Brief Detcnptian qf ths Whole Worlds 
passed through numerous editions. 

ABBOT, Qboros, known as "The Puritan," has been 
oddly and persistently mistaken for othera He has beer, 
described aa a clergyman, which he never was, and as sori 
of Sir Morris Abbot, and his writings accordingly entered 
in the bibliographical authorities as by the nephew of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. One of the sons of Sir 
Morris Abbot was, indeed, named Geoi^ and he was 
a man of mark, but the more famous George Abbot 
was of a different family altogether. He was son or 
grandson fit is not clear which) of Sir Thomas Abbot, 
knight of Easington, East Yorkshire, havmg been bom 
there in 1603-4, his mother (or grandmother) .being 
of the ancient house of Pickering. He married a 
daughtec of Colonel Purefoy of Caldecote, Warwickshire, 
and as his monument, which may still be seen in the 
church there, telh>, he bravely held it against Prince 
Rupert and Maurice during the civil war. He was a' 
member of the Long P^liamentfor TamwortL As a 
lajrman, and nevertheless a theologian and scholar of 
rare ripeness and critical ability, he holds an ahnost 
unique place in the Jiteratore of the period. His Whole 
Booke of Job Paraphrased, or made easy for any to under- 
etand (1640, 4to), is in striking contrast, w its concmmty 
and terseness, with the prolixity of too many of the Puritan 
expositors and oommootators. His Vwdirta iiabbathi(l^^l, 
8vo) had a profound and lasting influence m the long 
Sabbatic controversy.' His Br%e/ Notes vpon the Whole Book 
of Psalms (1651, 4to), as its date shows, was posthumous. 
He died February 2, 1648. (MS. collections at Abbey- 
ville for history of aU of the name of Abbot, by J. T 
Abbot, Esq., F.S.A., Darlington; Dugdale's Antiquities of 
Warvnekshire, 1656, p. 791; Wood's Athena (Bliss), s. v.; 
Cox's Literature of the Sabbath; Dr James Qilfillan on 
The Sal>bath: Lowndes^ Bodleian, B. Museum, CataL 
S. v.) {JL B. o.) 

AjBBOT, Robert. Noted as this Pnritan divine was in 
his own time, and representative in various ways, he has 
hitherto been confounded with others, as Robert Abbot, 
Bishop of Salisbury, and his personality distributed over 
a Robert Abbot of Cranbrook; another of Southwick^ 
Hants; a third of St Austin's, London ; while theseF succes- 
sive places were only the successive livings of the one 
Robert Abbot. He is also described as of the Archbishop's 
or GuOdford Abbots, whereas he was in no way related, 
albeit he acknowledges very gratefully, in the first of his 
epistlesKiedicatory of A Hand of Fdlomhip to Hdpe Keeps 
out Sirme and Antichrist (1623, 4to), that it was from the 
archbishop he had "received all" his "worldly mainte- 
nance," as well as '* best earthly countenance" and "fatherly 
incpuragements." The worldly maintenance was the pre- 
sentation to the vicarage of Cranbrook in Kent, of which 
the archbishop was patron. This was in 1616. He had 
received his education at Cambridge, where he proceeded 
M.A., and was afterwards incorporated at Oxford. In 
1639, in the epistle to the reader of his most noticeable 
book historically, his T^riall of our Chnrch-Forsakers^ 
he tcUs us, "I have lived now, by Cod's gratioua dis- 
pensation, above fifty years, and in the place of my 
allotment two and twenty fulL" The former date 
I carries us back to 1588-89, or perhaps 1587-88 — the 



26 



A B B — A B B 



" Annada^ycar— as his birtli-Ume; the bttcr to 1616-17 

!nt supra). In his Bee T/iankfull London and her Sisters 
162G), ho describes himself as fonncrly "assistant to a 
reverend divine . . . • now ^vith God," and the name* on 
the margin is " Master Haiward of Wool ChurcL" This 
was doubtless previous to his going to Cranbrook. Veiy 
remarkable and effective was Abbotts, ministiy at Cran- 
brook, where the father of Phineas and Giles TFletcBer was 
the firat " Reformation" pastor, and which, relatively small 
as it is, is transfigured by being the birth-place of the poet 
of the " Locustse^' and " The Purple Islaijd." His parish- 
ioners were as his o\vn " sons and daughters" to him, and 
by day and night he thought and felt, wept and prayed, for 
them and with theuL He is a noble specimen of the rural 
clergyman of his age. Puritan though he was in his deepest 
convictions, he was a thorough Churchman as toward Non- 
conformists, e.g., the Brownists, with whom he waged stern 
warfare. He remained until 16i3 at Cranbrook, and then 
chose the very inferior living of Southwick, Hants, as be- 
tween the one and the other, the Parliament deciding 
against pluralities of ecclesiastical offices. Succeeding the 
" extruded" UdaU of St Austine'Sj Abbot* continued there 
until a good old age. In 1657, in the Waming-piece, ho 
is described as still " pastor of Austine's in London." He 
disappears silently between 1657-8 and 1662. Robert 
Abbot's books are distinguished from many of the Puritans 
by their terseness and variety. (Brook's Puritans, iii 
182, 3; Walker's Sufferings; Wood's il/Aeni? (Bliss); Caia- 
logus Impressorum Librorum in Bibliothefia Bodleiana, 8.y,; 
Palmer's Nonconf, Mem., ii. 218.) (a. b. a.) 

ABBOTSFORD, the celebrated residenco of Sir Walter 
Scott, situated on the south bank of the river Tweed, about 
three miles above Melrose. The nucleus of the property 
was a small farm of 100 acres, with the "inharmonious 
designation" of Clarty Hole, acquired by Scott on thd lapse 
of his lease (1811) of the neighbouring house of Ashestiel. 
It was graduaUy increased by various acquisitions, the ki^t 
and principal being that of Toftfield (afterwards named 
Huntlyburn), purchased in 1 8 1 7. The present new house was 
then commenced, and was completed in 1824. The general 
ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular outlines — 
one side overlooking the Tweed, and. the other facing a 
courtyard ; and the general style of the building is the 
Scottbh baronial. Scott had only enjoyed his new resi- 
dence one year when (1825) he met with that reverse of 
fortune (connected with the failure of Ballantyne and 
Constable), which involved the estate in debt In 1830, 
the library* and museum were presented as a free gift by 
,the creditors; and after Scott's death, which took placo at 
Abbotsford in September 1832, a committee of friends 
subscribed a further sum of about £8000 to%vards the same 
object The property was wholly disencumbered in 1847, 
by Mr Cadell, the publisher, accepting the remaining 
claims of the family over Sir Walter Scott's ^vritings in 
requital of his obligation to obliterate the heritable bond on 
the property. The result of this transaction was, that not 
only was the estate redeemed by the fruit of Scott's brain, 
but a handsome residue fell to the publisher. Scott's only 
son \yalter (Lieutenant-Colonel 15th Hussars) did not live 
to enjoy the property, having died on his Avay from India 
in 1847. Its subsequent possessors have been Scott's 
son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, and the latter's son-in-law, 
J. R Hope Scott, Q.C., whose daughter (Scott's great- 
granddaughter) is the present proprietor. Mr Lockhart 
died at Abbotsford in 1854.— See Life of ScoU, by J. G. 
Lockhart; Abbotsford and Newstead Abbey, by Washing- 
.tcn Irving; AbhoL^ford Notcmda in Gentleman's Mag., 



» Tlie Cat;»!o-uf of tLe Library at Abbotsford forms vol. Irl. of Ihs 
Binnfttync ChO) r^bllcationa. 



AprO and ^lay 1869; Tlie Lands' *of Scott, by Jame^ F. 
Hunnewcll, cr. 8v\ 1871; ScoU Loan EsUdbition Colo 
logue, 4to, 1871. 

ABBOTSFORD CLUB, one of the principal printing 
clubs, was founded in 1834 by Mr W. B. D. D. Tumbull, and 
named in honour of Sir Walter Scott. Taking a wider 
range than its predecessors, the Bannatyno and Maitland 
jDIubs,4rclid not confine its printing (as remarked by Mr 
Lockhart) to jvorks connected with Scotland, but admitted 
all materials that threw light on the ancient history of 
literature of any country, anywhere described or discussed 
by the Author of Waverloy. The club, now diwolved, con- 
sisted of fifty members; and the publications extend to 34| 
vols, quarto, issued during the years 1835-1864. 

ABBREVIATION, a letter or group of letters, takeo]- 
from a word or wor^s, and employed to represent them for 
the sake of brevity. Abbreviations, both of single words' 
and of phrases, having a meaning more or less fixed and 
recognised, are common in ancient writings and inscrip* 
tions, and veiy many are in use at the present tima A 
distinction is to be observed between abbreviations and tho 
contractions that are frequently to be met with in old 
manuscripts, and even in early printed books, whereby 
letters are dropped out here and there, or particular collo> 
cations of letters represented by somewhat arbitrary symbok 
The commonest form of abbreviation is the substitution for 
a word of its initial letter ; but, with a view to prevent 
ambiguity, one or more of the ^other letters are frequently 
added. Letters are often doubled to indicate a plural or a 
superlative. 

I. Classical Abbreviations. — Tho following list con^ 
tains' a selection from the abbreviations that occur in the 
writings and inscriptions of the Homans:— 

•A. . 

A /Absolve, .£dilf8, JBs, Ager, Ago, Aio, Amicus, Annaa^ 
Antiquo, Anctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulas, Aunun, 
Aut A 

A. A. 2Ea olienuxn. Ante audita, Apud agnun, Auruta argeatuov 

A A ' August!. AAA. AudHsti tres. • *" 

A.A.A.F.F. Auro argcnto sere nondo foriundo.' 

A. A. V._ 'Alter ambo vo. 

A.C. ' Actacaus(i, Alloa civls. 

A.D. Ante diem; &^., A.D.V, Ante diem quin turn. 

A. D. A Ad dandos agros. 

S.D. . EAes, £dilis, iCdilitaa. 

ifiM. and AIM. iBmilius, ^mih'a. 

iER. ^rarium. iER.P. iEre publico 

A. F. ■ Actum fide, Aull fillus. 

AG. Ager, Ago, Agrippa. 

A 0. Animo grato, AuJua Gellius. 

AL JS. an(2 A L.E. Arbitrium litis (estimandis. 

A.M. and A.MILLb Ad milliarium. 

AN. . Anieneis, Annus, Ante. 

ANN.V Annalcs, Anni, Amiona. 

ANT. '' Ante, Antonius. 

A.O. Alii omnes, Amico optimo. 

A P. Appius, Apud. 

A. P. Ad pedes, iEdilitia potestate. 

A.P.F.' Auro {or arj^cnto) publico fcriundo. 

A. P.M. Amico posmt monumcntum, Annorum plus minus. 

A.P.R.C Anno post Romam conditam. 

ARG. Argentum. ' 

AR. V. Y.D. D. Aram votam volens dodicivit, Anna voti vr dono dodit] 

AT. A ter^. Also A TE. cjm« A TER. ^ 

A.T.M.D.O. Aio te mihi dare opcrterc. 

AV. Augfir, Augustus, Aurelius. 

AV. Annos vixit 

A. V. C. Ab urbe condita. 

AVG. Augur, Augustus^ _ 

AVGG.' Anguiti {generally oflxoo), AVGGG. August! tree. 
AVT,PB.K. Auctoritas proviDcio Romanorum. 
B. 

B. Balbius, Balboa, Beatua, Reno, Denefidarios, BbncTicinnC 

Bonus, Brutus, Bostom. 
B./<?rV. Berna,Bivus, Bixit' * 

n. A. Bijdt Annoe, Bonw aoguriis, Bomu? amabilis. 

- I 1 

* Describing .the function of tie -Mumnn tmrnfteV*. 



ABBREVIATION 



27 



B.I. 

B.M. 

B.N. 



OR or B.B. BfOA 1)eno, i«., optlsuv OptimTU.^ 

B.D. BoDA dMB^ BoDum datoffl. 

B.DD. Bonis dAboa. 

B.D.&H. BenedewmerontL 

B.P. BoDft fiunina, Bana tides, Bona fortasfl^ BQDnm fketnm. 

Bonsfbittina, BonafiliA. 

Bona hereditaria, Bononun heres. 

Bonttmjndidu3n.R.I.L BonijudidsJndidoiD* 

Baata xnemorue, Bene mcienti. 

Bona nostra, Bonnm noxnen. 
BX.H.L Bona hie invenics. 

B. P. Bozfti patema, Bononun potestas^ Bomtm pdhUemtti 
B. Q. Beno quiosca^ Bona quttsitL 
R RP.K. Bono reipabUc» natos. 
BRT. Britannicos. 
B.T. Bonoram tator, Brert tempore. 
B.y. Beau vale, Bene vizit» Bonus viiL 

Balnea vina Venna. 

Bizit»/brTixiL 

a 

OBemr, Onus, Gapot^ Cansa, Censor, Civis, CSohora, Cblooia* 
Comitialia (dies), Condemno, Consul, Oam^ Caro» 
Costos. 

Gaia, Centorio, Cum, ihepr^CGQ. 

Civis bonns, Commime bonum, Co^jagi benomerenfi, Ool 
• bona 

Calnmniae cansa, Cansa cognita, CoajQgi caziislmi^ Coo* 
siUnm oepit» Cnris consnlto. 

Calomnis cavendss cana^ 

Cnsar (or Caxus) coravit fadendum, Cains Gail filia. 

Clariflsimi viri. 

Cnsatis decrsto, Cains Decins, Comitudibos dlobni. 

Censor, Oensores. CESS. Censored 

Cansa fidnida, Coi^'ngi fedt, Coravit fadendosu 

Costos heredom, Custos hortonun. 

Caius Julins, Consnl jnssit, Coiavit Jodeac 

darissimos, Claudius, dodius, Colobia. 

Claiissimiis Tir, Clypeom Torit 

Caius Marius, Causa mortis. 

Cnans. 

Coheres, Cohors. 

Colleges Collegium, Colonia, C^himni. 

CoUcga, Cdoni, Colonia. 

Comes, Comitium, Comparatum. 

CoDJux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Consul, Gonsulaiis. 

Cornelia (tribus), Cornelius, Corona. Corpus. 

ConsHiarins, Consul, Consulares. COSS. Consules. 

Oadssimua or CUiissimus puor, dvis publicni^ Cmavit 



av.y, 

BJL 

a 



cca 
cap. 
caw. 
aa 

CES. 
CF. 

an. 

CI. 

CL. 

CL.V. 

CM. 

CN. 

COH. 

COL. 

COLU 

COM. 

COK. 

COR. 

COS. 

C.P. 



OS. 

av. 

CVB. 



D.a 

D.D.D. 

D.EwB. 

D£& 

D.I. 

D.LM. 

D.M. 

D.O.M. 

aP.Sb 



E. 

Ea 

E. M. 

EQ.Bt 
KB. A. 

P. 



F.a 
p.a 

F.P.P. 

FL. 
F.I* 
PR- 
F.& 



Cains Rufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit lefidendnm. 
Casar,' Communis, ConsuL 
dsfittimus or oonsolaris vir. 
Cora, Curator, Curarit^ Curia. 

D. 
Dat^ Bedit, Ac, De, Docimus, Dadus, Becretum, Beeurio, 

Dens, Didt^ f^^, Diei^^Dinu^ Domlnus, Domus, 

DonusL 
Becorio oolonisa, Dicbus comitialibus. Dims Cflssar. 
Dea Dia, Docurionum docretOb Dedicavit^ Deodedi^ Dono 

dedit. 
Datum decreto decurlonum, Dono dedit dedicavit 
Deeare. 

DedS impeiator, Dili immortaHbus, Diis Ipferis. 

Doo invicto Mithrae, Diis infeiis Manibus. 

Deo Magno, Dignus memoria, Diis Manibus, Dolomalo. 

Deo OpUmo Aloximo. 

Dedit proprio sumptu, Deo perpetuo sacriTn, De pecnnia 



aes, Crexit, Ergo, Est, Et, Etiam, Ex. 

^„, — J[it, E^^regins. 

,^^e^ memorifs, £|jusmodi, Erexit monumentnm. 

Equitum m ag is tar. 

Earesagitnc 

Fabius, Facere, Fedt, ftc, TVunilia, Fastus Mies), Felix, 
Femina, Ild^ Filius, Flamen, Fortuna, Frater, Fuit^ 
FunctnsL 

Fadoidnm curavit^ FIdd oommissum, Fidnda causa. 

Fidem dedit, Flamen Dialis, Frande donarit. 

Fenro flamma fiune^ Fortior fortuna fata 

Filiu% Flamen, Fliiminius^ Flivius. 

Favoto Unguis, Fedt libcns, Fdix liber. 

Foram, Fronte, IVumentarins, 

jQQHun Romanuffl. 



G. 



0. 



Gaius (aCaius), Gallii^ Qodiusi, GcUius^ Gomlna, Gcoj^ 

Oeata, Gratia. 
Gemina fiddis {supplied to a UgM^ S^OJP^F. Gemlnt. 

piafidalis; 
GlorfiT 

Gonius, Gm, GcnoL Gnn» (ssCnnoi^ 
Genio popnU RomanL 

H. 
Habet^ Ileros, Ili(^ Homo^ Honor, Hora. 
Heres, Herennius. IlER. amd HERC HoculoL 
H&c lege, Hoc loco, Honesto loca 
Hoc monumentnm, Honesta mnlier, Hoca mala. 
Hie sepultus est, Hie situs est 
Hoc urbs, Hie rivit, Honeste Tiad^ Honostus vii; 

L 
Immortalis, Imperator, In, Infiai Inter, InvlctQl^ Ips^ 

Ids, Judes^ Julius^ Jiuin^i Jupitei; JuEtoa. 
Jam, IntnL 

Julius Ottsar, Juris ComBultmo* Jos dTfl& 
Idem. Idus^ Interdum* 

Infens diis^ Jovi dflriiratwin. J<T«4l!cgm1nT4 Jona Del 
Jovi deo magna 

In foro^^ In iwnte. ^^ , 

Jaoot fai(^ In honestatcm, Jntftoi luma 
Imago, Immortalis, Jmifmnii^ Impeosk 
Imj^tor, Imperium. 
JoTi Optimo maximo. 

In publico^ Intra provindaa^ Jnsta pertonik 
LS.y>P. Imponsa sna vinu posuib 

S. 

E. Edbso^ Caisy Calumnia, Gapo^ Caro% CBStzai 
K.»KAIi.,(MiKL EalendA 

U 
Lb Loeliu% L^o^ Lsx^ libea^ Xibor* libn^ Loeo^ toiOlidl 

Lndus, Ixidus. 
LB Idbans, liberi, Libeztna. 
L.D.D.I>. Locus datus dscrsto dacoiiommL 
LEG. LMpatu8» Legia 

liber, Libenlita^, Ubertu, Libarto^ Iflimrinti 

hmh Llbentisdme^ Llbertl 

Libans merito« Locus monumenti 

Laribus aacrus^ Libens soUil* Loons iacei; 

Lisdus. 



ap. 

GU 
GN. 
G.P.R. 

H. 

HER. 
H.L, 
H.M. 

H.a& 

H.V. 



liU 

La 

ID. 

LD. 

LD.li 

LP. 

LH. 

IM. 

IMP.. 

LO.M. 

LP. 



j-ia 

LL. 
nXfcM* 

'yt*a 

LVD. 



Ly.P.P. Lodos poUioai fedt 



MJagister, Magisttatus, Magnn^, MaasiL Maicns, Marias^ 
Mazti, Mater, Momoria^ Mensf^ W\/»» Mmrnmfflitnny 

MortUQ^ MndW% Mnlmy. 

Maniufl. 

Magno Deov Maaflms diis, Matri daooiy VusmXi dedit 

Mends. MESS. Menses. 

Mala fides, Mard filius. Moumumtum ftdt 

Matri Idaeos, Matrilddl. Maximo Jovi. 



M. 



M*. 

MD. 

M£a 

MP. 

M.L 

MNT. cmd MOK. Mbneta. 

M.P. Male poaltus, MonumsDfam posuit 

M.S. Manibus saerum, Memorin sacrum, Manu^criptum. 

MVIL Municeps, or munidpiom; m also ^.^ M7,« <Mii 

MVNia 
MV.S. Marti niton sacrumt Merito votom solvit 



N. 



Natia Katus. Kefaatus (die4> Nepoa, Keptunus, Kero^ 
Komen, Non, l«onffi, Noster, Novns. aumen, Numo- 

«^ ritts, Numcrus^ Nummns. 

KepoB, Noptunus. 

NoBtne fidei oommissum. 

Non licet, Non liquet, Kon loQga, 

Nobilia mcmorin vir. 

Kostri. KN., NNC, and NNR. Kostrorum. 

Nobilis. NOa, NOBR., and NOV. Novombris. 

Nifastus prinio (ie., priore parte did), Non potest 
O. 

Ob, OfBdum, Omnia, Oportot, Optimum Opu% Ossa» 

Obiit, Obiter, Orbia. 

Ob dves aervatos. 

Omnibus honoribus functn& 
0. H.aS. Ossa bic dta sunt 
OR. Hora, Oido, Omamentum. 
O.T.B.Q. Oasa tua bene qmesca^t 

P. 

IlBis, Passus, Pater, Patronus, Pax, Perpetuus, Pes» Piuv 
Plehs, Ponda Populus, Poet, Posuit, Pneses, Pnetor» 
Primus, Pro, Phmnda, Publicns, Publius, Puer. 

Factum conventumj Patres conscripti, Pecunia constituta, 
Ponendum-cuiavif> Postconsulatum, Potestateoeiuoritt. 



2TEP. 

N.F.a 

N.L. 
N.M.V, 

NN. 

Noa 

N.P. 

0. 
OR 

o.aa 
o.ap. 



p. 



p.a 



•28 



ABBREVIATION 



RF. FSa fidvlis, Pins foUz, PromisM fides, PnUn filiu 

■P.M. Pi« memoruB, Plua mioust Pontifex mazimui. 

-F.P. PiRter pfttntos, Pater patrie, Peconift pnbUoi, PraposUUi 

PnmipUoi, Propnetor. 
VBL PFBMes. Prstor, Pridie, Prmcepa. 
P.R. Permiflsa ^eipubUea^ Popalua RomaniiiL 
P.R.G. Pott Roxnam conditam. 
PR.PIL Pnefectos pnetorii, Propnetor. 

P. 8. Peconia sua, Plebiacitam, Proprio nnnpto, Pablica talstL 
P^ V. Pia Tictxiz, Pnefectos orbi, Prttstantissinms vir. 

Q. 
Q. QiuBstor, Qimndo, Quantus^ Que, Qui, Quinqnoimalis, 

Quintal, Quirite^ 
Q.D.R. Qnadera. 

Q.I.8.& Qxm infra scripta stmt ; to Q. S. 3. 8. Qose supra, ^ 
<^ Qoacnnqtie^ Qmnquezmalis, Qaoqns. 
Q,R, QoiBstor reipaUicBi 

. R 

B. Becte, Res, RespaUiea, Retro, Rsx, Rips, Roma, Rozoanus, 

Rufos, Rnisos. 
R.(S. Romana civitas, Romaniu drib, 
RESP. aiu<.RP. RespubHca. 
RET. P* ami RP. Retro pedes. 

a 

& Sacniin, Scnptoi, Semis, Senatns, Sepnltss, Serdns, 

SermSk Sextos, Bibi, Sine, Situs, Solos, Solvit, Sob, 

Soos. 
8ACL Saoerdos, Sacrificioxn, Sacnun. 
8.C , Senatos ccmsultum. 
8.DL • Sacnim diis, 8alutem dicit, Senatos decreto, Sont^ntmtn 

dedit 
S.D.M. Sacnun diis Maniboa, Sine dolo malo. 
8ER. Serdns, Serros. 
8.E.T.L. Sit ei teira Icyis. 
8K. Senatos, Sententia, Sine. 
8. P. ' 8acerdos perpetua, Sine pecunia, Sua pecunia. 
8.P.Q.R. Senatos popmosque Romanus. 
SS. Sanctissimus senatos, Supra scriptum. 
SV.B.E.E.Q.V. 8i Tales bene est, ego quidcmralco. 

T. " 

T. Terminos, Testamentom, Titos, Tribonoa, To, Trjma, 

Tutor. 
TB , TI., and TIB' Tiberius. 
TJ ,.T^,andTRB. Tribunos. 
T.F. Testamentum fedt, Tit! filius, Titolom fedt, Titos 

Flavius. 
TU. ' Terminus, Testamentum, Therms. 
T.P. Terminum -posuit, Tribonicia potestate, Tribonua plobis 
rrVU TuUius. Tullus. ^ 

V. 
y. Urbs, Usus, Uxor. Vale, Verba, Vestalis, Vester. Vir, 

Vivus, Vixit, Volo, VotuoL 
V A. Vetisrano assiffnatus. Vixit annoa. 
V. (X 'Vale conjux, vir clarissimus. Vir consularis. 
V.E, Vorum etiam. Vir egregios. Visum est. 
V.F. Usus fructus. Verba fecit, Vivufi IcciL 
V.P. Urbis pnefectos, Vir perfcctiasimus, Vivus posuit 
V.R Urbs Roma, Uti rogaa, Votum reddidit. 

^ II Medi-eval Abbreviatioxs.— Of the different kinds 
of abbreviations in Use in the middle ages, the following 
are examples* — 

A.M. Ave Maria. 

,B.P. Beatos Paolos, B^atus Petrus. 

CC. Carissimus {also plur Canasimi), Clarissimus, Circum. 

D. Deua, Doroinicus, Dux. 

D.N. PP. Dominus nost<^r Pnpa. 

FF. Felicisaimus, Fratrcs. Pandects (pro*. /<7r ^r. n). 

I.e. or I.X. Jesus Christus. 

i.D.N. In Dei nomine. 

KK. Kanssimus {or .mi). 

MXL Magistri, Martrres, Matrimonium, Meritissimu& 

O.S.B. Ordinis Sancti 'Benedicts 

PP. Papa, Patres. Piiasimus. 

R.F. Rex Francomm. 

R.P.D. Reverendissimus Pater Dominna 

8.aM. Sacra Cfesarea Majeatss. 

SM.E. Sancta Mater Eccfesia. 

8.M.M. Sancta Mater Maria. 

S.R.1. Sanctum Romanum Imperiom. 

8.V. Sanctitas Vestra, Sancta Vii^ 

V. Venerabilis, Vencrandus. 

V.R.F. Vestra Reverendissima Patenkitas. 

ILL Abbbeviations now in use. — ^The import of these 
vill often yu\ readily underatood from the connection in 



wbich fhey oemr. There is n& occadoD to explain here * 
the common abbreviations need for Christian names, books 
of Scripture, months of the jrear, points of the compass, 
grammaticai and mathematical tenns, or familiar titles^ 
like "1^," Ac., 

The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may 
be conveniently classified under the following headings :— - 

1. Abbreviated Titles and Design ations. 
A. A. As80ciat« of Arte. 
A.B. Able*bodied seaman. 
A. M. {Artium MagtsUr), Master of Arts. 
A. R. A. Associate of the Royal Academy. 

A. R.S A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy. 
B.A. Bachelor of Aita. 

B. C. L. Bachelor of Civil Law. 
B. D. Bachelor of Divinity. 

B. LL Bachelor of Lawa 
B.Sc Bachelor of Science. 

C. Chairman. 

C.A. Chartered Accountant 

C B. Companion of the Bath. 

CE Civil Ei^neer. 

C.^L IChirurguB Magister), Master in SoT^ry 

C.M.Q. Companion of St Michael and St Gcorga 

C S. 1. Companion of the Star of India. 

D. a L Doctor of Civfl Law. 
D. D. Doctor of Divinity. 
D. Lit. Doctor of Literaturei 

D. M. Doctor of Medicine [Oxfoxd] 

D. Sd Doctor of Science. 

Ebor. (Eboraemsis), of York. » 

F.C.S. Fellow of the Chemical Society. - 

F.D. {Fidei De/entor), Defender of the Faitli. 

F. F. P.S. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians &, Surgeons [Glasgow. ]» 

F.G.S. FeUov of the Geological Society. 

F.K.Q.C.P.L Fellow of King and Queens College of PhysiciattS 

in Ireland. 
FlbS. FcDbw of the Linniwiii Society. 
F.M. Field Marshal 
F. P. & Fellow of the Philological Society. 
F.R A.S. Fellow cf the Royal Astronomical Society. 
F. K.aP. Fellow of the Royal College of Physiciana 
F.R.C.P.E. FeUow of the Royal College of Physicians of Eklin* 

. burgh. *^ 

F.R.CS. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
F.R.G.S. FeUow of the Royal Geographical Society. 
F. R S. Fellow of the Ro>-al Society. 
F. R.S. E. Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
K R.S. L Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. 
F.S. A. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 
F.S.S. Fellow of the Statistical Society. 
F. Z. S. Fellow of the Zoological Societr. 
-G. C. B. Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. 
G.C. H. Knight Grand Cross of Hanover. 
G.C.M.G. Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George^ 
G.C.S.I. Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India. 
H.R.H. His (or Her) Royal Highness. 
J. P. . Justice of the Peace. 

J. U. D. {Juru %ariuaqu€ Doctor), Doctor of Civil and Canon Law 
K.C.S.I. Knight Commander of the Star of India. 
K.C.B. Knight Commander of the Bath. 
K-G. Knight of the Gart<?r. 
K. P. Knight of StTatrick. 
K. T. Knight of the Thistle. 
L A. EL Licentiate of the Apothecaries* Hall 
L. C. J. Lord Chief Justice. 
LL. B. {Legum £aecalaureus\ Bachelor of Laws. 
LL.D. {Legum Doctor), Doctor of Laws. 
LL.M. (/^^um..i/a^i5f£r), Master of La ^^s. 
L.R.C.P. Licentiate of the Royal Collcjxc of Physician* 
L. R.C.S. Licentiate of the Royal CoUcKe of Surgeons* 
LS.A. . Licentiate of the Apothecaries Society. 
M.A. Master of Arts. 

M. B. {Medicinet Baccalaareus), Bachelor of Medidna 
M.C Member of Congress. 
M. D. {Medidnat Doctor)^ Doctor of ^Iedicin& 
^L P. Member of Pari lament. 
>LR.C.P. Member of the Royal College of Physicians. 
M.R.I.A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. 
Mus. B. Bachelor of Music. 

^ An srchbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitute* fm 
his surname the name of his see ; thus the prelates of Canterbury, York. 
Oxford, London, &c., substribe thenisolves A. C Cantuar., W. Lbor., 
J. F. Oxon., J. London, i"* 



ABBRKVIATION 



2» 



Mas. D. Doctor of llnsic. 
N.P/ Notary PubUc. 
P.C. Privy CounciUor. 

Ph. D. {Fkilo$ophUt Doctor), Doctor of PluloMphj. 
P.P. Parish Priest. 
P. R. A. President of the Royal i^eademy. 
Q.C. Queen's Counsel 
K. {JUx, Bt9i^),^ King, Queen. 

K.A. Koyal Academician. Uoyal ArtUlsry. 
K. A U. Royal Academy of Music. 
R.E. Royal Engineers. 
Reg. Prof. Regius Professor 
R.M. Royal Marines. 
RN. Royal Kary. 

S. or St Saint ^ ^ , • ^ . ., 

S. S. C, Solicitor before the Supreme Courts [of ScotJand]. 
i^aeromneta TkeoiogUE Pro/mor), Professor of 



S.T.P. 



Saowd 



V.C. 
V.G. 
V.S. 
W.S. 



Theolo^T. 
anoello 



Victoruf Cross. 



Vice-ChanoeTlor. 

Vicar>Cenend. 

Veterinaiy Surgeon. 

Writer to the S^et [in Scotland]. EquivaUnito Attomqf. 

2. abbjffiviations denoting monies, weights, and 
Measures :— * 

L,« £,^ or /. {libra), poond 
(money). 



ac aat. 

bar. burel. 

bus. busbeL 

c , cent 

c. {<fr cub.) ft Ice. cubic foot, 

&C. 

r*rt. hundredweight 

<L {(Unariiu), penny. 

dcg. degree. 

dr. drachm or dnun. 

dwt pennyweight 

f. ininc. 

fl. florin. 

ft foot. 

fur. furlong. 

gaL gaUoD. 

ffr. grain. 

h. or hr. hour. 

hhd. hogshead. 

in. incn. 

kila kilometre. 



lb. or lb. {libra), pound (weight). 

m. or mL mile ; minute. 

Ttl. minim. 

ma month. 

na. naiL 

oz. ounce. 

pk. peck. 

po. pole. 

pt. pint 

q. {quadraru)^ fitfthlngi 

qr. quarter. 

qt quart 

ro. rood. 

Rs.* rupees. 

s. or / {soliduM), shiUing. 

s. or sec second. 

sc. or scr. scruple. 

sq. ft &c. square foot, he. 

st stone. 

yd. yard. 



3. Miscellaneous Abbreyiatioks. 

A. Accepted. * 

A.C. {AnU Christum), Before Christ « 

ace., a/c, or acct Account 

A.D. {Anno DominC), In the year of our Lord. 

A.E.I.O.U. Austric est imperare orbi universo,* or Alios Cidreich 

1st Oesterreich Untarthan. 
JEL or iEtat (u4B<Uis*(a«»o]), In the year of his sec. 
A.H. iAnnoMeffirtg), in the year of the Hcgira (the Mohammoilan 

era). 
A. M. {Anno Afundi), In the year of the world. 
A.M. {AnU meridiem), Fcnnoou. 
Anon. Anonymous. 
A.U.(1 (Anno urlns condUa), In the year from the budding of the 

city (t.e., Rome.) 
B.C. Rcfore Christ 
C. or Cap. {Caput), Qiaptcr. 

C. Centigrade {or Celsius's) Thermometer, 
cent* (C5eitf«wi), A hundred, /rcTwn^/y £100. 
Cf. {Confer)^ Compare. 

Oh. or Chap. Chapter. 

Co. Compfliy. County. 

Cr. Creditor. 

curt Current, the present month. 

D.G. {Dei gratia). By the grace of God. 

Do. Ditto, the same. 

D.O.M. {Deo Optimo Maximo), To God the Best and Greatast 

Dr. Debtor. 

D. V. {Deo uflenle), God wi lling. ^ ^^ 

^ Characters, not property abbreviations, are used in the same way ; 
#^., • '• for ** degrees, minutes, •econds," (circular measure) ; J, 3. 3 
for "ounces, drachms, scruples.- 5 »• probably to be traced to the 
writunformofthesia -OS." ,.,,,, . j„ , 

* These forms (as well as $, the symbol for the Amenea&^oUai^ are 
plttced before their amounts., 

* ft it given to Aastria to rule the }okoU earth. The device of 
Anstria, first adopted by Frederick III. 

< ■* Per cent" is ofleo signified by */•• & form traceable to ** 100. 



o.g. {Exempli gratia). For example. 

etc or &C. {£t caUra), And the rest ; and so forth. 

Ex. Example. 

F. or Fahr. Fahrenheit's Thermometer. 

Fea {FecU), He made (or did) it 

fl. Flourished. 

Fo. or FoL Folio. 

f.o.K Free on board. 

G.P.O. General Post Office. 

H.M.S. Her Majesty's Sliin. 

lb. or Ibid. {Undtm), In the same place. 

Id. {Jdem), The same. 

i.e. Urf«<).Thatis. . . « 

l.H.S. {Jesut Uominum Salvator), Jesus the Saviour of men. 

Inf. {Infra), Below. 

inst Instant, the present month. 

1.0. U.I owe you. 

i.q. {Idem, quod). The same as. 

s.r.x. (««:«« xaivii), A coBesni, and the rest 

L or Ub. {Liber), Book. 

Lat Latitude. 

I.e. {loco eitaio). In the place cited. 

Lon. or Long. Longitude. 

US, {Locus eigHlvi, The place of the seal. 

Mem. {Memento), Remember, Memorandum. 

MS. Manuscript MSS. Manuscripts. 

N.B. {Nota bene), Mark well ; tike notice. 

N.B. North Britain (t.e., Scotland). 

N.D. No date. 

nem. con. {Nemine eontradicente). No one contradictinit. 

No. {Numero), Number. 

N.S. New Style. 

N.T. New Testament 

ob. {OHU), Died. 

Obs. Obsolete. 

O.H.M.S. On Her Majesty's Sorrioe. 

O.S. Old Style. 

O.T. Old Testament 

P. Page. Pp. Pagei. 

^. {Per), For; e.g., i^ lb.. For one pound. 

Pinx. {Pinxit), He iiaintcd it 

P.M. {Post meridian), Adomoon. 

P.O. PostORlcc P. 0.0. Post Office Oider^ 

P. P.C. {Pour prendre eongi). To take leave 

P. R. l*rize-ring. 

?roz. {Proximo [mcttse]), Next month. 
^S. Postscript 
Pt Part 

p.t or pro. tom. {Pro tempore). For the time. 
P. T.O. Please turn over. 
Q., Qu., or Qy. Query ; Question. 

Q.d. (Quart dioat). As if he should say ; as much as to say. 
Q. E.D. {(^uod erat demonstrandum), whidi was to bo dcmonstratOiK. 
Q.E.F. {Quod erat faciendum), which was to be done, 
q.s. or quant suflT. {Quantum suffieit). As much as is siiflicicnt 
g.v. {Quod vide), y/hkh Me. 
K. or Bm {Pueipe), Take. 
•• (= r. for radiaSl, the sign of the square root 
R. I. P. {BeqvAeseat in pace / ), May he rest in pfoce ! 
sc. {Seilieet), Namely : that is to say. 
Sc. or Sculp. {Seulpsit), He engraved it 
S.D.U.K. Society for tho Difl'usion of Useful Knowledge, 
seq. or sq., seqq. or %t\c{, {Sequcns, sequentia), The following. 
s. p. {Sine prole). Without offspring. 
S. P.G. Society for the Propogaiion of the Gospel. 
Sup. {Supra), Above. 

S.V. {Sub voce). Under the word (or beading). 
T.C.D. Trinity College, Dublin, 
ult (£///tmo[mcn«el). Last month. 
U.S. Unitetl States. 
V. {Versus), Against 
V. or vid. {Vide), See. 
viz. ( Videlicet), Namely. 
V. R. {Victoria Regiiia), Victoria tho Queen. 
Xmas. Christmas [ iVtis .X is a Greek letter, corresponding to Ch^ 

(Sco Gncvius*s Thesaurus Antiquitatvm, I GO 4, sqq., 
Nicolai's Tractatu^ dc Sif/lis Veterum ; Mominscn'* Corpus, 
hiscriptionum Laiinantm, ISGS, sqq., Natilis dc Wnilly's 
Palcof/raphie, Paris, 183S; Alph. Chassant's Palety/raphte, 
1854, and Dictvmnaite des AOnhnattons, 3d ed., 1800. A 
manual of the abbreviations in current use is a desidcraiuni. ) 

ABBREVIATOIiS, a body of writers lo the Pipal 
Chancery, whose* busuiedS ia to Jikctcb out and prc^mrc in 
dae form the Pope's, bulk briefs and consistorial decrees. 



30 



A B D — A B D 



They arc first tncutioncd in a bull of Benedict XIL, early 
in the 14th century. Their number is fixed at seventy- 
two, of whom twelve, distinguished as deparco majori, hold 
prelatic rank; twenty-two, deparco minori^ are clergymen of 
lower rank ; and the remainder, txamirusiores^ may be laymen. 

ABDALLATIF, or Abd-ul-Latif, a celebrated physician 
and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of 
the East, was bom at Baghdad in 1162. An interesting 
memoir of AbdalJatif, written by himseff, has been pre- 
served with additflons by Ibn-Abu-Osaiba, a contemporary. 
From that work wo learn that the higher education of the 
youth of Baghdad consisted principally in a minute and 
careful study of the rules and principles of grammar, and 
in their committing to memoiy the whole of the Koran, a 
treatise or two on philology and jurisprudence, and the 
choicest Arabian poetry. After attaining to groat pro- 
ficiency in that kind of learning, Abdallatif applied him- 
s(Slf to natural philosophy and modicina To* enjoy the 
society of the learned, ho went first to Mosul (118D), and 
afterwards to Damascus, the great resort of the eminent 
men of^that age. The chemical fooleries that engrossed 
the attention of some of those had no attraction for him, 
but he entered with eagerness into speculative discussions. 
With letters of reconmiendation from Saladin's vizier, he 
visitpd Egypt, where the wish he had long cherished to 
converse with Maimonides, "the Eagle of the Doctors," 
was gratified. He afterwards forined one of the circle of 
learned men whom Saladin gathered around him at Jeru- 
salem, and shared in the great sultan's favoura He taught 
medicine and philosophy at Cairo and at Damascus for a 
number of ytars, and afterwards, for a shorter period, at 
Aleppo. His love of travel led him in his old ago to visit 
different parts of Armenia and Asia Minor, and ho was 
netting out on a pilgrimage to Mecca when he died at 
Baghdad in 1231. Abdallatif was undoubtedly a man of 
great knowledge and of an inquisitive and penetrating 
mind, but is said to have been somewhat vain^f his attain- 
ments* Of the numerous works — most of them on medi- 
cine — ^which Osaiba ascribes to him, one only, the Account 
o/ Egypt, appears to be known in Europe. The manuscript 
of thh work, which was discovered by Pococko the Orien- 
talist, is preserved in the Bodleian Library. It was trans- 
lated into Latin by Professor White of Oxford in 1800, and 
into French, with very valuable notes, by De Sacy in 1810. 
It consiBts of two parts : the first gives a general view of 
Egypt ; the second treats of the Nile, and contains a vivid 
description of a famine caused, during the author's residence 
in Egypt, by the river faih'ng to overflow its banks. The 
work gives an authentic detailed account of the state of 
Egypt during the middle ages. 

ABD-EL-KADER, celebrated for his bmve resistance to 
the advance of the French va Algeria, was bom near 
Mascara, in the early part of the year 1807. His fati^er 
was a man of great influence among his countrymen from 
his high rank and learning, and Abd-el-Kader himself at 
an early age acquired a wido reputation for wisdom and 
piety, as well as for skill in horsemanship and other manly 
exercises. In 1831 he was chosen Emir of Mascara, and 
leader of the combined tribes in their attempt to check the 
growing power of tho French in Africa. His cflbrts were 
at first successful, and i : L831 he concluded a treaty with 
the French general, which was very favourable to his cause. 
This trc;ity was broken in the succeeding year; but as the 
war that followed was mainly in favour of the Arabs, peace 
was renewed^ in 1837. War again broke out in 1839, 
and for more than a year was carried on in a very 
desultory manner. In 1841, however, Marshal Bugcaud 
assumed tho chief command of the French force, which 
numbered nearly 100,000 men. Tho war was now 
carried on -with great vigour, and Abd-clKader, after 'a 



most determined reaistanco, surrendered himself to the 
Due d'Aumale, on the 22d December 1847. The promise, 
that he would be allowed to retire to Alexandria or St 
Joan d'Acre, upon the faith of wliidi Abd-cl-Kader had 
given himself up, was broken by tho French government 
Ho was taken to France, and was imprisoned first in the 
castle of Pau, and aftcr\vards in that of Amboisc. In 1853 
Loiiis Napoleon gave bim his liberty On condition of his not 
returning to Algeria. Since then he resided successively at 
Broussa, Constantinople, and Damascua Ho is reported 
to have died at Mecca in October 1873. Seo Algeria. 

ABDERA (1.), in AncieM Geography, a maritime town of 
Thrace, eastwaid from tho mouth of the river Nestua. 
Mythology assigns tho founding of the town to Hercules ; 
but Herodotus states that it was first colonised by Timcsias 
of Clazomen^B, whom tho Thracians in a short time expelled. 
Rather more than a century later (a a 541), tho people of 
Soos recolonised Abdera. The town soon became one of 
considerable importance, and in aa 408, when it was re- 
duced by Throsybulus the Athenian, it is described as in a 
veiy flourishing condition. Its prosperity was greatly im- 
paired by its disastrous war with the Triballi {circa D.a 
376), and very little is hoard of it thereafter. Tho 
AbderitJB, or Abderitani, were proverbial for their vttitii of 
wit and judgment; yet their city gave birth to several 
eminent persons, as Protagoras, Democritus, and Anaxarchus 
the philosopheis, Hecatreus the historian, Nicsenctus tho 
poet, and others. 

ABDERA (2.); a town in Hispania Bastica, founded by 
tho Carthaginians, on the south coast, between Malaca and 
ProTTL Ckaridcmi, It is probably represented by tho 
modem Adra. 

ABDICATION, tho act whereby a person in office 
renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of tho 
time for which it is held. The word is seldom used except 
in the sense of surrendering tho supreme power in a state. 
Despotic sovereigns are at liberty to divest themselves of 
their powers at any time, but it is otherwise with a limited 
monarchy. The throne of Great Britain cannot be lawfully 
abdicated tmles^\Ndth ^e consent of the two Houses of Par- 
liament When James IL, after throwing the Great Seal 
into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not formally 
resign the crown, and the question was discussed in Parlia* 
ment whether he had forfeited the thrpno or had abdicated. 
The latter designation was agreed on, for in a full assembly 
of the Lords and Commons, met in convention, it was re- 
solved, in spite of Janles's protest, '*that King James' IL 
having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the b'ng- 
dom, by breaking the original contract between king and 
people, and, by tho advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, 
having violated the fundamental laws, and having with- 
drawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated tho 
government, and that thp throne is thereby \sicant'* Tho 
Scotch Parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and 
deposition. Among the most memorable abdications of 
antiquity may be mentioned that of Sulla the dictator, na 
79, and that of the Emperor Diocletian, a.D. 305. The follow- 
ing is a list of the more important abdications of later times :— 

Benedict IX., Pope 

Stephen II. of Hungry, 

Albert (tho Bear) of Brandenburg, 

Li^dislaus III., Duko of Poland, 

John Balllol of Scotland, • 

John Cantacuzcne, Empcior of llio East» 

John XXIII., Pope, .... 

Eric VII. of Denmark and XI I L of Sweden, 

Amoratli 1 1., Ottoman Emperor, • • 

Charles v.. Emperor,. • « 

Chrlatfna of Sweden, . , . . 

John Ca^imir of Poland, 

James II. of England, 



A.D. 

1043 

nsi 
iico 

1207 
1290 
1355 
1415 
.' 1439 
1444 and 1445 
1550 
1654 
1663 
1688 



Frederick Augustus of Poland, . • • « • 1706 



AB D— A B E 



SI 



Philip V. of Sputa, 1794 

yictorAxDadeosIL e^SanlixiK 17S0 

Achmet UL, Ottoman Emperor, 17S0 

GharU^ of Naples (on aooa«ka to duOD^ of Sp«in}« 1700 

Stanulaiii IL of Poland^ ..•••• 1705 

f^apV^ gm^TwiAl TV ftf flaw^inia, . « JlQne 4» 1803 

Chads nC of Spaiiit 11^ tO, 1808 

Jofloph BoDMMits of Kaplfl^ .... Jime 6, 1808 < 

OuatavtialV. ofSwedau. .... Mar. 2d, 1809 

Louis Bonaparte of HoUiusi^ • • • . JTil]r ^ ^^^^ 
Kapolaon ofPraiicflL • « April- 1» im» and Jane 2S^ 1816 

Yiotor Bfflaonel of 8aniliii% «... HaE. 18» 1831 

Gharln X. of rnnoe^ Aub. 2^ 1830 

PedioofBEasfl,^^ April 7, 1881 

Don Kiffoel of Portm d» «... luy 26, 1884 

William L of Holland^ « 4 « • Oct 7, 1840 

Looia Philippe^ Fiano^ • • « < TeK 24» 1848 

Lonia Chacbe of BaTttkb . < • . Mar. 21, 1848 

Fotlinaad of Auftrla, • • « » « Deo# 3, 1848 

Qiarlea Albeit of Baidiatt^ « » . « Mar. 28, 1840 

Leopold IL of Toacaay, • « « • July 21,1860 

laaballaU. of Spain, • • « . « Jnne 26, 1870 

AmadeoB L of ^ain, FeK 11, 1878 

ABDOMEN, In Anatom^f^ lower part of the tnmk of 
tlie body, aitnatedbehreea the thorax azid the pelT^ See 
Anatomt. 

ABDOION ALES, or Abdominal Fxshsb, & sab^liTiBion 
of the MaLioopteiygioos Order, vhoee ventral fins are placed 
behind the pectorals, under the abdomen* The typical 
abdomuude are carp, flalmon, hening, silaree) and pikOi 

ABDUCTION, a law tefm denoting the forcible or 
fraadnlant removal of a person, limited by custom to the 
case where a woman is the victim. In the case of men or 
cbildrai, it has been usual to sabstititte the tenn Km- 
A'AFPmo {q.v.) The old severe laws against abdootiony 
generally oontemphiting its object as the possession of an 
heiress and her fortune, have been repealed by 24 and 20 
Vict c 100, a 63, which makes it felony for any one from 
motives of Incre to^take away or detain against her wiU, 
with intent to marry or carnally know her, £c, any woman, 
of any age who has any interest in any real or personal 
estate, or is an 'heiress presoiaptive, or co-hexress, or pre* 
snmptive next 6f kin to any one having each an interest ; 
or for any one to cause soch a woman to be married or 
carnally Imown by any other person ; of for any one with 
such intent tt allnre, take away, or detain any soioh woman 
under the ageof twezity-one, out of the possession and against 
the will of hei parents or gnardiana By a 5 4, forcible taking 
away or detention against her will of any woman of anv age 
with like intent is felony. Even without such intent^ abduo- 
tion of any unmanied girl under the age of sixteen is a 
misdemeanour. In Scotland, where there is no statutory 
a4justment) abduction is similarly dealt with by practice. 

ABDUL MEDJID, Sultan of Turkey, the thirty-first 
sovereign of the house of Othman, was bom April 23, 
1823, and succeeded his father Mahmoud IL on the 2d 
of July 1839. Mahmoud appears t6 have been unable 
to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating 
his children, so that his son received no better education 
than that given, acoording to use and woflt^ to TWidsl 
princes in the hsrem. When Abdul He^id succeeded t« 
the throne, the ^sirs of Turkey were in an extronely 
critic state. At the very time his lather died, the liews 
was on its way to Constantinople that the Torkish army 
had been signally defeated at Nisib by that of the rebel 
{Egyptian vicerpy, Mehemet All; and the Tnxtiah fleet was 
at the same time on its way to Egypt, to be surrendered 
perfidiously b^ its commander to the same enemy. . Bat 
through the mtervention of the great European powers, 
Mehemet Ali was obliged to come to terms, and the Otto- 
man empire waa wa ved. In compliance with his father's 

> Pedro bad ancor-ed.Td to the tbrono of Portugal in 1826, but abdl* 
1 It at ODoe tn f arour of his dangtttar. 



express instructions Abdul Madrid set at once about carry- 
ing out the extensive reforms to which Mahmoud hod so 
energetically devo^ himsell In November 1830 was 
proolaimed an edict, known as the Hatti-eheiif of GuUuui^ 
consolidating and enforcing these reforms, which was 
ihipplamentedf i^ the dose of the Crimean war, by a 
similar statute, issued m February 1858. By these enact- 
ments it waa provided that all daasea of the sultan's sub* 
jeets should have security for their lives and property ; 
tlttt taxea should be fairly imposed and justice impurtially 
adminktered; and that all should have full religious 
liberty and eaual oivil lij^ts. . The scheme was regarded 
aa so revdntumary by the aristocracy jmd the educated 
classes (the Ulema) that it met with keen opposition, anil 
was in consequence but partially put in force, especially iu 
the remoter parts of the enmire ; and more than one oon« 
^liiaoy was formed against the saltan's life on account of 
it Of the other measures of reform promoted by Abdul 
Medijid the more important were— 4he reorganisation of the 
snny (1843-4), the institution of a council of public in- 
struction (1846), the abolition of an odious and unfairly 
imposed citation tax, the repression of slave trading, and 
vanous provisions for the better administration of thepublio 
service apd for the advancement of commerce^ The public 
history of his times — ^the disturbances and insurrections in 
different parts of his dominions throughout' his reign, and 
the great war successfully carried on sgainst Russia by 
Tur!^, and by England France, and Sardinia; in the 
interest of Turkey (1853-56)— <»n be merely alluded to 
in this personal notica When Kossuth and others sought 
refuge m Turkey, after the failure of the Hungarian rising 
in 1849, the sultan was called on by Austria and Russia to 
surrender tbran, bui boldly and determinedly refused. It 
is to his CTBdit, too, that he would not allow the con* 
nnrators against his dwn life to be put to death. He bore 
the character of being a kind and honourable man. 
Against this, however, must be set down his excessive 
extravagance, especially towards the end of his lif& He 
dkd on the 25th of J me 1861, and was succeeded, not by 
one <d his sons^ but by his brother, Abdul Aziz, the present 
sultan, aa the oldest survivor of the family of Othmaa 

A BECKET, TsoxAS, Archbishop of Canterbury and 
ChanceUor of Englami in the 12th,tentuy, was bom in 
London on the 21st of December 1118. His father, 
Gilbert Becket, and his mother Roesa or Matilda, were 
both, there can be littie doubt, of Norman extraction, ii 
indeed they themselves wsre not immigrants from Normandy 
to ^gland. Gilbert Be^et, a merchant, and at one time 
Sheriff of London, a man of generous impulfts and some- 
what lavish hospitality, provided for his op)v child Thomas 
all the attainable advantages of influential society and a 
good education. At ten years of age Thomas was placed 
under the tuition of the canons regular of Merton on the 
Wandle in Surrey. From Merton he proceeded to study in 
the Loiidon schools, then in high repute. At PevenBcy 
Castle, the seat of his father's friend fiicher de TAigle, one 
of the great barons id En^and, he subsequentiy became o 
proficient in all the feats and graces of chivalry. From 
Pevensey he betook himself to the study of theology in the 
Universi^ of Feria He never became a scholar, much 
less a theologian, like Wolaey, or even like some of the 
learned <yyrlfffi<Mdac«T of his own day ; but his intellect was 
vigorous and original, and his manners captivating to his 
associates and popular with the multituda His father's 
failure in business recalled him to London, and for three 
yeaia he acted as a dark in a lawyer's office. But a man 
so variously accomplished could not fail to stumble on 
preferment . sooner or later. According^, about 1142, 
Archdeacon Baldwin, a learned civilian, a friend of the 
elder Becket, introduced him to Theobald, Axchbishcp d 



32 



A B E C KE T 



Canterbury, who at once appoiated liizn to an o^ce in the 
Archiepiacopal Court Eia talents spoediiy raided him to 
the archdeaconry of the see. A. Becket'd tact in assisting 
to thwart an attempt to interest the Pope in fayour of the 
coronation of Stephen's son £u9tace, paved the way to the 
archdeacon's elevation to the Chancellorship^ of England 
under Henry XL, a dignity to which hewoa raised in 1155. 
Ab he had served Theobald the archbishop, so he served 
Ilenry the king faithfully and well It was his nature to 
be loyal. Enthusiastic partisauship is, in fact, the key to 
riiuch that is otherwise inexplicable in his subsequent con- 
duct towards Henry. Wheu at a later period A Becket was 
raised to the primacy of England, a dignity not of his own 
seeking, he most needs qnarrel with Henry in the interest 
of the Pope and " for the honour of God." As Chancellor of 
England he appeared in the war of Toulouse at the head of 
the chivalry of England, and " who can recount,'' says his 
attendant and pj^pegyrist Grim, " the carnage, the desolation 
he made at the head of a strong body of soldiers 1 . He 
attacked castles, and razed towns and cities to the ground ; 
he burned down houses and farms, and never showed the 
slightest toudh of pity to any one who rose in insurrectioii 
against his master.^' In single eombat he vanquished and 
made prisoner the valiant Knight Engelram de Trie.' Nor 
did A Becket the chancellor seek to quell Heniy's secular foes 
alone. He was the able mouthpiece' of the Crown in its 
contention with the Bishop of Qhichester, who had alleged 
that the permission of the Pope was necessary to the con- 
ferring or taking away of ecclesiastical benefices ; and he 
rigorously exacted ictUage, a military tax in lieu of personal 
service in the field, from the clergy, who accused him of 
*< plunging a sword into the bosom of ^ his mother the 
churcL" His pomp and munificence as. chancellor were 
beyond precedent In 1159 he undertook,' at Heniy's 
request, an embassy to the French Court for the purpose 
of affiancing the king's eldest son to the daughter of the 
king of France. His progress through the country was 
like a triumphal procession. "How wonderful must be 
the king of England himself whose chancellor travels in 
such state !" was on every one's lips. In 1162 he was 
elected Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Foliot, Bishop 
of Herford, alone dissenting, and remarking sarcastically, 
at the termination of the ceremony, that " the king had 
worked a miracle in having that day turned a layman into 
an archbbhop and a soldier into a saint" Hitherto A 
Becket had only been in deacon's orders, and had made no 
profession of sanctity of life. At the same time, there is 
nothing to show that his character was stained by the gross 
licontiousQess of the times. Now, however, he devoted 
himself body and soul to the service of the church. . . The 
fastidious coturtier was at once transfonned into the squalid 
penitent,*who wore hair-cloth next his skin, fed on roots, 
iu*ank nauseous water, and daily washed the feet of thirteen 
beggars. Henry, who had expected to see the archbishop 
completely sunk in the chancellor, was amazed to receive 
.he following laconic message from A Becket : — " I desire 
that you will provide yourself with another chancellor, as 
I find myself hardly snfiicient for the duties of one office, 
much less of twa" From that ^moment there was strife 
between A Becket and Henry, A Becket straining every 
nerv6 to extend the authority of the Pope, and Henry 
doing hia utmost to subject the church to his own will 
Throughout the bitter struggle for supremacy which ensued 
between A Becket and the king, A Becket was backed by 
the syinpathy of the Saxon populace, Henry by the support 
of the Norman barons and by the greater dignitaries of the 
church. .\t the outset A Becket was worsted. He was 
constrained to take an oath, ''with good faith and without 
fraud or reserve, to obaerve the Constitutions of Clo-ren- 
doij," which subjected clerks guilty cf crime to the or *rj .i-y 



civil tribunals, put ecclesiastical dignities at the royal dis^^ 
posal, prevented ail appeals to Rome, and made Henry tha 
virtual ''iiead of the church."' For his guilty compliance 
with these anti-papal constituti'.ns he received the special 
pardon and absolution of hi? holiness, and proceeded to 
anathematise them with the energy of a genuine remorse 
The king resolved on his rum. He^'was silmmoned befDre 
a great council at Northampton, and in defiance of justice 
was called on to account for the sum of 44,000 marks 
declared to have been misappropriated by him during his 
chancellorship. " Fo/ what happened before my consecra- 
tion," said A Becket, "I ought not to answer, nor will L 
Know, moreover, that ye are my children in God ; neither 
law nor reason allows you to judge your father. I refer my 
quarrel to the decision of the Pope. To him I appeal, and 
shall now, under the protection of the Catholic Church and 
the Apostolic See, depart" .. He effected his escape to France, 
and took refuge in the Cistercian monastery of Pontignj, 
whence he repeatedly ' anathematised his enemies in 
England, and hJesi t c^ed not to speak of Henry as a *' mali- 
cioBs tyrant" Pope Alexander IIL, thoi^h at heart a 
warm supporter of Becket, waa guarded in his conduct 
towards Henry, who had shown a disposition to support the 
anti-pope Psscal IIL, and it was not till the Archbishop oi 
York, in defiance of a papal bull, had usurped the functions 
of the exiled primate by offidatiog at the coronation of 
Henry's son, that Alexander beci^me really formidable. A 
Becket was now resolute for martyrdom or victory. Henry 
began to tremble, and an interview between him and Becket 
Was arranged to take place at Fereitville in 1170. It was 
agreed that A Becket shoidd return to hia see; and that the 
kmg should discharge his debts and defray the expensed of 
his journey. A Becket proceedeil to the coast, but the king, 
who had promised to meet him, broke his engagement in . 
every particukur. A Becket, in retaliation, exconununicated 
the Archbishop of ^Tork and the Bishops of London and 
Salisbuiy for officiating at the coronation of the king's son. 
The ternfied prelates took refuge in Normandy with Heniy^ 
who^ 9Q heaxing their tale, accompanied by an accoxmt of 
A. Becket's splendid receptiotf at Canterbu^, exclaimed in 
ungovernable fury, " Of the cowards who eat my bread, is 
there not one who will free me from this turbulent priest t " 
Four knights, Fitzurse, Tracy, Morville, and Brito, resolved 
to avenge their sovereign, who it appeaxa was ignorant of 
their intention. ' They arrived in Canterbury, and finding 
the archbishop, threatened him with death if he would not 
absolve the excommunicated bishops.- ^^" In vain," replied 
A Becket, " you threaten me. If all the swords in Epgland 
were brandLdiiing over my head, your terrors could not moTe 
me.K Foot to foot you will find me fighting the battle of the 
Lprd." He was barbarously murdered in the great cathedral, 
at the foot of the altar of St Benedict, on the 29th Decern- 
ber 1170. i Two years thereafter he was canonised by the 
Pope; and down to the Reformation innumerable pilgrim* 
ages were made to the shrine of St Thomas of Canterbury 
by devotees from every comer of Christendom. . So numerous 
were the miracles wrought at hia tomb, that Gervase of 
Canterbury teUs us two large volumes kept in the cathedral 
were filled with accounts of them. Every fiftieth year a 
jubilee was celebrated in his honour, which lasted fifteen 
days ; plenary indulge^nces were then granted to all who 
visited his tomb; and as many as lOG.OCO pUgrims were 
registered at a time in Canterbury. The worship of St 
Thomas superseded the adoration of Ood, and even that of 
the Virgin. In one year there was offered at God's altar 
nothing; at that of the Virgin X4, Is. 8d.; while St 
Thomas ruccived for hia sliarc X954, Cs. 3d. — an cuonnoua 
sujn, if the purcha^Ln? power of money in those times be 
considered. Henry VfIL, vriit a just if somewhat ludi- 
«r^u.s api>rcciat.ion of tbe Lsi^iie 'srhich A Becket had niised 



A RE — A B E 



33 



tvitL \m ruyal predecessor Hcni^ II , not only pillngcd the 
nch shnne dedicated to St Thomas, but caused the saint 
Limself to be cited to appear in court, and to be tncd and 
condemned as a traitor, at the same time ordcnng his name 
to be struck out of the calendar, and his bones to be burned 
and the ashes thrown in the air. A Docket's character and 
aims have been the subject of the keenest ecclesiastical and 
historic controversy down to the present time, but it is im- 
possible to doubt the fundamental sincerity of the one or 
the disinterestedness of the other, however inconsistent his 
actions may sometimes appear If the fruit of the Spirit 
be " love, joy, peace, long-sulTering, gentleness, goodness, 
faith, meekness, and temperance/' A Becket was assuredly 
not a samt, for he indulged to the last in the bitterest 
invectives against his foes , but that he fought with 
admirable courage and devotion the " battle of the Lord," 
according to the warlike ideas of an age with which he was 
in intense sympathy, is beyond dispute. He was the 
leading Ultramontane of his day, hesitating not to reprove 
the Pope himself for lukewarmness m the cause of the 
•' church's liberty. " He was (he last of the great ecclesiastics 
of the type of Lanfranc and Ansclm, who struggled for 
supremacy with the civil power in England on almost equal 
tcnna. In his day'the secular stream was n|nning very 
strong, and he might as chancellor have floated down the 
current pleasantly enough, governing England in Henry's 
name He nevertheless perished in a chivalrous effoit to 
stem the torrent The tendency of his pnnciples was 
to supersede a civfl by a spiritiml despotism , " but» m 
point of fact," says Hook, in his valuable Life, " he was 
a high-prinapled, high-spirited demagogue, who taught 
the people to struggle foF their liberties," a struggle 
soon to commence, and of which he was by no means 
an impotent if an unconscious precursor. — ^See Dr Giles's 
Vita et EputolcB S. Thomoe Cantuanensia ; Canon Morris's 
Life of Si Thatfifu Becket; Canon Robertson's Life of 
Btrket , Canon Stanlo/s Historical MemoriaU of Canter- 
bitty ^ J. O. Nichol's Pilgrimages of Wokingham and 
Canterbury, Hook's Lives cf the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, and Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors of 
£nglan(L 

A'BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott, a successful cultivator 
of light literature, was bom in London in 1811, and educated 
at Westminster School He wrote burlesque dramas with 
success from his boyhood, took an active share in the 
e.stablishirient of different comic periodiccds, particularly 
Figaro in London and Punchy and was a constant contributor 
to the columns of the latter from its commenoement till the 
time of his death. His principal publications, all over- 
flowing with kindly humour, and rich in quaint fancies, 
are his parodies of living dramatists (himself included), 
reprinted from Punch (1844); The Small Debts Act, tnth 
Annotations and Explanations (1845); The Quizziology of 
the British Drama and The Comic Blackstone (1846); A 
Comic Historv of Er^land n847) ; and A C<mic History of 
Hom^ (1852). He contributed occasionally, too, to the 
Times and other metropolitan papers. A'Beckett was 
called to the bar in 1841, 'and from 1849 discharged with 
great efficiency the duties of a metropolitan police magis- 
trate. He died at Boulogne on the SOth of August 
1856. 

ABKT » (^^1, breath, vanity, transOoriness), the second 
«on of Adam, slain by Cain his elder brother (Gen w 
1-16). The narrative in Genesis, which telb us that " the 
Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering, but unto 
Cain and to his offering he had not respect," is supplemented 
by the statement of the New Testament, that " by faith 
Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cam," 
l(Heb. xL 4), and that Cain slew Abel "because his own 
works were evil and his brother's righteous " (1 John iii. 1 2). 



In patristic theology the striking contrast between the 
brothers was mystically explained and typically applied in 
various waya Auguscine, for example, regards Abel as 
the representative of the regenerate or spiritual man, and 
Cam as the representative of the natural or corrupt man. 
Augustine m his treatise De Hceresibus, c. 86, mentions a 
sect of Abfiitae or Abelians, who seem to have lived in 
North Africa, and chiefly in the neighbourhood of Hippo- 
Rcgiua Aocording to their tradition, Abel, though married, 
lived m cuntmencc, and they followed his practice in this 
respect, so as to avoid the guilt ot bringing sinful creatures 
into the world. 

ABEL, Kabl Friedrich (1726-1787), a celebrated Ger- 
man musician. His adagio compositions have been highly 
pruisud, but he attained greater distinction as a pcrfomiei 
than as a composer, his instrument being tke Viola digamba, 
which from his time has given place to the violoncello. 
He studied under Sebastian Bach, played for tea years 
(1748-58) m the band formed at Dresden by the Elector 
of Saxony, under Hasso, and then, proceeding to England, 
became (1 759) chamber-musician to the queen of George III. 
His life was shortened by habits of intemperance. 

ABEL, Niels Hekjiik, one of the ablest and acutest 
mathematicians of modern times, was bom at Findde in 
Norway in 1802, and died near Arendul in 1829. Con- 
sidering the shortness of his life, the extent and thorough- 
ness of his mathematical investigations and analyses arc 
marvellous. His great powers of generalisation were dis- 
played in a remarkable degree m lus development of the 
theory of elliptic functions. Legondre's eulogy of Abel, 
"Quelle t^tc ctUe du jeune Norvegicn ! " is the more forcible, 
that the French mathematician had occupied himself with 
those functions for most of his lifetime. Abel's works, 
edited by M. Holmboe, the professor under whom he studied 
at Christianity were published by the Swedish government 
in 18d9. 

ABEL, Thomas, a Roman Catholic divine during the 
reign of Henry \11L, was an Englishman, but when or 
where born does not appear. He was educated at Oxford, 
where he passed B.A. on 4th July 1513, M.A on 27th 
June 1516, and proceeded D.D. On 23d June 1530 ho 
was presented by Queen Catherine to the rectory of Brad- 
well in Essex, on the sea-coast He had been introduced 
to the court through the report of his learning in classical 
and living langoages, and accomplishments in mu.sic ; and 
he was appointed domestic chaplain to Queen Catherina 
It speaks well both for the chaplain and his royal mistress, 
that to the last he defended the outi'agcd queen against 
"bluff King HaL" The Defence, "Invicta Veritas," was 
printed at Lunebei^ in 1532. This pungent little book 
was replied to, but never answered, and remains tlie 
defence on Queen Catherine's part Abel was ensnared, as 
greater 4nen were, in the prophetic delusions and ravings of 
Elizabeth Barton, called the " Holy Maid of Kent" Ah 
belonging to the Church of Rome, he inevitably opposed 
Henry VIIL's assumption of supremacy in the cliurch. 
Ultimately he was tried and condemned for " misprision 
of treason," and* perished in the usual cruel and ignoble 
way. 'The execution, as described, took place at Smitli* 
field on July 30, 1540,^ If we may not concede the vene- 
rable and holy name of martyr to Abel — ^and John Foxo 
is passionate in his refusal of it — ^yet we must hold that 
he at least fell' a victim to his unsparing defence of his 
queen and friend, the "misprision of treason" having 
been a foregone conclusion. In stat 25, Henry VIIL, c 
12, he IS described as having •* caused to be printed 
and set forth in this rcalme diverse books against tba 
divorce and seimration." Neither thQ* IVactattis norltho 
"diverse books" are known. — Dodd, Church History, 
Brussels, 1737, folio, vol L ix 208; BourcMcr. HtsL EccU\ 



34. 



A B E L A R D 



de Martyr Fftttr minor. (Ingolst 1583), Pitta, De 
itbutr Angl Scrip,, Tanner^^ Bibliot/teca Hibemtco-Britan- 
nica, p. 1. , Zurich, Originaf. LtiUr^ relative to the English 
RtJormaXvm (P,arker Society, pt il pp. 209-211, 1846); 
Foxe's Acts and Afonurnents (Cattley's, voL v. pp. 438-440); 
Burnet, iSoame*, Biog BnL, Wood's i4//wfta? (Bliss), s. v.; 
Stow, Chron. p. 581 (a. a G.) 

ABELARD, Peter, bom at PaDet (Palais), not far 
from Nantes, m 1079, was the eldest son of a noble Breton 
house. The name Abctlardus (also written Jlbailardtu, 
Abaielardiis, and in many other ways) is said to be a cor- 
ruption of I/abdarduSf substituted by hmiself for a nick- 
name BaJotard^M given to him when a student. As a 
boy, be showed an extraordinary quickness of apprehen- 
sion, and, choosing a learned life instead of the active 
career natural to a youth of his birth, early became an 
iidept in the art of dialectic, under which name philosophy, 
meaning at that time chiefly the logic of Aristotle trans-* 
mitted through Latin channels, was the great subject of 
liberal study in the episcopal schools. Roscellm, the 
famous canon of Compicgne, is mentioned by himself as 
his teacher; but whether he heard this champion of 
extreme Nominalism in early youth, when he wandered 
about from school to school for instruction and exercise, 
or some years later, aftfer he had already begun, to teach 
for himself, remams uncertain. His wanderings finally 
brought hira to Paris, still under the age of twenty. There, 
m the great cathedral sch9ol of Notre-Dame, he sat for a 
while nnder the teaching of William of Champeaux, the 
disciple of St Ansclm and most advanced of ^alists, but, 
presently stepping forward, he overcame the master in 
discussion, and tbas began a long duel that issued lu 
the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, till then 
dominant in the early Middle Age First, in the teeth of 
opposition from the metropolitan teacher, he proceeded to 
set up a school of his own at Mclun, whence, for more 
direct competition, he removed to Corbcil, nearer Pans. 
The success of his teaching was signal, though for a time 
he had to quit the field, the strain proving too great for 
his physical strength. On his return, after 1 1 08, he found 
William lectnnng no longer at Notre- Dame, but in a 
monastic retreat outside the city, and there battle w^ 
again joined between them. Forcing upon the Realist a 
material change of doctnnc, he was once more victonous, 
and thenceforth he stood supreme His discomfited rival 
still had power to keep him from lecturing in Paris, but 
soon failed m this last effort also From Melun, where he 
had resumed teaching. Abelard passed to the capital, and 
set up his school on tdie heights of St Genevi6ve, looking 
over Notre- Dame When he had increased his distinc- 
tion still further by winning reputation m the theological 
school of Anselm of Laon, no other conquest remained for 
him. He stepped into the chair at Notre-Dame, bemgalso 
noininaUHl canon, about the ycarJ115 « 

Few teachers ever held such sway as Abelard now 
did for a time Distinguished in figure -and manners, he 
was seen surrounded by crowds-— it is said thousands— of 
students, drawn from aU countries by the fame of his 
reaching, in which acuteness of thought was relieved by 
simplicity and grace of exposition. Enriched by the offer- 
ings of ^ his pupils, and feasted with aniversal admiration, 
he came, as be says, to think himself the only philosopher 
standing in the world But a change in his fortunes 
waset hand. 4n hi.o devotion to science, he had hitherto 
lived a very regular life, vaned only by the excitement of 
confiict now, at the height of his fame, other passions 
began to 8tir within hiia There lived at that time, 
within the precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her 
uncle, the canon Fulbert, a young girl named Hebise, of 
noble extraction and born about 1101. Fair, but still 



more remarkable for her knowledge, which extended bejronJ 
Latin, it is said, to Greek and Hebrew, she awoke a feel- 
ing of love in the breast of Abelard; and with intent tu 
win her, he sought and gained a footing in Fulbert^ bouse 
as a regular inmate. Becoming also tutor to the maiden, 
he used the unlimited power which he .thus obtained over 
her for the purpose of seduction, though not without 
cherishing a real affection which she returned in unparalleled 
devotion. Their relation interfering with his public work, 
and being, moreover, ostentatiously sung by lumself, soon 
became known to all the world except the too-confiding 
Fulbert; and, when at last it could not escape even his 
vision, tiiey were separated only to meet in secret. There- 
upon Heloise found herself pregnant, and was carried off 
by her lover to Brittany^ where she gave birth to a son. 
To appease her furious uncle, Abelard now proposed a 
marriage, under the condition that it should be kept 
secret, in order not to mar his prospects of advancement in 
the church; but of marriage, whether public or secret, 
Heloise would hear nothing. She appealed to him not to 
sacrifice for her the independence of his life, nor did she 
finally yield to ,the arrangement without the darkest fore- 
bodings, only tOQ soon to be realised. The secret of the 
marriage was not kept by Fulbert; and when Heloise, true 
to her singular purpose, boldly then denied it, life was 
made so unsuppoitablc to her that she sought refuge in the 
convent of ArgenteuiL Immediately Fulbert, believing 
that her husband, who aided in the flight, designed to bo 
rid of her, conceived a dire revenge. He and some others 
broke into Abelard's chamber by night, and, taking him 
defenceless, perpetrated on him the most brutal mutilation. 
Thus cast down from his pmnacle of greatness into an 
abyss of shame and misery, there was left to the brilliant 
master only the life of a monk. Heloise, not yet tweiit} , 
consummated her work of self^-sacrifice at the call of his 
jealous love, and took the veil. 

It was in the Abbey of St Denis that Abelard, now 
aged forty, sought to bury himself with his woes out c.f 
sight fading, however, m the cloister neither calm nor 
solitude, and having gradually turned again to study, he 
yielded after a year to urgent entreaties from ^vithout and 
within, and went forth to reopen his school at the Pnoiy 
of Maisoncelle (1120). His lectures, now framed in a 
devotional spirit, were heard again by crowds of students, 
and all his old influence seemed to have returned ; but old 
enmities were revived also, against which he was no longer 
able as before to make head No sooner had he put ui 
writing his theological lectures (apparently the InVrodudvo 
ad Theologiam that has come down to us), than his adver- 
sanes fell foul of his rationalistic interpretation of the 
Trinitarian dogma. Charging him with the heresy of 
Sabellius in a provuiaal synod held at Soissons in 1121, 
they procured by irregular practices a condemnation of his 
teachmg, whereby he was made to throw his book into the 
flames, and then was shut up in the convent of St Medard. 
After the other, it was the bitterest possible experience 
that could befall him, nor, in the state of mental desola> 
tion ifito which it plunged him, could he find any comfort 
from being soon again set free. The life in his OTtit 
monastery proving no more congenial than formerly, be 
fled from it in secret, and only waited for permis^iQn to 
live away from St Denis before he chose the cnc \o\ that 
suited his present mood In a desert place near Nogent- 
sur-Seme, he built himself a cabm of stubb!e and reeds 
and turned hermit But there fortune came back to him 
with a new surprise. His retreat becoming known, students 
flocked from Pans, and covered the wilderness around him 
with their tents and huts. When he began to teach agam, 
he found consolation, and in gratitude he consecrated the 
new oratory they built for him by the name of the Paraclete^ 



AB E — A B E 



as 



Upon tlie retoni of new dangers, or at least of fean, 
Abelaid left the Paraclete to make tnal of another refuge, 
aooeptmg an inyitation to preside over the Abbey of St 
Qildaa-de-Rhu78, on the far-off shore of Lo^er Brittany. 
It proved a Wretched exchange. The region was inhospit- 
able, the domain a prey to kwlesa exaction^ th^ house itself 
savage and disorderly. Tet for nearly ten years he con- 
tiuued to struggle with late before he fled from his charge^ 
yielding in the end only under peril of violent death, ^e 
misery of thos^ years was not, howeVer, unrelieved j fo9 he 
hod been able» on the breaking-up of Helois^a oonvett at 
Aigenteuil^ to establish her as head of a new religious 
temse at the deserted Faiadete, and' in the capacity of 
spintual direoto; he often was exiled to revisit the spot 
thus made doubly dear to him. All this time Heloise had 
hved amid nniversal esteem for her knowledge and character, 
Qtten^g no word under the doom that had fallen upon her 
youth; hiA now, at last, the occasion came for expressing all 
ihe pent^ emotions of her souL Living on for some time 
in Brittany after his flight from St Gildas, Abdard wrote, 
among oi&er thing?, Ms famous EitUma €<damUatwn^ 
and thns moved her to pen her first Letter^ which remains 
on unsorpassed utterance of hmnan passiedt and womanly 
devodon; the first being follo^Fed by ihp two other 2^ea^«, in 
whichflb fliia% aoc^^ted thd pan of resig&ation which, 
new aa ft faroi^ to a. sMer, jUielard commendfld to her. 
He COS Jong aflejp was seen once move vc^va tbd fleld ef 
bis eo^ tnvaiujgimf lectming on Mbunt St- Seneo^ in 
1136 mien he was heard by J^m of SalisbuivX^ but it 
tras m^ for a hH^ space i no new titfainph, but a last 
great tna^ awaited U& In the few yeasa to come of his 
che^ereS ISlU.^ As &r.bac)p^aa tha^Stoelete dap, he 
!iad coimted ea chief among Ha laea JSeittaxd of CSaimuz, 
in ^6111 was incarnated the grausipld of fervaoA vsA 
anhfi6itaiii];g faith^ fvm ^^k3i icational in<insly lifce 1^ 
vas shder revolt^ And now thid qncampRnsiskig si^iiit was 
noLDvin^ at the instance of oukei% to crush thd growing e^ 
in the peiscv of thd boldest offaader. After prelimnaiy 
a^otiatioQS, in which Bemaid was soused by A^Belard'a 
stead&atness to put forth att his strengeh, a coilncil met 
at Sena, bef (»e which Abelasds fonouBjp airai^ed upon a 
number 'of heretical d^ges, was prepaied to plead lus 
cause, When, howe^ Bernard, not without fon^ne 
terror in the prosp^ of meeting the redoubtable* di^eo* 
tician, had opened the esse, sudd^y ^^belard appealed 
to Aome. The stroke availed him notlmig; for Beraard, 
who had power, notwithstanding, to get a condemnation 
passed at the councD, did not rest a moment till a second 
condemnatioii was procxned at Bome in the following year. 
&f eanwhile^ on his way thither to jiige his plea in peraoDy 
* Abelacrdiiad broken dotm at the Abbey of Cluni^ and there, 
on utterly fallen^ man, with spirit of the humblest^ and 
only ndt bereft ifi £iB intellectual force, he lingered but-a 
|sw monthflr before the i^proach ol death. - Eemoved by 
friendly hands, for the relief of hia suffering?^ to the 
Brioxy of St Marcel, he di^ on the Spat of April 1142. 
Firdt buried' at St Marcel^ Ms remaina soon after were' 
carried off in secrecy toi tlte Paiadete^ and ^en ove^ to 
tile loving care ol Heloise, who in time came -herself to 
Beat besid^ theto. The bones of the pair were shifted 
more than once afterwards, but they were marvellously 
preserved even through fhe» "vicissitudes of the * French 
BeVohition, Imd now they lie united in the well-known 
tomb at F^Lachaise. 

Qie0ib as waa the influence exerted by Abelard on the 
minde of his eontemporaries find the course of mediaeval 
thoug^t^ he has been little known in modern times but 
for hia connection 'with "Heloise. Indeed, it, was not till 
the' piaaaent. century, when Cousin in 1836 issued the 
GLiIlectioxk entitled Qwra^ inSdiU cPAbSlard, that hia 



philosophical performauee could be judgjbd at fiist^hand 
of his strictly philosophical works only one, the ethical 
treatise. Scito U iptum^ having been published earlier, 
namely, in 1721. Cousin's collection, besides giving ezr 
tracts from tha theolc^cal work Sic tt Non (an assembly 
of opposite opinionv on doctrinat points^ culled from tha 
r Fatbera aa a basils for discussion), indndes the XHcUeckeap 
commentaries on 'logical works of Aristotle, Poiphyvy, and 
Boethius, andA fra^nent, I^ QensHi^ et Specilnte, The 
last-named work, and also the psychological treatise Pe 
IntelUctHnti, published apart by Cousin {ha. Fra^Tneni 
Fhilotophiptee, voL H), are now considered upon internal 
evidence not to be by Abelard himself, but only to have 
sprung out of his school A genuine work^ the CUosiulos 
super Porphyrvum^ from which M. de B&nusat^ in Ua 
classical monograph Abilard (1845), has given extfQKHii 
remaina in manuscript. 

The general importance of Abdaid lies in his halving 
fixed more decisively than any otto. before hiimidte, 
scholastic manner of philosophiiEdng, with its object) -o^ 
giving a formally rational expression to the c^oeM) 
ecclesiastical doctrine. However his own particular ihterv 
pretatjons may have been condemned, they were conceived 
in ess^tially the same spirit as the general s^eme of 
thought afterwards elaborated in the 13^ century with 
approval from the heads of the church. Through horn 
wee prepared in the Middle Age the ascendent of the 
philosophical authority of Avistotle, which became firmly 
eetablidied in the half-centuiy after his deaths when first 
the iDompleted 0ryan<m, and gradnally tjl thd other works 
of the Qreek thinker came to be knowA in the sdioole : 
before hia time it was Mnat open the authoril^ ef %to 
that the prevafling Realism sought to lean. As regev^ 
the cehtial question of Sniveisali^ wiihout having W2& 
cient kno«sledge of Ari^totb^a views, Abelard 3fet^ in 
taking midi& ground between the extravamtt Beuism of 
hiadUister, Wuiask of Champeaux, or of S^ Ansehn, end 
the not less eMiavagant Komioa^iBm (tuB w^ ha^ ^ 
reported) of hia other master, SoscelHti^ UmiM at^more 
than <me point the AiistoteHan position. Along with 
Aristotle, alse with Nominalists generally^ he ascrilM full 
reaK^ only to the particular concretes ; while, in opposi- 
tion to the **inBana setUenHa" of BosceU^, he decbred 
the Universal to be HO mere word (ifOx\ but to consist, or 
(perhMM we may say) emerge, in the fact of predication 

iiermo). Lying in the middle between BeaUsm and 
extreme) Nominalism, thia doctrine has often been spoken 

- of asl Conceptualism, but ignorantly so, . A,belanL pre- 
, eminentiy a logician, did not concern himself with tiia 
psychological question which the Conceptualist aime at 
deciding as to«the mental subsistence of the Universal. 
Outside of his dialectic, dt waa in ethics \hat Abdant 
showed greatest activity oi philosophical thought ; laying 
very particular stress upon the subjective intenti(/n as 
determining, if not th^ mond character, %% least the moral 
value, of human action^ His thought in this direction, 
whCrein he anticipated semethinR of modem speculation^ 

. is the more remcokable because hia scholastio suecessora 
a^mplished least in the field of morak, hardly;venturing to 
l^ing the pnnciplea and rules of conduct under pure phjio*' 
sophical discussion, even alteif the great ethical inquriea of: 
Anstotle became fully known to them< (tf. a b.) ' - 

" ABENCERRAGES, a fan^y or &^on that is said to 
have held a promin&t posi^on in the Moorish kingdom 
of Granada in the 1 5th centuif . The name appeara tohave 
been derived from the Tussuf benr!Serragh> the head ol 

.the ^ribe in thb time^ of Mahommed VIL, who^ didjtha^ 
sovereign , good service in his struggles ' to retain ^e 
crown of Which he was three times deprived.. *<Nothing 
is known of the family with certainty; but the name it. 



36 



A B E — A BE 



!amiUiur from the interesting romance of Gines Perez de 
Hita» Giterroi dviles de Granada, which celebrates the 
feuds oC the Abencerrages and the rival' family of the 
Z^gris, and the cruel treatment to which the fonner were 
mbjected. Florian's Gotualvo of Cordova, and Chateau- 
bruuuTs Lasi of the Ahencerragee^ are imitations of Perez 
do Hita's work. The hall of the Abencerrages in the 
Alhambra takes its name from being the reputed scene of 
the. massacre of the family. 

' ABENEZRAf or Ibn Ezra, is the name ordinarily given 
to Abraham wax Meir ben Ezra (called also Ahervare or 
Evenart), one of the most eminent of the Jewish literati 
of the Middle Ages. "He was bom at Toledo about 1090; left 
Spain for Rome about 1140; resided afterwards at Mantua 
(1145), at Lucca (1154), at Rhodes (1155 and 1166), and 
in England Q159) ; and died probably in 1168. He was 
distinguishea as a philosopher, astronomer, physician, and 

I poet, but especially as a grammarian and commentator. 
The works by which he is b^ known form a series of Con^ 
mentariee on the books of the Old T<estament, which have 
nearly all been printed in l^e -great Rabbinic Bibles of ^ 
Romberg (1625-6), Buxtorf (1618-9), and Frankfurter 
(1724-7). Abenezra's commentaries are acknowledged to 
be of very .great valu^ ; he was the first who raised biblical 
exegesis to the rank of « science, interpreting the text 
according to its literal sense, and illustrating it from cognate 
languages. His style is elegant, but is so oondse as to be 
sometimes obscure ; and he occasionally indulges in epigram. 
In addition to the commentaries, he wrote several treatises 
on astronomy or astrology, and a number of grammatical 
works. 

! ABENSBERG, a smaU town of Bavaria, 18 miles S.W. 
of Regensburg, Containing 1300 inhabitants. Here Napo- 
leon gained an important victory over the Austrians on 
the 20th of April 1809. The town is the Ahueina of the 
Romans, and ancient ruins exist in its neighbourhood. 

ABERAVON, a parliamentary and municipal borough 
of Wales, in the county of Glamorgan, beautifully situated 
on the Avon, near its mouth, 8 miles east of Swansea. 
The town and adjacent villages have increased rapidly 
in recent years, from the extension of Jbhe mines of coal and 
iron in the vicinity, and thei establishment of extensive 
works for the smelting of tin, copper, ahd zinc. The 
harbour. Port Talbot, has been much improved,, and has 
good docks ; and there is regular steam communication 
with Bristol Ores for the smelting furnaces are imported 
from Cornwall, and copper, tin, and coal are exported. 
Aberavon unites wi Swansea, Kenfigg, Loughor, and 
^ Neath, iin tetuming a member to Parliament In 187 1 the 
' 'population of the parish was 3396, of the parliamentary 
borough,- 11,906. 

•ABERCONWAY. See Conwat. 
• ABERCROMBIE, John, an eminent physidan of Edin- 
Iwirgh, was the son of d the Rev. George Abercrombie of 

* Aberdeen, in which city he was bom in, 1781. After 
attending the Grammar School and Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, he commenced his medical studies at Edinburgh 
in 1800, and obtained his degree, of M.D. there in 1803. 
Soon afterwards he went to London, and for'abott a year 
.gave diligent attention to the medical practice «nd lectures 
in St Geoige's Hospital In 1804 he returned to Edin- 
buigh, be(»me a Fellow of the College of Suigeons, and 
commenced as general practitioner in that city ; where, in 
dispensaty and private practice, he kid the foundation of 
that character for sagacity fa an observer of disease, and 
judgment in its treatment, that eventually elevated him to 
the head* of his profession. In 1823, be became a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians; in* 1824, a Fellow of 
chat body; and from the death of Dr Gregory in 1822, 
he was considered the first physician in Scotland. Aber- 



crombie early began the laudable practice of .preserving 
accurate notes of the cases that fell under his care ; and at 
a period when pathological anatomy Was far too little 
regarded by practitioners in this country, he had the 
merit of sedulously pursuing it, and collecting a mass of 
most important information regarding the changes pro- 
duced by disease on different oigans; so that, before the 
year 1824, he had more extended experience, and more 
correct- views in'tMs interesting field, than most of his 
contemporaries engaged in extensive practice. From 181 G 
he occasionally enriched the pages of the Edinburgh 
Medical and Surgical Journal with essays, that display 
originalijj and industry, particularly those ''.on the dishes 
of the spinal cord and brain," and ''on diseases of the 
intestinal canal, of the pancreas, and spleen." The fir$»t 
qi these fomled the basis of his great and veiy original 
work. Pathological asid Practical Hesearehes on Diseases 
of the Brain and Spinal Cord, whi6h appeared at Edin- 
burgh in 1828. In the same year he published also 
another very valuable work, hh Besearches on the Disease 
>of the Intestinal Canal, Liver, and other Viscera of the 
Abdorruen, Though his professional practice was very 
extensive and lucrative, he found time for other specula- 
tions and occupations. In 1 830 he published his Inquiries 
concerning the Intellectual Powers of Man and the Investi- 
gation of Trvih, a work which, though less original and 
profound than his medical speculations, contains a popular 
view of an interesting subject, expressed in simple language. 
It was followed in 1833 by a sequel, The Philosophy of 
the Moral Peelings, the object of which, as .stated in the 
preface, was " to divest the subject of all improbable 
speculations," and to show " the important relation which 
subsists between the science of mind and the doctrines of 
revealed religion." Both works have been very extensively 
read, reaching the 18th and 14th editions respectively in 
1869. Soon after the publication of Moral Feelings, the 
University of Oxford conferred on the author the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Medicine, and in 1835 he was elected 
Lord Rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen. Dr Aber- 
crombie was much beloved by his numerous friends for 
the suavity and kindness of his manners, and was 'uni- 
versally esteemed for his benevolence and unaffected piety. 
He died on the )4th of November 1844 of a very uncom- 
mon disease, the bursting (from softening of the muscular 
substance) of the coronary vessels of the heart. 

ABERCROMBY, David, M.D. This Scottish physi- 
cian was sufficiently noteworthy half & ceatufy after his 
(probable) decease .to have his Nova Medicinm Praxis 
reprinted at Paris in 1740; while during his lifetime his 
Tuta ac effieax luis venereas scepe absque mercurio ac temper 
absque sdlivatione mercuriali curando m«Mo<{tM*(1684, 8vo) 
was translated into G<6rman and published at Dresden in 
1702 ^8vo). In 1685 were published De Pulsus Varin^ 
turns (London; Paris, 1688, 12mo), &nd Ars explorandi 
.medieas facultates plantarum ex solo sap, (London). His 
Opuscvla were * colleeted in 1687, These professional 
writings gave him a place and memorial in Haller^s Biblio- 
theca MedieincB Prod. (4 vols. 8vc<, 1779, tom. iii p. 619); 
but he claims passing remembrance rather as a meta- 
physician by his remarkable controversial books in theo- 
logy and philosophy. Formerly a Roman Catholic ajid 
Jesuit, he abjured Popery, and published Protestoatcy 
proved Safer than Popery (London, 1686).. But by far 
the most noticeable of his productions is A Disoonrss 
of Wit (London, 1685). This treatise somehow haa faUen 
out of sight — much as old coined gold gets hidden away 
.—so that bibliographerd do not seem to have met with 
it, and assign it at hap-hazard to Patrick Abercromby, 
M.D. Notwithstanding, the most cursory examinatiozi 
of it proves that in this Discourse of fTt^ are contained 



A B E — A B E , 



37 



some of the most characteristic and most definitely-put 
metaphysical opinions of the Scottish philosophy of com- 
mon sense. Of this early metaphysician nothing biographi- 
cally has come down save that he was a Scotchman 
('* Scotus") — bom at Seaton. He was livmg early in the 
]8ih centnry. (Haller, as iupra, Lawrence Chartens's 
M.S., A ».) So recently as 1^833 was printed A Short 
Acc&urU of Scots Divtnea by him, edited by James Maidment, 
Edinburgh. « (a. B. o.) 

ABERCROMBY, James, Lord Dunpbrmline, third son 
of the celebrated Sir R^ph Abercromby, w^ bom on the 
7th Nov. 1776. Educated for the profession of the law, 
he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn m 1801, but he 
was prevented from engaging to any considerable extent in 
general practice by accepting appointments, first as commis- 
sioner in bankmptcy, and subsequently, as steward of the 
estate^ of the Duke of Devonshire. He commenced his 
political career in 1807, when he was elected member of 
Parliament for the borough of Midhurst His sympathies 
with the small and struggling Opposition had ahready been 
declared, and he at once attached himself to the Whig 
}>arty, with which he consistently acted throughout life. 
In 1812 he was returned for Calne, which he continued to 
represent until his elevation to the Scotch bench in 1830. 
During this lengthened period he rendered conspicuous and 
valuable services to his party and the country. In Scotch 
affairs he took, as was natural, a deep interest , and, by 
introducing, on two separate occasions, a motion for the 
redress of a special glarmg abuse, he undoubtedly gave a 
strong impulse to the. growing desire for a general reform, 
lo 1824, and again in 1826, he presented a petition from 
the inhabitants of Edinburgh, and followed it up by a 
motion " foi' leave to bring in a Bill for the mote effectual 
representation of the city of Edinburgh in the Commons 
House of Parliament" The motion was twice rejected, 
but by such narrow majonties as showed that the monopoly 
of the self-elected Council of thirty-three was doomed. In 
1827, on the accession of the Whigs te power under Mr 
Canning, Abercromby rfeceived the appointment of Judge- 
Advocate-General and Privy Counsellor In 1830 he was 
raised to the judicial bench as Chief Baron of the Exche- 
quer in Scotland. The office was abolished m 1832^, and 
almost contemporaneously, Edinburgh, newly enfranchised, 
was called te return two members te the first reformed 
Parliament As the election marked the commencement 
of a new political era, the honour te be conferred possessed 
a pccuhar value, and the choice of the citizens fell most 
appropriately on Francis Jeffrey and James Abercromby, 
two of the foremost of those te whom they were indebted 
for their hard- won privileges. In 1834 Mi Abercromby 
obtained a scat m the cabinet of Lord Qrey as Master of 
tlie Mint On the assembling of the new Parhament in 
1835. the election of a speaker gave occasion for the first 
trial of strength between the Reform party and the followers 
of Sir Robert PeeL After a memorable division, in which 
more members voted than had ever before been known, 
Abercromby was elected by 316 votes, to 310 recorded for 
Manners-Sutton, The choice was amply justified, not only 
by the urbanity, impartiality, and firmness with which 
iVbcFcromby discharged the public duties of the chair, but 
also by the important reforms he introduced in regard te 
the conduct of private business. In 1839 he resigned the 
office, and received the customary honour of a peerage, with 
the title of Lord Dunfermline. The evening of his life was 
passed in retirement at Colinten, near Edinburgh, where he 
died on the 17th April 1858. The courage and sagacity 
which marlied his entire conduct as a Liberal were never 
more conspicuous than when, towards the close of his life, 
he availed himself of an opportunity of practically asserting 
his chenshcd doctrine of absolute religious equality. The 



important part he took in- originating and supporting the 
United Industrial School in Edinburgh fof ragged children, 
irrespective of their religious belief, deserves to be grate- 
fully acknowledged and remembered, even by those who 
took the opposite side in the controversy whick arose with 
regard to it. 

ABERCROMBY, Patrick, M.D., was the third son of 
Alexander Abercromby of Fettemeir in Aberdeenshire, and 
brother of Frands Abercromby, who was cieated by James 
11. Lord Glasford. He was bom at Foifar in 1656. As 
throughout Scotland, he could have had there the bepefits of 
a good parish school . but it would seem from after events 
that his family was Roman Catholic, and hence, in all pro- 
bability, his education was private. This, and not the un- 
proved charge of perversion from Protestantism in subser- 
viency to James IL, explains his Roman Cathohcism and 
adhesion to the fortunes of that king. But, intending to 
become a doctor of medicine, he entered the University of 
St Andrews, where he took his degree of M.D.'in 1685. 
From a statement in one of his preface-epistles to his mag- 
num oput, the Martud AcAiaveanenU of the Scots Nation, 
he must have spent most of his youthful yeais ibroad. 
It has been stated that he attended the University of 
Pana The Discourse of Wit (1685), assigned to him, 
belongs to Dr David Abercromby, a contemporary. On his 
return to Scotland, he is found practising as a physician in 
Edinburgh, where, besides his professional duties, he gave 
himself with characteristic zeal to the study of antiquities, 
a study to which he owes it that his name still lives, for 
he fin(k no place in either Haller or Hutchison's Medical 
Biographies. He was out-and-out a Scot of the old patriotic 
type, and, living as hfi did during the agitations for the 
union of England and Scotland, he took part in the war 
of pamphlets inaugurated and sustained by prominent 
men on both sides of the Border. He crossed swords 
with no less redoubtable a foe than Daniel Defoe in his 
Advantages of the Act of Security, compared with those of 
the intended Union (Edinburgh, 1707), and A Vindication 
of the Same against Mr De Foe {ibid.) The logic and 
reason were with Defoe, but there was a sentiment in the 
advocates of independence which was not sufficiently 
allowed for in the clamour of debate; and, besides, the 
disadvantages of union were near, hard, and actual, the 
advantages remot^, and contingent on many things and 
persons. Union wore the look to men like Abercromby . 
and Lord Belhaven of absorption, if not extinction. Aber- 
cromby was appointed physician to James II, but the Re- 
volution deprived him of the post Crawford (in his Peer' 
age, 1716) ascribes the title of Lord Glasford to an intended 
recognition of ancestral loyalty; its bestowment in 1685 
corresponding with the younger brother's graduation as 
M.D., may perhaps explain his appointment A minor 
literary work of Abercromby's was a translation of M. 
Beague's partizan History (so called) of the War carried on 
by the Popish Government of Cardinal Beaton, aided by the 
French, against the English under the Protector Somerset, 
which appeared in 1707. The work with which Aber- 
cromb/s name is permanently associated is his already 
noticed Martial Achievements of the Scots NaUoUf issued in 
two noble folios, voL L 1711, voL iL 1716. In the title- 
page ^nd preface to vol. L he disclaims the ambition of 
being an historian, but in vol. ii, in title-page and preface 
alike, he is no longer a simple biographer, but an historiaa 
That Dr Abercromby did not use the word "genuine history? 
in his title-page without warrant is clear on every page of 
his large work. Granted that, read in the light of after 
researches, much of the first volume must necessarily be 
relegated to the region of the mythical, none the less wai 
the historian a laborious and accomplished reader and invea 
tigator of all available authorities, as well manuscript oi 



38 



A B E — A B E 



printed; while the roll of names of those who aided him 
includes every man of note in Scotland at the time, from . 
Sir Thomas Craig and Sir George Mackenzie to Mr Alex- 
ander Nisbet and Mr Thomas Ruddiman. The Martial 
Achievements has not been reprinted, though practically 
the first example of Scottish typography in any way 
noticeable, vol ii. having been printed under the scholarly 
supervision of Thomas Ruddiman. The date of his death 
is uncert^ It has been variously assigned to 1715, 
1716, 1720, and 1726, and it is usually added that he left 
a widow in great poverty. That he was living in 1716 is 
certain, ^ Crawford speaks of him (in hia'Peerage, 1716) 
OS "my worthy friend." Pr(5bably he died about 1716. 
AfemoirB of the Abereromhya, commonly given to him, does* 
not appear to have been published (Chambers's Bminent 
SeoUmenj $. v,; Anderson's Scottish Nation^ s. v.; Chalmers's 
Biog. Dict,^ ». v.; Chalmers's Life of Ruddiman; Haller^e 
Bibliotheca Medicince Praity 4 vols. 4to, 1779; Hutchin- 
son's -5tt)/. Medical^ 2 vols. 8vo, 1799; Lee's Defoe, 3 vols. 
8vo.) -^ -<* (a. b. o.) 

ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph, K.R, Lieutenant-Qeneral 
in the British army, was the eldest son of Qeorge Aber- 
cromby of Tullibody, Clackmannanshire, and was bom in 
October 1734. After passing some time at an excellent 
school at Alloa, he went to Rugby, and in 1752-53 he 
attended classes in Edinburgh University. In 1754 he ^as 
sent to Leipsic to study civil law, with a view to his pro- 
ceding to the Scotch bar, of which it is worthy of notice 
tliat both his grandfather and his father lived to be the 
oldest members. On returning from the Continent he 
expressed a strong preference for the military profession, 
and a comet's commission was accordingly obtained for 
him (March 1756) in the 3d Dragoon Guards. He rose 
through the intermediate gradations to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the regiment (1773), and in 1781 he 
became colonel of the 103d infantry. When that regiment 
was disbanded in 1783 he retired upon half -pay. That 
up to this time he had scarcely been engaged in active 
service, was owing' mainly to his disapproval of the policy 
of the Government, and especially to his sympathies with 
the American colonists in their stmggles for independence; 
and his retirement is no doubt to be ascribed to similar 
feeling But on France declaring war against England 
in 1793, he hastened to resume his professional duties; 
and, being esteemed one of the ablest and most intrepid 
officers in the whole British forces, he was appointed to 
the command of a brigade under the Duke ofliYork, for 
service in Holland. He commanded the advanced guard 
in the action on the heights of Cateau, and was wounded 
at Nimeguen. The duty fell to him of protecting the 
British army in its disastrous retreat out of Holland, in 
the winter of 1794-5. In 1795 he received the honour of 
knighthood, the Order of the Bath being conferred on him 
in acknowledgment of his services. The same year ho 
was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey, as commander- 
in-chief of the British forces in the West Indies. In 1796, 
Grenada wad suddenly attacked and taken by a detach- 
^inent of the army under his orders." He afterwards 
vbtamed possession of the settlements of Demerara and 
[Bssequibo, in South America, and of the islands of St 
l^ucta, St Vincent, and Trinidad. He returned in 1797 
'to Europe, and, in re\vard for his important services, was 
appointed ±o the conimasid of the regiment of Scots Greys, 
iiitrasted with the governments of the Isle of Wight, Fort 
George, and Fort Augustus, and raised to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-general He held, m 1797-8, the chief command 
of the forces in Ireland. TherQ he laboured to maintain 
the discipline of the araiy, to suppress the rising rebellion, 
md to protect the people from military oppression, va^h. a 
n^vti worthy alike of a great general and an enliffhtnnnd 



and beneficent statesman. When he \i^ appointed to the 
command in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the 
French was confidently anticipated by the EnglLsb 
Government He used lus utmost efforts to restore the 
discipline of an army that was utterly disorganised; and, 
as a first step, he anxiously* endeavoured to protect the 
people, by re-establishing the supremacy of the civil power, 
and not allowing the military to be called out, except when 
it was indispensably necessary for the enforcement of the 
law and the maintenance of order. Finding tliat he received 
no adequate support from he head of &e Irish Govern- 
ment, and that all his efforts wer6 opposed and thwarted 
by those who presided in the councils of -Irelknd, he resigned 
the comnmna His departure from Ireland was deeply 
lamented by the reflecting portion of the people, and was 
speedily followed by those disastrous results which he had 
anticipated, and wMch he so ardently desired and had so 
wisely endeavoured to prevent. After holding for a short 
period the office of Conmiander-in-Chief in Scotland, Sir 
Ralph, when the enterprise against Holland was resolved 
upon in 1799, was again called to conmiand under the 
Duke of York. The difficulties of the ground, the incle- 
mency of the season, unavoidable delays, the disorderly 
movements of the Russians, and the timid duplicity of the 
Dutch, defeated the objects of that expedition. But it 
was confessed by the Dutch, the French, and the British 
alike, that .even victory the most decisive could not 
have more conspicuously proved the talents o£ this distin- 
guished officer. HiB countiy applauded the choice, when, 
in 1801, he was sent with an army to dispossess the 
French of I^ypt. His experience in Holland and the 
West Indies particularly fitted him for this new command, 
as was proved by his cairying his aimy in health, in spirits, 
and with the requisite supplies, in spite of very great difii- ' 
culties, to the destined scene of action. The debarkation 
of the troops at Aboukir, in the face of an opposing force, 
is justly ranked among the most daring and brilliant 
exploits of the English army. A battle in the neighbour- 
hood of Alexandria (March 21, 1801) was the sequel of 
this successful landing, and it was Sir R. Abercromby's 
fate to fall in the moment of victory. He was stmck by 
a spent ball, which could not be extracted, and died seven 
days after the battle. The Duke of York paid a just 
tribute to the great soldier's memory in the geneiaJ order 
issued on the occasion of his death : — " His steady observ- 
ance of discipline, his evef -watchful attention to the 
health and wants of his troops, the persevering and un- 
conquerable spirit which marked his military career, the 
splendour of ms actions in the field, and the heroism of 
his death, are worthy the imitation of all' who desire, like 
him, a life of heroism and a death of glory." By a vote 
of the House of Commons, a monument was erected in 
honour of Sir Ralph Abercromby in St Paul's Cathedral. 
His widow was created a peeress, and a pension of £20dO 
a year was settled on her and her two successors iq^ the 
title. It may be mentioned that Abercromby was returned, 
after a keen contest, as member of Parliament for hia 
native county of Clackmannanshire Lo 1773; but a parlia- 
mentary life had no attractions for l^im, and he did not 
seek re-election. A memoir of the later years of his life 
(1793-1801 ), by Ids son. Lord Dunfermline, was published 
in, 1861. 

ABERDARE, a town of Wales, in the county of 
Glamoiigan, on the right bank of the river Cynon, four 
miles S.W. of Merthyr-'TydviL The district around is 
rich in valuable nuneral products, and coal and iron 
mining are very extensively carried on in the neighbour* 
hood. Important tin-works, too, have been recently 
opened. Part of the coal is used at the iron-works, and 
large quantities are sent to Cardiff for exportation, jA.ber 



ABERDEEN 



39 



dare is connected Willi tlie coast by canal and railway. 
Owing to th9 great development of the coal and iron 
trade, it baa -rapidly increased from a mere village to a 
large and fiunri^iing town. Handsome churches, banks, 
and hotels have been erected, argood supply of water- has 
been introduced, and a public park has been opened. 
Two markets are held weekly. The whole parish falls 
within the parliamentary borough of Merthyr-Tydvit 
The rapid growth of its population b seen by the fol* 
lowing figures - in 1841 the number of inhabitants whs 
C471 ; m 1851, 14,999; i^ 1861, 32,299; find in 1871, 
37,774. 

ABERDEEN, a royal burgh and city, the chief part of a 
parliamentary burgh, the capital of the county of Aberdeen, 
the chief seaport in the nprth of Scotland, and the fourth 
Scottish town in populatidn, industry, and wealth. It lies 
in lat 57"* 9' N. and long. 2^ 6' W., on the German Ocean, 
near the mouth of the riv^ Dee, and is 542 miles north 
of London, and 111 miles' nortli of Edinburgh, by the 
shortest railway routes. 



ABERDEEN 




'z2&i 



Aberdeen, probably the Devana on Uie Diva of Ptolemy, 
was QD important place in the r2th century. William the 
Lion had a residence in the city, to which he gave a char- 
ter in 1179, confirming the corporate rights grantisd by 
David L The city received many subsequent royal 
chartera. It was burned by Edward III. in 1336, but 
it was soon rebuilt and extended, and called New Aber- 
deen« The houses were of timber and thatched, and 
many such existed till 1741. The burgh records are the 
oldest of any Scottish burgh. They begin in 1398, and are 
complete to the present time, with only a short break. 
Zxtnctfifrom them, extending from 1398 to 1570, have 
been published by the Spalding Club. For many centuries 
the city was subject to attacks by the barons of the sur- 
Tounding districts, and its avenues and six ports had to 
be guarded. The ports had aU been removed by 1770. 
Several monasteries exi&ted in Aberdeen before the Re- 
ionuitioii. Moat of the Scottish sovereigns visited the 



city and received gifts from the autBoritiea In 1497 a 
blockhouse was buUt at the harbour mouth as a protection , 
against the English. During the religions struggle in the 
17th century between the E^yalists and Covenanters tba 
dty was plundered by both parties. In 1715 Earl 
Marischal proclaimed the Pretender at Aberdeen. In 1745 
the Duke of Cumberland resided a short time in the city. 
In the middle of the 18th centuiy boys were kidnapped 
in Aberdeen, and sent as slaves to America. In 1817 the 
city became insolvent, with a debt of £225,710, contracted 
by public improvements, but the debt was soon paid ofL 
The motto on the city arms is BourAccord. It formed the 
watchword of the Aberdonians while "hiding King Robert 
the Brooe in hin battles with the EnglisL 

Of eminent men connected with Aberdeen, New and 
Old, may be mentioned — John Barbour, Hector Boece or 
Boethius, Bishop Elphinstone, the Earls Marischal ; George 
Jamesone, the famous portrait painter ; Edward iUiban, the 
first printer in Aberdeen, 1622 ; Rev. Andrew Cant, 
the Covenanter ; David Anderson (Davie do a' thing), a 
mechanic ; James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting 
telescope ; Dr Thomas Reid, the metaphysician ; Dr George 
Campbell, Principal of MarisQhal College, author of several r 
important works, and best known by his Philosophy of 
Rhetoric; Dr James Beattie; Lor^ Byron; Sir James' 
Mackintosh; Robert Hall; Dr R. Hamilton, who wrote on 
the National Debt 

Till 1800 Ihe dty stood on a few eminences, and had 
steep, narrow, and crooked streets, but, since the Improve- 
ment Act of that year, the whole aspect of the place haa 
been altered by the formation of two new spadous and 
nearly level streets (Union Street and King Street, meet- * 
ing in Castle Street), and by jthe subsequent laying out of 
many others, besides squares, terraces, ^c, on nearly flat 
ground. The city is above eight miles in drcuit, and is 
built on sand, gravel, and boulder clay. The highest parta 
are frbm 90 to 170 feet above the sea. The chief thorough- 
fare is Union Street, nearly a mile long and 70 feet broad. 
Jt runs W.S.W. from Castle Street, and crosses the Den- 
bum, now the railway valley, by a noble ^nite arch 132 
feet in span and 50 feet lagh, which cost, with a hiddeo 
arch on each side, Xld,000. 

Aberdeen is :iow a capadous, el^ant, and well-bailt PnMie 
town, ax^d from the nuiterial employed, consLsting chiefly of Bnildiugf 
light grey native granite, la called the "granite dty.'' 
It contains many fine public buildings. The prindpal of 
these is Marischal College or University Buildings, whidi 
stands on the site of a pre-Ref ormation Frandscan Convent, 
and was rebuilt, 1836-1841, at a cost of about £30,000. 
It forms three sides of a court, which is 117 by 105 £eet^ 
and has ti back wing, and a tower 100 feet high^ The 
accommodation consists of twenty-five large daaa-roomB and 
laboratories, a hall, library, museums, &c 

The University of Aberdeen was formed by the union 
and incorporadon, in 1860, by Act of Parliament, of the 
Universify and King's College of Aberdeen, founded in Old 
Aberdeen, in 1494, by William Elphinstone^ Bishop of 
Aberdeen, under the authority of a Papal bull obtained by 
James IV., and of the Marischal College and Uoiyersil^of 
Aberdeen, founded in New Aberdeen, in 1593, by George 
Kdth, Earl Marischal, by a charter ratified by Act of Par- 
liament. The ofiicials consist of a chancellor, with rectov 
and prinpipal ; there are 21 professors and 8 assistanta 
Arts and divinity are taught in King's College, and medicine^ 
natural history, and law in Marischal College. The arts 
session lasts from the end Of October to the beginning 
of ApriL The arts curriculum of four years, with gradua- 
tion, costs £36, lis. There are 214 arts bursaries, 29 
divinity, and 1 medical, of the aggregate annual vdoe of 
X3646, £650, and £26, resi^ectively. About 60 arts 



40 



ABERDEEN 



bursaries, mostly from £10 to £35 iii value, are given 
yearly by competition, or by presentation and examination. 
IVo-Uiirds of the arts Students are bursars. Seventeen 
annual scholarships and prizes of the yearly value of £758 
are given at the end of the arts curnculuuL The average 
yearly number of arts students, in the thirteen years 
since the union of the arts classes of the two colleges m 
1860, has been 342, while m the separate colleges together 
for the nine years before the Union, it was 431. In winter 
session 1872-73 there were 623 matriculated students in 
all the faculties. In 1872, 32 graduated in arts, 6& in 
piedicine, 5 in divinity, and 1 in law. The library has 
ubove 80,000 volumes. The General Council in 1873 had 
12075 roistered members, who, with those of GlaGigow Uni- 
versity, return one member to Parliament. 

The Free Church Divinity College was built in 1850, 
at the cost of £2025, in the Tudoi^Gothic style. It has a 
large hall, a library of 12,000 volumes, and 15 bursaries of 
the yearly value of from £10 to £25. \ 

At the east end of Union Street, and partly in Castie 
Street, on th*e i>orth side, are the new County and Muni- 
cipal buildings, an imposing Franco-Scottish Gothic pile, 
225 feet long, 109 feet broad, and 64 feet high, of four 
stories, built 1867-1873 at the oost of £80,000, including 
£25,000 for the site. Its chief feature, is a tower 200 
feet high. It contains a great hall, 74 feet long, 35 feet 
broad, and 50 feet high, with an open timber ceiling,: a 
Justiciary Court-Houae, 50 feet long, 37 feet broad, and 
31 feet high; a Town Hall, 41 feet long, 25 feet broad, 
and 15 feet high, and a main entrance corridor 60 feet 
long, 16 feet broad, and 24 feet high. A little to the west 
is the Town and County Bank, a highly ornamented building 
inside and outside^ in the Italian style^ costing about 
£24,000. 

A very complete closed public market of two floors was 
built in 1842, at a cost of £28,000, by a company incor- 
porated by Act of Parliament. The upper floor or great 
ball is 315 feet long, 106 feet broad, and 45 feet high, 
with galleries all round The lower floor is not so high, 
The floors contain numerous small shops for the sale of 
meat, fowls, fish, &c., besides staUs and seats for the sale 
of vegetables, butter, eggs, <Scc. The galleries contain small 
shops for the sale of drapery, hardware, fancy goods, and 
books. On the upper floor is a fountain of polished Peter- 
head granite, costing £200, with a basin 7^ feet diameter, 
cut out of one block of stone. Connected with this under- 
taking was the laying out of Market Street from Union 
Street to the quay. At the foot of this street is being built 
in the Italian style the new post and telegraph office, at a 
cost of £16,000, including £4000, the cost of the site. 
It is to form a block. of about 100 feet square and 40 feet 
high. 
C*hnx»hc% Aberdeen has about 60 places of worship, with nearly 
t^^ . 48,000 sittings. There are 10 Established churches; 20 
Schools. Yree, 6 Episcopalian, 6 United Presbyterian, 5 Congre- 
gational, 2 Baptist, 2 Methodist, 2 Evangelical Union, 1 
Unitarian, 1 of Roman Catholic, 1 of Friends, and 1 of Origi- 
nal Seccdcrs. There are also several mission ohapels. In 
1843 all the Established ministers seceded, with 10,000 lay 
members. The Established and Free Church denomina- 
tions have each about 11,000 members in communion. 
The Es^blished West and East churches, in the centre of 
the city, within St Nicholas churchyard, form a continuous 
building 220 feet long, including an intervening aisle, over 
which is a tower and spire 140 feet high. The West was 
built in 1775 in the Italian style, and the East in 1834 in 
the Gothic, each costing about £5000. They occupy the 
site of the original cruciform church of St Nicholas, erected 
in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries. One of the nine 
bells in the tower bears the date of 1352, and is 4 feet 



\ 



diameter at the mouth, 3| feet high, and very thick. The 
Union Street front of the churchyard is occupied by a 
very elegant granite facade, • built in 1830, at the cost of 
£ 1 4 60. It is 1 47 J feet long, with a central arched gateway 
and entablature 32^ feet high, with two attach^ Ionic 
columns on each side. Each of the two wings has si& 
Ionic columns (of single granite blocks, 15 feet 2 inches 
long), with basement and entablature, the whole being 23| 
feet high. The following are the style, cost, and date of 
erection of tfa£ other principal Aberdeen churches — St An- 
drew's, Episcopal, Gothic, £6000, 1817; North Church, 
Established, Greek, £10,000, 1831 ; three churches in a 
cruciform group, Free, simple Lancet Gothic,*with a fine 
brick spire 174 feet high, .£5000, 1844 ; Roman* Catholic, 
Gothic, £12,000, 1859; Free West, Gothic, £12,856, 1869, 
with a spire 175 feet high 

In 1873 there were in Aberdeen about 110 schools, with 
from 10,000 to 11,000 pupils in attendance. About 2500 
students attend the University, Mechanics' Institution*, and 
private schools for special branches. 

Five miles south-west of Aberdeen, on the south side of 
the Dee, in Kincardineshire, is St Mary's Roman Catholic 
Qollege of Blairs, with a president and three professors. 

The Aberdeen Grammar School, dating from about 1 263, 
IS a preparatory school for the university. It has a rector 
and four regdar masters, who teach classics, English, 
arithmetic, and mathematics, for the annual fee of £4, 10s. 
for each pupil. Writing, drawing, <&c., are also taught. 
Nearly 200 pupils attend, who enter about the age of 
twelve. Like the Edinburgh High School, it has no 
elementary department. There are 30 bursaries. A new 
granite building for the school was erected, 1861-1863, 
in the Scotch baronial style, at the cost of £16,000, in< 
eluding site. It is 215 feet long and 60 feet high, and 
has three towers. 

The Mechanics' Institution, founded 1824, and re- 
organised 1834, has a hall, class-rooms, and a library of 
14,000 volumes, in a building erected in 1846, at a cost of 
£3500. During the year 1 872-73, there were at the School 
of Science and Art 385 pupils i and at other evening classesj 
538. 

Aberdeen has two native banks, besides branch banks. Banks, 
and a National Security Savings Bank; three insurance 
companies, four shipping companies, three railway com- 
panies, and a good many miscellaneous companies. There 
are ten licensed pawnbroking establishments, with about 
440,000 pledges in the year for £96,000, and with a 
capital of £27,000. There are seven incorporated trades, 
originating between 1398 and 1527, and having charitable 
funds for decayed members, widows, and orphans, ^hey 
have a hall, built in 1847 for £8300, in the Tudor Gothic 
style. The hall, 60 feet long, 29 wide, and 42 high, con- 
tains curious old chairs, and curious inscriptions on the 
shields of the crafts. 

Among the charitable institutions is Gordon's Hospital, Charitii 
founded in 1729 by a miser, Robert. Gordon, a Dantzic 
merchant, of the Straloch family, and farther endowed 
by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill in 1816. It is 
managed by the Town Conncil and four of the Established 
ministers of Aberdeen, incorporated by royal charters of 
1772 and 1792. The central part of the house was built 
in 1739, and the wings in 1830-1834, the whole costing 
£17,300, and being within a garden of above four acres. 
It now (1873) maintains and educates (in English, writing, 
arithmetic, physics, mathematics, drawing, music, French, 
<&c.) 180 boys of the age 9 to 15, the sons and grandsons 
of decayed burgesses of guild and trade of the city; and 
next those of decayed inhabitants (not paupers). Expendi- 
ture for year to 31st October 1872, £4353 for 164 boys. 
It has a headmaster, three regular, and several visiting 



ABERDEEN 



41 



oiastera. The Boys' and Girls' Hospital, lately built for 
£10,000, niRintoLin* and educates 50 boys aud 50 girla 

Tbe Female Orphan Asylum, founded by Mrs Elmslie, 
in 1840. and mana,ged by tnlstees, maintains and educates, 
chiefly as domestic servants 46 girls between the ages of 
i and 16, at the yearly co^ for each of about .£23. 13a 
Those adxmtted must be legitiihate orphan daughters of 
respectable parents, who have Uved three years imme- 
dttcely be/ore death in Aberdeen or m the a^ioimng 
panahes of Old Machar and Nigg The llospitaJ for 
Orphan oand Female Destitute Children, endowed by John 
Carnegie and the trustees of the Murtle Fund, maintains 
and educates 50 girlB, chiefly for domestic service The 
Asylum for the Blind, estabhshed in 1 843. on a foundation 
by Miss Cmickshank. maintains and educates about 10 
blind children, and gives industnal employment to blind 
adulta There is a boys and girls' school for 150 bojrs 
and }pO girls on Dr Bell's foundation The Industrial 
Schools, b^on by ShenfT Watson m 1841. and the Re- 
formatory &^ool8, begun m 1857, having some 600 pupils 
on the roll, have greatly diminished juvenile crime in the 
district The Murtle or John Gordon's Charitable Fund, 
founded in 1815, has an annual revenue from Und of about 
£2400. applicable to all kinds of chanty, in sums from 
£5 to £300 The Midbeltie Fund, founded by a bequest 
of £20,000, in 1848, by James Allan of Midbeltie, gives 
yearly pensions ranging from £5 to £15 to respectable 
decayed widows in the panshes of St Nicholas and Old 
Machar 

The two panshes in which Aberdeen is situated, vu., 
St Nicholas and Old Machar, have each a large poor-house. 
The poor of both panahes cost about £20,000 a year 

The Royal Inflrmary, instituted in 1740; was rebuilt 
1833-1840 in the Gredan style, at the cost of £17,000 
It IS a weU-situated, large, commodious, and impoemg 
building It has three stones, the front being 166 feet 
long and 50 feet high, with a dome. A detached fever- 
house was built in 1872 for about £2500 The managers 
were incorporated by royal charter in 1773, and much 
Increased in number m 1852 The institution is sup- 
ported by land rents, feu-duties, legacies, donations, sub- 
scriptions, church collections, d^c Bach bed has on an 
average 1 200 cubic feet of space. There axe on the average 
130 resident patients, costing each on the average a shilling 
daily, and the number of patients treated may be stated at 
1 70O annually, besides outdoor patients receiving advice and 
medicine The recent annual expenditure has been about 
£4300. There Ib a staff of a dozen medical officera 

The Royal Lunatic Asylum, opened in 1800, consists of 
two separate houses, vahied in 1870 at £40,000, in an 
' endosure of 40 acrea It is under the same management 
as the Infirmar^ The recent daily average of patients has 
been about 420, at an annual cost of £1 3,000 The annual 
rate for each pauper is £25, 10a The General Dispenssry, 
Vaccine, and Lymg-m Institution, founded m 1823, has 
had as many as 6781 cases in one year The Hospital for 
Incurables has a daily average of 26 patients, and the Oph- 
thalmic and Aunc Institution hss hsid 67 1 cases m a year 

The Music Hall, built in 1821 and 1859 at the cost 
of £16,500, has a front 90 feet long, with a portico of 6 
Ionic pillars 30 feet high , large, highly-decorated lobbies 
and rooms; and a hall 150 feet long, 68 broad, and 50 
high, with a flat ceiling, and gallenea The hail holds 2000 
persons seated, and has a flne organ and an orchestra for 
300 Here H.R.H. Pnnce Albert opened the British 
Association, as president, 14th September 1859. A new 
I Theatre and Opera House was built m 1872, in the mixed 
Gothic style, for £8400. with the stage 52} feet by 29, and 
the auditonum for 1 700 to 1 800 persona The front wall 
j& ol finish gramte and red and yellow freestone, with 



some polished Peterhead granite pillars, the rest being 
built of concrete^ 

In Castle Street, the City Place and Old Market Stance, Msitai' 
IS the Market Cross, a beautiful, open-arched, hexagonal ( 
structure of freestone, 21 feet diameter, and 18 feet high. 
It has Ionic columns and pilasters, and an entablature ol 
twelve panels. On ten of the panels are medallions, 
cut m stone, in high relief, of the Scottish sovereigns from 
James L to James VIL From the centre nses a com- 
posite column 12} feet high, with a Cormthian capital, on 
which is the royal unioom rampant This cross was planned 
and erected about 1682 by John Montgomery, a native 
architect, for £100 sterling. On the north side of the 
same street, a4Joining the municipal buildings, is tho 
North of Scotland Bank, a Grecian building in granite, 
with a portico of Corinthian columns, having most elabo- 
rately carved capitals. On an eminence east of Castle 
Street are the military barracks for 600 men, built in 1796 
for £16,000. ^ 

The principal statues io the city are those of the last 
Duke of GordcHi — died 1836— in grey granite, 10 feet high; 
Queen Victoria, in white Sicilian marble, 8^ feet highi 
Prince Albert, bronze, natural-sue, sitting posture; and a' 
cunous rough stone figure, of unknown deite, supposed to 
be Sir William Wallace. 

The Dee to the south of the dty is crossed by three ^ 
bridges, the old bhdge of Dee, an iron suspension bridge, 
and the Caledonian Railway bndga %The first, till 1832 
the only access to the city from the south, consists of 
seven semicircular ribbed arches, is about 30 feet high, 
and was built early m tho 16th centurv by Bishops Elphm- 
stone and Dunbar. It was nearly slJ rebuilt 1718-1723, 
and from bemg 14j^ feet wide, it wss m 1842 made 26 
feet wide. From Castle Street, King Street leads in the 
direction ol the new bridge of Don (a little east of the old 
" Bng o^ B^lgownie "), of five granite arches, each 75 feet 
span, built for neariy £13,000 in 1827*1832. 

A defective harbour, and a shallow sand and gravel bar at ] 

its entrance, long retarded the tiade of Aberdeen, but, under ft* 
various Acts smoe 1773, they have been greatly deepened 
The north pier, built partly by Smeaton, 1775-1781, and 
pardy by Telford, 1810-1815, extends 2000 feet into the 
German Ocean It is 30 feet broad, and, with the pKUupet, 
nses 1 5 feet above high water. It consists of large granite 
bbcka It has increased the depth of water on the bar 
from a few feet to 22 or 24 feet at spnng tides, and to 17 
or 18 feet at neap. The wet dock, of 29 acres, and with 
6000 feet of quay, was completed in 1848, and called 
Victoria Dock, in honour of Her Majestjr's visit to the 
dty in that year. These and other improvements "Of the 
harbour and its entrance cost £325,000 down to IS4A 
By the Harbour Act of 1868, the Dee near the harbour 
has been diverted to the south, ac the coet of £80,000» 
and 90 acres of new ground (in addition to 25 acres 
formerly made up) for harbour works are being nuide up on 
the dty or north side of the river; £80,(K)0 has been 
laid out pi forming in the sea, at the soutli side of the 
nver, a new breakwater of concrete, 1050 fe^ long, against 
south and south-east storms. The navigation channel is 
being widened and -deepened, and the old pier or break- 
water on the north side of the rirer mouth is to be 
lengthened at least 500 feet seaward A body of 31 oom- 
missioners manage the harbour affaira 

Aberdeen Bay affords safe anchorage with off-shore winds, 
but not with those from the N.E., K, and SuE. On the 
Girdleness, the south point of the bay, a lichthouse was 
built in 1833, in lat. 57** 8' N., and long. 2^ 3' W., with 
two fixed lights, one. vertically below the other, and re> 
spectively 115 and 185 feet above mean tide. There are 
also fixed leading lights to direct ships entering the harboia 



42 



ABERDEEN 



at night In fogs, a nUoxn whistle near the Ughthonae ia 
fiotiDded ten aeconda every muQute. Near the harbour 
mouth ore three battenee mounting nineteen guna 
W4iir The water supphed to the city containa only 3^ grains 

•olid matter in a gaUon, with a hardness of about 2 degrees. 
It IS brought by gravitation, in a close bnck cuiTert, 
from the Oee« 21 miles W.S.W of the dty, to a reservoir, 
which aapplies nine-tenths of the city The other tenth, 
or higher part of the city, is supplied by a separate reser- 
voir, to which part of the water from the culvert is forced 
up by a hydraulic engina Nearly 40 gallons- water per 
head of the population are consumed daily for all purposes. 
The oew water works cost £160,000, and were opened by 
Her M^esty. 16th October 1866. 

The gas is made of c^nel coal, and ia sent through 71 
miles of main pipes, which extend 6 miles from the works. 
MnnnriM. The manufactures, arts, and trade of Aberdeen and 
i*irt». ftc ncinity are large and flourishing. Woollens were made as 
early as 1 703. and knitting of stockings was a great industry 
in the Idth century. I^ere are two large firms in the 
vooUen trade, with 1650 hands, at j£1 000 weekly wages, 
and making above 1 560 tons wool in the year into yams, 
carpets, hand-knit hosiery, cloths, and tweeds. The linen 
trade, much earned on since 1749« is now .confined to one 
firm, with 2600 hands, at £1200 wages weekly, who spin, 
weave, and bleach 50 tons flax and 60 tons tow weekly, 
and produce yams, floorcloths, sheetings, dowlas, ducks, 
(uweljB sail -can va;s, &q. The cotton manufacture, mtroduced 
m 1779 employs only one firm, with 550 hands, at X220 
«reekly wages, who spin 5000 bales of cotton a^year mto 
mule yarn The wincey trade, begun in 1839, employs 
«00 hands, at £200 weekly wages, who make 2,100,000 
yards cloth, 27 to 36 inches broad, in the year Paper, 
first made here in 1696, is now manufactured by three 
firms in the vicinity The largest has 2000. bauds, at 
X1250 weekly wages, and makes weekly 75 to 80 tons of 
wntmg paper, and 6^ miUions of envelopes, besides much 
cardboard and stamped paper, another firm makes weekly 
77 tons coarse and card paper . and a third, 20 tons print- 
ing and other paper The comb works of Messrs Stewart 
i& Co.. begun m 1827. are the largest in the world, em- 
ploying 900 hands, at £500 weekly wages, who yearly 
convert 1 1 00 tons boms, hoofs, mdia^rabber, and tortoise- 
dheDs into i 1 millions of combs, besides spoons, cups, 
scoops, paper-kmves, dec Seven iron foundnes and 
many eogineenng works employ 1000 men, at £925 
weekly wages, and convert 6000 tons of iron a-year into 
marine and land steam engines and boilers, com mills, 
wood-prepanng machinery, machineiy to gnnd and pre- 
pare artificial manures, besides sugar mills and frames and 
cofl*ee machinery for the coloniea. 

The Sandilands Chemical Works, begun in 1848, cover 
five acres, and employ over 100 men and boys, at £90 to 
£100 weekly wages. Here are prepared naphtha, benzole, 
creosote oil, pitch, asphalt, sulphate of ammonia, sulphuric 
acid, ana arunciai manures. Paraffin wax and ozokerite 
are refined. An Artesian weU within the worics, 421 feet 
deep, elves a constant supply of good water, always at 
51^ Fanr. Of several provision-curing works, the largest 
employs 300 hands, chiefly females, in preserving meats, 
soups, sauces, jams, jellies, pickles, &&, and has in con- 
nection with it, near the city, above 230 acres of fmit, vege- 
table, and farm ground, and a large piggery The products 
of the breweries and distilleries are mostly comsumed at 
home. A large agricultural implement work employs 70 
or 80 men and boya Nearly 200 acres of ground, within 
three miles of the city, are laid out in rearing shrub and 
forest-tree seedlings. In 1872 about 145 acres of straw- 
berries were reared within three miles of Aberdeen, and 
80 tons of this fruit are said to have been exported. 



Very durable grey granite has been <|Uarried near Aber- OmoUm 
deen for 300 years, and blocked and dressed paving, kerb, 
and building granite stones have long been exported from 
the district In 1 764, Aberdeen granite pavement was first 
used in Londoa About the year 1 795, large gramte blocks 
were sent for the Portsmouth docka The chief stones of 
the New Thames Bmbankment, London, are from Kemnay 
granite quarries, 16 miles north-west of the city. Aber- 
deen is almost entirely built of granite, and large quantities 
of the stone are exported to build bridges, wharfs, docks, 
lighthouses, &c., elsewhere. Aberdeen is famed for iti 
polishing-works of granite, especially grey and red. They 
employ about 1600 hands in polishing vases, tables, 
chimney-pieces, fountains, monuments, columns, ^c, for 
British aikl foreign demand Mr Alexander Macdonald, 
in 1818, was the first to b^n the granite polishing trade, 
and the works of the same firm, the only ones of the kind 
till about 1850, are still the largest in the kingdom. 

In 1820, 15 vessels from Aberdeen were engagecf in the PtaUogft 
northern whale and seal fishing; in 1860, one vessel, but 
none ainca The white fishing at Aberdeen employs some 
40 boats, each with a crew of 5 mea Of the 900 tons 
wet fish estimated to be brought to market yearly., above a 
third ore sent fresh by rail to England The saiinon 
caught in the Dee^ Don, and sea are nearly ail sent to 
London fresh in ice. The herrmg fishing has been pro- 
secuted since 1836, and from 200 to 350 boats an 
engaged in it 

Aberdeen has been famed for shipbuilding, especially shipbuJ^ 
for its fast dippera Since 1855 nearly a score of vessels uv 
have been built of above 1000 tons eacL The largest 
vessel (a sailing one) ever built here was one m 1 855. of 2400 
tona In 1 872 there were built 1 1 iron vessels of 9450 
tons, and 6 wooden of 2980 tons, consuming 5900 tons 
iron, and costing £252,700, including £70,700 for engines 
and other machinery. 1400 hands were employed in 
shipbuilding in that year, at the weekly wages of about 
£1230. 

In 1872, there belonged to the pore of Aberdeen 230 Sbipi^iq 
▼easels, of 101,188 tons, twenty -four of the vessels, of 7483 
tons, being steamers. They trade with most fintish and 
Irish ports, the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and many 
more distant regiona In 1872, 434,108 tons shipping 
arrived at the porti and the custom duties were £1 12,414 
The export trade, exclusive of coasting, is msigmficant 
The shore or harbour dues were £126 in 1765, and £1300 
in 1800. In the year ending 30th September 1872, they 
were £25,520; while the ordinary harbour revenue was 
£37,765,*expenditure £28,598, and debt £324.614. The 
introduction of steamers m 1821 greatly promoted id 
dustry and traffic, and especially the cattle trade of 
Aberdeenshire with London. These benefits have been 
much mcreased by the extension of railwaya Commodioua 
steamers ply regularly between Aberdeen and London, 
Hull, Newcastle, Leith, Wick, Kirkwall, and Lerwick. 

The Joint railway station for the Caledoman, Gr^t ^^ 
North of Scotland, and Deeside lines, was opened 1867, *"*'" 
and is a very handsome erection, costing about £26,000. 
It is 500 feet long, and 102 feet broad, with the^de walls 
32 feet higL Th^s arched roof of curved lattice-iron nba, 
covered with slate, zinc, and glass, is ail m one span, rising 
72 ^eet high, and is very light and airy 

The Medico-Chirurgi<»l Society of Aberdeen was founded 8odeiM 
in 1789 The haU was built in 1820 at a cost of £4000, 
and is adorned with an Ionic portico of four granite columna, 
27 feet high. It has 42 members, and a library, of 5000 
volumea The legal practitioners of Aberdeen nave been 
styled advocates since 1633, and ireceived royal chartere 
in 1774, 1779, and 1862. They form a society called 
the Society of Advocates, of 127 members m 1873, with a 



A B E R D E EN 



43 



nU 



iiall built in 1871 for £5075, a library of nearly COOOt 
vulumes, and a fund to support decayed and indigent 
members, and their nearest relatives. The revenue in 
>872 was £2880. 

Aberdeen has one daily and three weekly newspapers. 
[The Aberdeen Journal, established in 1748, is the oldest 
... Newspaper north of the Forth. 

ikile , fj^^ places of ottt'door' recreation and amusement are 
, chiefiy the ^following : — The Links, a grassy, benty, and 
^ sandy tract, 2 miles Jong and J to ( mile broad, along 
the shore between the mouths of the Dee and the Don. 
It is mostly only a few feet above the sea, but the Broad 
Hill rises to 94 feet. Cattle shows, reviews, &c., are held 
' on the Linka To the northwest of the town, a Public 
Recreation Park of 13 acres was laid out in 1872, at the 
cost of £3000, with walks, grass, trees, shrubs, and flowera 
imats. Daily observations from 1857 to 1872 show the mean 

temperature of Aberdeen for the year to be 45** 8 Fahr., 
for the three summer months 56^ Fahr., and for the three 
winter months 37° 3. The average yearly rainfall is 30*57 
inches. Aberdeen is the healthiest of the large Scottish 
towns. East winds prevail in spring. 

Since 1867 £50,000 has been spent in constructing 
raain sewers throughout the city. A few acres of farm 
^ land have been irrigated by part of the sowoge. 
unict. 1«jjg ^jj^y jg governed by a corporation, the magistrates 

' ' ^' and town council, consisting of twenty-five councillors, 
including a provost, six bailies, a dean of guild, a trea- 
surer, Ac. The corporation revenue in the year 1871-72 
was £1 1,498. The police, water, and gas are managed by 
the council. The municipal and police burgh has an area 
of nearly three square miles, with 12,51 4 municipal electors, 
and with assessable property valued at £230,000 in 1873. 
,The Parliamentary burgh has an area of nine square miles, 
including Old Aberdeen and Woodside, with 14,253 Par- 
liamenury electors, and real property to the value of 
£309,328 in 1873. It returns one member to Parliament 
1'he population of Aberdeen in 1396 was about 3000; in 
1643, 8750, in 1708 5556; in 1801, 26,d92; in 1841, 
,03.262, and in 1871, 88,125; with 6718 inhabited 
houses, 292 uninhabited, and 77 building. 
i<i Aberdeen, Old, is a small, quiet, ancient town, a 

^fJ^^H ' hurgh of barony and regality, a mile north of Aberdeen, 
and as far south-west of the mouth of the Don. It mostly 
forms one long street, 45 to 80 fee', above the sea. The 
Don, to the north of the t^wn, runs through a narrow, 
wooded, rocky ravine, and is spanned by a single Gothic 
arch, the " Brig o' Balgownie" of Lord Byron. The bridge 
rests on gneiss, and is 67 leet wide and 34 1 feet high above 
the surface of the river, which at ebb tide is here 19 feet 
deep. The bridge is the oldest in the north of Scotland, 
and is said to have been built about 1305. The funds 
belonging to the bridge amount to £24,000. 

The town was formerly the see of a bishop, and had a 
large cathedral dedicated to St Machar. In 1 1 37 David I. 
translated to Old Aberdeen the bishopric, founded at 
Mortlach in Baxiffahire in 1004 by Malcolm 11. in memory 
of his signal victory there over the Danes. In 1153 
'Malcolm IV. gave the bishop a new charter. 
itMr%L» The cathedral of St Machar, begun about 1 357, occupied 
' nearly 170 years in building, and did not remain entire 
fifty years. What is still left is the oldest part, viz., the 
nave and side aisles, 126 feet long and 62^ feet broad, 
now used as the parish church. It is ciuefly built of 
outlayer granite stones, and while the plainest Scottish 
cathedral, is the only one of granite in the kingdom. On 
the f.at pannclled ceiling of the nave are 48 heraldic shields 
«f the princes, nobles, and buthops who aided in its erection. 
it Las been lately repaired, and some painted windows 
iuaerted, at the post of £4280 



The chief structure in Old Aberdeen is the stately fabrio King's 
of King's College near the middle of the town. It forms Os^lcffs. 
a quadrangle, with interior court 108 feet square, two 
sides of which have been rebuilt, and a projecting wing for 
a libraiy added since 1860. The oldest parts, the Crown 
Tower and Chapel, date from about 1500. . The former 
is 30 feet square and 60 feet high, and is surmounted 
by a structure about 40 feet high, consisting of a six-sided 
lantern and a royal crown, both sculptured, and resting on 
the intersections of two arched ornamented slips rising from 
the four comers of the top of the tower. The chapel, 120 
feet long, 28 feet broad, and 37 feet high, still retains in 
the choir the original oak canopied stalls, miserere seat, and 
lofty open screen. These 6ttings are 3v.O years old, in 
the French flamboyant stylo, and are unsurpassed, in taste- 
ful design and delicate execution, by the oak carving of 
any other old church in Europe. This carved woodwork 
owes its preservation to the Principal of Reformation 
times, who armed his people, and protected it from the 
fury of the barons of the M earns after they had robbed 
the cathedral of its bells and lead. The chapel is still used 
for public worship during the University session. 

Connected with Old Aberdeen is a brewery in. the town, 
and a brick and coarse pottety work in the vicinity. There 
are abo a Free church, two secondary schools, and two 
primary schools. Old Aberdeen has its own municipal 
officers, consisting of a provost, 4 bailies, and 13 councillors. 
The town is drained, lighted,, supplied with water, and is 
within the Parliamentary boundary of New Aberdeen. 
There are several charitable institutions. Population in 
1871, 1857 ; inhabited houses, 233. (a. g.) 

ABERDEENSHIRE, a maritime county in the north- 
east of Scotland, between 56*" 52' and 57*" 42' N. lat. and 
between T 49' and 3* 48' long. W. of Greenwich. It is -• 
bounded on the north and east by the German Ocean ; on 
the south by the counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth ; 
and on the west by those of Inverness and Banff. Its 
greatest length is 102 miles, and breadth 50 miles. Its 
circuit with sinuosities is about 300 miles, 60 being sea- 
coast. It is the fifth of Scotch counties in size, and is one- 
sixteenth of the extent of Scotland. Its area is 1970 
square miles, or 1,260,625 acres, of which, in 1872, 366 
per cent., or 585^99 acres, were cultivated, 93,339 in woods 
(mostly Scotch fir and larch), and 6400 in lakes. It con- 
tains 85 civil parishes and parts of 6 others, or 101 parishes^ 
including dvil and quoad sacra. The county is generally 
hilly, and mountainous in the south-west, whence, near the 
centre of Scotland, the Grampians send ont various brancheM, 
mostly to the riorth-east, through the county. The run uf 
the rivers and the general slope of the county is to the 
north-east and east. It is popularly divided into five 
districts: — First, Mar, mostly -between the Dee and Don, Di,irict 
and forming nearly the south half of the county. It is 
mountainous, especially Braemar, its west and Highland 
part, which contains the greatest mass of elevated land in 
the British Isles. Here the Dee rises amid the grandeur 
and wildness of lofty mountains, much visited by tourists, 
and composed chiefly of granite and gneiss, forming many 
high precipices, and showing patches of snow throughout 
every summer. Here rises Ben Muichdhui, the second higliest 
mountain in Scotland and in the British Isles, 4296 feet ; 
Braeriach, 4225 ; Caimtoul, 4245 ; Cairngorm (famed for 
" Cairngorm stones," a peculiar kind of rock crystal), 4090 ; 
Ben-a.Buird, 386C; Ben Avon, 3826, and Byron's "dark 
Lochnagar," 3786. The soil on the Dee is sandy, and 
on the Don loamy. The city of Aberdeen is in Mur. 
Second, Formartin, between the lower Don and Ythan, 
with a sandy coast, succeeded by a clayey, fertile, tilled 
tract, and then by low hills, moors, mosses, and tilled land. 
Third, Buchan^ north of the Ythan, and next in size ts^ 



44 



ABERDEENSHIRE 



Mar, with jmrts of the coast bold and rocky, and with the 
interior bare, low, flat, undulating, and in parts peaty. On 
rlic coast, six miles south of Peterhead, are the Bullers of 
13uchan,-^a basin in which the sea, entering by a natural 
i arch, boib up violently in stormy weather. Buchan Ness 
is the outmost point of Scotland. Fourth, Garioch^ a 
beautiful, undulating, loamy, fertile valley, formerly called 
the granary of Aberdeen, with the prominent hill Benachie, 
1676 feet, on the south. Fifth, Straihbogie, mostly con- 
sisting of hills (The Buck, 2211 feet; Noath, 1830 feet), 
moors, and mosses. The county as a whdte, except the low 
> grounds of Buchan, and the Highlands of Braemar, consists 
mainly of nearly level or undulating tracts, often naked 
and infertile, but interspersed with many rich and highly 
cultivated spots. ' 

Rivers. The chief rivers arc the Dee, 96 miles long, Don, 78^ 

Ythan, 37, with mussel beds at its mouth j Ugie. 20 ^ and 
Deveron, 58, partly on the boundary of Banflfshire. The 
pearl mussel occurs m thcL Ythan and Doa A valuable 
, pearl m the Scottish crown is said to be from the Ythan. 
Loch Muick, the largest of the few lakes in the county, 
1310 feet above the sea. is only 2^ miles long and ^ to ^ 
mile broad The nvcrs have plenty of salmon and trout 
There are noted chalybeate spnngs at Peterhead, Fraser 
burgh, and Pananich near Balkter. 

Chatate The climate of Aberdeenshire, except in the mountainous 
districts, is comparatively mild, from the sea being on twu 
sides. The mean annual temperature at Braemar is 43'*"6 
Fahr., and at Aberdeen .45'S. The mean yearly rainfall 
vanes from about 30 to 37 inches. The summer climate 
of the Upper Dee and Don valleys is the driest and most 
bracing in the British Isles, and grain is cultivated up to 
1 600 feet above the sea, or 400 to 600 feet higher than 
elsewhere in North Britain. All the crops cultivated in 
Scotland ripen, and the people often live to a great age. 

Geology. The rocks are mostly granite, gneiss, with small tracts of 
syenite, mica slate, quartz rock, chy slate, grauwacke, 
primary limestone,' old red sandstone, serpentine, and trap. 
Lias, greensand, and chalk flints occur. The rocks are 
iiuich covered with boulder clay, gravel, sand, and oUu- 
viura. Brick clay occurs near the coast The surface of 
the granite under the boulder clay often presents glacial 
smoothmgs, grooves, and roundings. Caimgorm stone, 
beryl, and amethyst arc found in the granite of Braemar. 

Pianu Aud The tops of the highest mountains have an arctic flora. 

AiiioMls. At Her Majesty's Lodge, Loch Muick, 1350 feet above the 
sea, grow larches, vegetables, currants, laurels, roses, &c. 
Some ash trees, 4 or 5 feet in girth, are growing at 1300 
feet above the sea. The mole occurs at 1800 feet above 
the sea, and the squirrel at 1 400. Trees, especially Scotch 
fir and larch, grow well m the county, and Braemar abounds 
m natural timber, said to surpass any m the north of 
Europe. Stumps of Scotch fir and oak found in peat in 
the county are often far larger than any now growing. 
Grouse, partridges, and hares abound m the county, and 
Tiibbits arc often too numerous. Red deer abound in 
Bracmur, the deer forest being there valued at X5000 a 
ycai, and estimated at 500,000 acres, or one-fourth the 
area of doer forests in Scotland. 

AgncuJ. Poor, gravelly, clayey, and peaty soils prevail much more 

lurt. ^^ Alierdccnshu-e than good rich loams, but tile draining, 

bones, and guano, and the best modes of modern tillage, 
have greatly increased the produce. Farm-houses and 
Bteadmgs have greatly improved, and the best agricultural 
implements and machines are in gcnci*al use. About two- 
thirds of the population depend entirely on agriculture, and 
oatmeal in various forms, with milk, is the chief food of 
farm-servants. Farms arc generally small, compared \^itb 
those in the south-east counties. The fields are separated 
by dry-stone dykes, and also by wooden and wire fences. 



Leases of 19 or 21 years prevail, and the five, six, or seven 
shift rotation is in general use. In 1872 there were 1 1,642 
occupiers of land, with an average of 50 acres each, and 
paying about £536,000 in rent Of the 685,299 acres of 
the county in crop in 1872, 191,880 acres were in oats, 
18,930 in barley and here, 1633 in rye, 1357 in wheat, 
95,091 in turnips (being one^fifth of the turnips ^wn in 
Scotland), 8414 in potatoes, 232,178 in grasses and cloi^cr< 
In 1872 the county had 23,117 horses, 157,960 cattle 
(being above one-seventh of all the cattle in Scotland;, 
128,308 sheep, and 13,579 pig& The county is unsur* 
pa^d in breeding, and unrivalled -in feeding cattle, and 
this is more attended to than the cultivation of grain-cropa 
About 40,000 fat cattle are reared, and above £1,000,000 
value of cattle and dead meat is sent from the county to 
London yearly. The capital invested in agriculture within^ 
the county is ^timated at about £6,133,000. _ 

The great mineral wealth in Aberdeenshire is its long- Mlom!) 
famed durable granite, which is largely quarried for build« 
ing, paving, causewaying, and polishing. An acre of land 
on being reclaimed has yielded £40 to £50 worth of cause* 
waying stones. Gneiss is also quarried, as also primary 
limestone, old red sandstone, conglomerate millstone, grau* 
wacke, clay slate, syenite, and hornblende rock. Iron ore, 
manganese, and plumbago occur in the county. 

A large Ashing pof)ulation in villages along the coast Fl$beiiei 
engage in the white and herring fishery. Haddocks are 
salted and rock-dried (speldings), or smoked (finnans). The 
rivers and coasts }'ield many salmon. Peterhead was long 
the chief British port for the north whale and seal fishery, 
but Dundee now vies with it in this industry. 

The manufactures and arts of the county arc mainly Maoufae 
prosecuted in or near the town of Aberdeen, but throughout tutus, 
the rural districts there are much milling of com, brick and 
tile making, stone-quarrying, smith-work, brewing and 
distilling, cart and farm implement making, casting and 
drying of peat, timber felling, especially on Dccside and 
Donside, for pit-props, railway sleepers, lath, barrel staves, 
&c. The chief imports into the county are, coals, lime, t^ad^ 
timber, iron, slates, raw materials of textile manufac- 
tures, wheat, cattle-feeding stuff's, bones, guane, sugar, 
alcoholic liquors, fruits, &c. The chief exports are granite 
(rough, dressed, and polished), flax, woollen, and cotton 
goods, paper, combs, preserved provisions, oats, barley, 
live and dead cattle, &c In the county there are about 
520 fairs in the year for cattle, horses, sheep, hiring ser- 
vants, &c 

Aberdeenshire communicates with tho south by the RaUwijs 
Caledonian Railway, and five macadamised roads acrosF > 
tho east Grampians, the highest rising 2200 feet above the 
sea About 188 miles of railway (the Great North of 
Scotland, Formartin and Buchan, and Deeside lines), and 
2359 miles of public roads, ramify through the county. 
Tolls over the county were abolished in 1865, and the 
roads are kept up by assessment The railway lines in the 
county have cost on the average about £13,500 a mile. 
Several macadamised roads and the Great North of Scot- 
land Railway form the main exits from the county to the 
north-west. 

The chief antiquities in Aberdeenshire arc Picts' houses Afttl* 
or weems ; stone foundations Of circular dwellings ; mono- q«itii* 
liths, some being sculptured; tho so-called Druid circles; 
stone cists; stone and earthen enclosures; the vitrified 
forts of Dunn i deer and Noath; cairns; crannoges; earthen 
mounds, as the Bass; flint arrow-heads; clay funeral urns; 
stone celts and hammers. Remains of Roman camps occur 
at Pcterculter, Kintore, and Auchterless, respectively 107 J, 
100, and 115 acres. Roman arms have been found. Ruins 
of ancient edifices occur. On the top of a corneal hill called 
Dunnidecr, m the Garioch district, are the remains of o 



ABERDEENSHIRE 



45 



ca'stlc, supposed to be .700 years old, and surrounded by a 
vitrified wall, which must be still older. The foundations 
of two buildings still remain, the one in Braemar, and the 
other in the Loch of Cannor (the latter with th^ remains 
of a wooden bridge between it and the land), which are 
supposed to haye belonged to Malcolm Canmore, King of 
Scotland. The most extensive ruins are the grand ones of 
KiWrummy Castle, evidently once a princely seat, and still 
covering nearly an acre of ground. It belonged to David 
Earl of Huntingdon in 1150, and wa^ the seat of the Earls 
of Mart attainted in 1716. The Abbey of Deer, now in 
ruins, was begun by Cumyn Earl of Buchan about 1219. 
<iftorical In Roman times, Aberdeenshire formed part of Ves- 
■^^^ posiana in Caledonia, and was occupied by the Taizali, a 
\varlike tribe. The local names are mostly Gaelic. St 
Columba and his pupil Drostan visited Buchan in the 6th 
century. In 1052 Macbeth fell near the Peel Bog in 
Lumphanan, and a cairn which marks the spot is still 
shown. In 1 309 Biiice defeated Comyn, Earl of Buchan, 
near Inveiiirie, and annihilated a powerful Norman family. 
In 1411 the Earl of Marr defeated Donald of the Isles in 
the battle of Harlaw, near Inverurie, when Sir Bobert 
Davidson, Provost of Aberdeen, was killed. In 1562 
occurred the battle of Corrichie on the Hill of Fare, when 
the Earl of Murray defeated the Marquis of Huntly. In 
1715 the Earl of Marr proclaimed the Pretender in Braemar. 
In 1746 the Duke of Cumberland with his army marched 
through Aberdeenshire to Culloden. In 1817 a base line 
of verification, 5 miles 100 feet long, was measured in con- 
nection with the Trigonometrical Survey of the British Isles, 
on the Belhelvie Links 5 to 10 miles north of Aberdeen, 
'imaest Among eminent men connected with Aberdeenshire are, 
*«• Robert G<ydon of Stralocl^, who 'in 1648 published the first 

atlas of Scotland from actual survey ; the Earls Marisehal, 
whose chief seat was Inverugie Castle; Field-Marshal 
Kcithy bom at Inverugie Castle, 1696 ; Dr Thomas Rcid, 
the metaphysician, minister of New Machar 1737 to 1752.; 
Lord Pitsligo, attainted 1745; Sir Archibald Grant of 
Monymosk, who introduced turnips into tjie county 1756, 
and was the first to plant wood on a great scale ; Peter 
Garden, Auchterless, said to have died at the age of 132, 
about 1780; Rev. John Skinner, author of some popular 
Scottish songs ; Morrison the hygeist ; the Earl of Aberdeen, 
Prime Minister during the Crimean war. 
5&i<Te The native Scotch population of Aberdeensliire are long- 

catan^ headed, shrewd, careful, canny, active, persistent, but 
reserved and blunt, and without demonstrative enthusiasm. 
They have a physiognomy distinct from the rest of the 
Scottish people, and have a quick, sharp, rather angry 
accent The local Scotch dialect is broad, and rich in 
diminutives, and is noted for the use of e for o or «, / for 
tvk, d for thy i&c. In 1830 Gaelic was the fireside language 
of almost every family in Braemar, but nOw it is little used. 
'otiTt^ and Aberdeenshii-e has a Lord-Lieutenant and 3 Vice and 60 
Police. Deputy-Lieutenants. The Supreme Court of Justiciary sits 
in Aberdeen twice a-year to try cases from the counties of 
Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine. The counties of Aberdeen 
and Kincardine are under a Sheriff and two Sheriffs-Substi- 
tute. T1»B Sheriff Couits are held in Aberdeen and Peter- 
head. Sheriff Small-Debt and C*ircuit Courts are held at 
seven places in the county. There are Burgh or Bailie Courts 
in Aberdeen and the other royal burghs in the county. 
Justice of the Peace and Police Courts are held in Aberdeen, 
kc. The Sheriff Courts take cognisance of Commissary 
business. During 1871, 994 persons were confined in the 
Aberdeenshire prisons. In the year 1870-71, 74 parishes 
in the county were assessed £53^703 for 7702 poor on the 
roll and 1847 casual poor. 
CkBRhfli. Aberdeenshire contains 105 Established churches, 99 
Free. 31 Episcopal, 15 United Presbyterian, 9 Roman 



Catholic, and 31 of other denominations. This includes 
detached parts of the two adjacent counties. 

By the census of 1871, 84*83 per cent of the children EJucatMu. 
in the county, of the ages 5 to 13, were receiving education. 
Those formerly called the parochial schoobnasters of 
Aberdeenshii'e participate in the Dick and Milne Bequests, 
which contributed more salary to the schoolmasters in some 
cases than did the heritors. Most of the schoolmasters are 
Masters of Arts, and many are preachers. Of 114 parochial 
schools in the county before the operation of the new 
Education Act, 89 received the Milne Bequest of £20 a 
year, and 91 the Dick Bequest averaging £30 a year, and 
a schoolmaster with. both beq' usts would have a yearly 
income of £145 to £150, and in a few cases £250. The 
higher branches of education have been more taught in the 
schools of the shires of Aberdeen and Banff than in the 
other Scotch counties, and pupils have been long in the 
habit of going direct from the schools of these two counties 
to the University. 

The value of property, or real rental of the lands and Property.y 
heritages in the county (including the burghs, except that 
of Aberdeen), for the year 1872-73, was £769,191. The 
railway and the water works in the city and county were 
for the same year valued at £1 1,1 33. For general county 
purposes for the^ year ending 15th May 1872, there waa 
assessed £14,803 to maintain police, prisons, militia, county 
and municipal buildings, db;c., and •£19,320 to mftin tnin 
2359 miles of public county roads. 

The chief seats on the proprietary estates are — Balmoral Projuieton 
Castle, the Queen ; Mar. Lodge and Skene House, Earl 
of Fife; Aboyne Castle, Marquis of Huntly; Dunecht 
House, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres ; Keith Hall, Earl 
of Kintorc ; Slains Castle, Earl of Enrol ; Haddo House, 
Earl of Aberdeen ; Castle Forbes, Lord Forbes ; Philortli 
House, Lord Saltoun ; Huntly Lodge, the Duke of Rich- 
mond: Other noted seats are — Drum, Irvine ; Invercauld, 
Farquharson ; Newe Castle, Forbes ; Castle Fi-aser, Fraaer ; 
Climy Castle, Gordon ; Mcldrum House, Urquhart ; Cmigs- 
ton Castle, Urquhsyt; Pitfour, Ferguson; Ellon Castle, 
Gordon; Fyvie Castle, Gordon. Ten baronets and knights 
have residences in the county. Of the proprietors mAny 
live permanently on their estatea Their prevailing names 
are Gordon, Forbes, Grant, Eraser, Duff, and Farquharson. 

Aberdeenshire has one city, Aberdeen, a royal parba- Borgiis. 
mentaiy bux^h ; three other royal parUamentary burghs, 
Inverurie, Kontore, and Peterhead; and seven burghs of 
barony. Old Aberdeen, Charleston of Aboyne, Fraserbuigh| 
Huntly, Old Meldrum, Rosdhearty, and Turriff. 

The county sends two members to Parliament— one for 
East Aberdeenshire, with 4341 electors, and the other for 
West Aberdeenshire, witlu3942 electors. The county has 
also four parliamentary burghs, which, with their respective 
populations in 1871, are — Aberdeen, 88,125; Peterhead, 
8535; Inverurie, 2856; and Kintore, 659. The first 
sends one member to Parliament, and the other three unite 
with Elgin, CuUen, and Banff, in sending another. ^ 

By the census 1801 the county had 121,065 inhabitants, Popttlatlon, 
and by that of 1871, 244,603, with 53,576 families. 111 
females to 100 males, 84,589 inhabited houses, 1052 unin- 
habited houses, and 256 building. In 1871 there were in 
eight towns (Aberdeen, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Huntly, 
Inverurie, Old Meldrum, Turriff, and New Pitsligo), 
111,978 inhabitants; in 32 villages, 19,561; and in rural 
districte, 113,064. 

( New Statistical Account ofScoUcund, vol. xil ; the charters 
of the burgh; extracts from the Council Register down to 
1625, and selections from the letter* .guildry, and trea* 
surer's accounts, forming 3 volumes of the Spalding Club; 
Collectums for a History of the Shires of A. and Banff, 
edited by Joseph Robertson, Esq., 4to, Spalding ' Club ; 



FArlitnieii* 
tary repro- 
s^ntatioa. 



46 



A B E — A B E 



JRegistrum Episcopalus Abcrdonemis^ vols. L and ii.| by 
Prof. Cosmo Innes, 4to, Spalding Club ; The History of A., 
by Walter Thorn, 2 vols. 12mo, 1811 ; i5wcAa», by the. Rev. 
John R Pratt, 1 2mo, 1859 ; Ilistoricai Account and Ddinea- 
iion of yL, by Robert Wilson, 1822; First RepoH of Rayed 
Com. on HisL 3fSS., 1869; The Anrials of A,, by William 
Kennedy, 1818; Orcm's Description of the C/uinonry, Cathe- 
dral, and King's Collego of Old A., 1724-25, 1830, The 
Castellated Architecture of A.fhy Sir Andrew Leith Hay 
of Rannes, imp^ 4to ; Specimens of Old Castellated Houses 
of A,, with drawings by Giles, folio, 1838 ; Lives of Eminent 
Men of A,, by James Bruce, 12mo, 184 l)r (a. a) 

ABERDEEN, Georob Hamilton Gordon, Fourth 
Earl op, was born at Edinburgh on the 28th January 
1734. He was educated at Harrow School, and at St 
John's College, Cambridge, where be graduated in 1804. 
He succeeded his grandfathei^ in the earldom in 1801, and 
in the ^me year he made an extended tour through 
Europe, visiting France, Italy, and Greece. On his 
return he founded the Athenian Club, the membership 
iii which was confined to those who had travelled in 
Greece. This explains Lord Byron's reference in the 
Rrvglish Bards and Scotch Reviewers to "the travelled 
Thane, Athenian Aberdeen." Soon after his return ho 
contributed a very able article to the Edinburgh Review 
(vol. vi.), on Cell's Topography of Troy. Another 

' literary result of his tt>ur was the publication in 1822 of 
An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in Grecian Archi- 
ticture^ the substance of which had appeared some years 
before in the form of an introduction to a translation of 
Vitruvius' Civil Architecture. In 1806, having been 
elected one of the representative peers for Scotland, he 
took his scat in the House of Lords on the Tory side. 
He was already on terms of intimacy with the leading 
members of the then predominant party, and in particular 
with Pitt, through the influence of his relative, the cele- 
brated Duchess of Gordon. In 1813 he )vas intrusted 
with a delicate and dlOicult special mission t9 Vienna, the 
;object being to induce the Emperor of Austria to join the 
alliance against his son-in-law Napoleon. His diplomacy 
was completely successful; the desired alliance was secured 
by the treaty of Tdplftz, which the Earl signed 93 repre- 
bcntative of Great Britain in September 1813. On his 
return at the conclusion of the war, he was raised to a 
British peerage, with the title of Viscount Gordoa. Lord 
Aberdeen was a member of the Cabinet formed by the Duke 
of Wellington in 1828, for a short time as Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster, and then as Foreign Secretary. He 
was Colonial Secretary in the Tory Cabinet of 1834-5, and 
again received the seals of the Foreign Office under Sir 
Robert Peel's administration of r841. The policy of non- 
intervention, to which he stedfastly adhered in his condu9t 
of foreign affairs, was at once his strength and his. weakness. 
Aecordihg to the popular idea, he failed to see the limitar 
tions and exceptions to a line of policy which nearly all 
admitted: to be as a general rule both wise and just Ool 
the whole, his administration was perhaps more esteemed 
abroad than at home. It has been questioned whether 
any English minister ever was on terms of greater 
intimady with foreign courts, bi;t there is no substantial 

• warrant for the 'charge of' want of patriotism which was 
-son^tknes brought against him. On the two cfiief ques- 
itions of home polities which were finally settlbu . during 
'his tenure of office, he was in advance of most of his 
party. While the other members of the Govcn;.ment 
yielded CathoUc Emancipation and the repeal of the Com 
Laws as unavoidable concessions, Lord^ Aberdeen spoke 
and voted for both measures from conviction of their 
fustice. On the 13th June 1843, ho moved the second 
reading of his bill "to remove doubts respecting the 



admission of ministcin to benefices in Scotlaud," and it' 
was passed into law in that session, though a sunilar 
measure had been rejected in 1840. As the Hrst proposal 
did not prevent, so the passing of the Act had no effect in 
healing, the breach in the Established Church of Scotkind 
which occurred in 1843. On the defeat of Lord Derby's 
government in 1852, the state of parties was such as to 
necessitate a coalition government, of which Liord A w- 
deen, in consequence of the moderation of his views, ytas 
the natural chief. He had been regarded as the leader of 
the Peel party from the time of Sir Robert's death, but 
his views on the two great questions Of home policy above 
mentioned rendered him more acceptable to the Liberals, 
and a more suitable leader of a coalition government than 
any other member of that party could have been. His 
administration will chiefly be remembered in connection 
with the Crimean w2ir, which, it is now generally believed, 
might have been altogether prevented by a more vigoroud 
policy. The incompetence of various departments at 
home, and the gross mismanagement of the commissariat 
in the terrible winter of 1854, caused a growing dissatis- 
faction with the government, which at length found 
emphatic expression in the House of Commons, when a 
motion submitted by Mr Roebuck, calling for inquiry, was 
carried by an overwhelming majority. Lord Aberdeen 
regarded the vote as one of no-confidence, and at once 
resigned. From this period Lord Aberdeen took little part 
in public business. In recognition of his services ho 
received, soon after his resignation, the decoration of the 
Order of the Garter. He died December 13, 1860. Lord 
Aberdeen was twrce married, — first in 1805, to a daughter 
of the first Marquis of Abercorn, who died in 1812, anc^ 
then to the widow of Viscount Hamilton. Ho» was suc- 
ceeded in the. title and estatcis by Lord Haddo, his 6011 
by the second marriage. 

ABERDOUR, a village in the county of Fife, in Scot* 
land, pleasantly situated on the north shore of the Firth 
of Forth, and much resorted to for sea-bathing. It is 10 
miles N.W. of Edinburgh, with which there is a frequent 
communication by steamer. 

ABERFELDY, a vills^ in Perthshire, celebrated in 
Scottish song for its "birks" and for the neighbouring 
falls of Moness. It is the terminus of a branch of tho 
Highland Railway. 

ABERGAVENNY, a market town m Monmouthshire, 
14 miles west of Monmouth, situated at the junction 
of a small stream called the Gavenny, with the river U'SL 
It is supposed to have been the Gobannium of the Romans, 
so named from Goharmio, the Gavenny. The town was 
formerly walled, and has the remains of a castle built 
soon after the Conquest, and also Of a Benedictine monas 
toFy. The river Usk is here spanned by a noble stone 
bridge of fifteen arches. Two markets are held weekly^ 
and elegant market buildings have recently been* erected. 
Thece is a free grammar school, with a fellowship and 
exhibitions at Jesus College, Oxford. No e»tensive 
manufacture is carried on except that of shoes ; the town 
owes its prosperity mainly to the large coal and iron 
works in the neighbourhood. Abergavenny is a polling 
place for the county. Population of parish (1871), 6318. 

ABERNETHY, a town in Perthshire, situated in tho 
parish of the saiTne name, on the right bank of th^ Tay, 
7 miles below Perth. The earliest of the Culdee houses 
was founded thei<e, and it-is said to have been the capital of 
the Pictish kings. It was long the chief seat of the Epis- 
copacy in the country, till, in the 9th centuiy, the bishopric 
was transferred to St Andrews. There stiU remains at Aber- 
nethy a curious circular tower, 74 feet high and 48 feet 
in circumference, consisting of sixty-four courses of hewn 
stone. A number of similar towers, though not so ivcll 



A B E — A BE 



47 



iniiit, are to be met with in Ireland, but there is. only one 
other in^ Scotland, viz., t^t at Brechia Petrie argues, in 
ha Round Towers of Ireland, that these structures have 
been used as belfries, and also as keeps. 

ABERNETHT, JOHV,-^ Protestant disseuting divine of 
Ireland, was bom at Coleraine, county Londonderry, Ulster, 
where his father was minister (Nonconformist), on the 
1 9th October 1680. In his thirteenth year he entered a 
student at the University of Glasgow. On concluding his 
course at Qlasgow he went to Edinburgh University, 
where his many brilliant gifts and quicl^ and ready wit — 
thought-born, not verbal merely — struck the most eminent 
of his contemporaries and even his professors. Returning 
home, he received licence to preach from his Presbytery 
before ho was twenty^ne. Ip; 1701 he was urgently 
invited to accept the ministerial charge of an important 
congregation in Antirim ; and after- an interva} of two 
years, Ue was ordained there on 8th August 1703. His 
admiring biographer teUs of an amount and kind of 
work done there, such as only a man of fecuhd brain, of 
large heart, of healthful frame, tod of resolute will, could 
have achieved. In 1717 he wsa invited to the congrega- 
tion of Usher's Quay, Dublin, as colleague with Rev. Mr 
Arbuckle,'and contemporaneously, to w^t was called the 
Old CoDgTQgation of Belfast The Synod assigned him to 
Dublin. He refused to accede, and remained at Antrim. 
This refusal was regarded then as ecclesiastical high- 
treason; and a controversy of the most intense and ^ 
proportionate «pharacter followed. The controversy and 
quazrel bears the name of the two camps in the con- 
flict, the ** Subscribers" and the " Non-subscribers ^ Out- 
and-out evivigelical as John Abemethy was, there can be 
no question that he and his associates sowed the seeds of 
that after^truggle in which, under 'the leadership of Dr 
Henry Oooke, the Arian and Socinian elements of tiie Irish 
Presbyterian Church were thrown out ' Much of what -he 
contended for, and which the ** Subscribers" opposed bitterly, 
has been silently granted in the lapse of tima In 1 726 the 
" NoQreubscribm," spite of an almost wofully pathetic 
pleading against separation by Abemethy, were cutoff, with 
due ban and solemnity, from the Irish Presbyterian Church. 
In 1730, spite of being a " Non-subscriber," he was called 
by his early friends of Wood Street, Dublin, whither he 
removed. In 1731 came on the greatest controversy in 
which Abemethy engaged, ^riz., in relation to the Test Act 
nominally, but practically on the entire question of tests 
and disabilities. His stand was "against all laws that, upon 
accovi&t of mere differences of religiotis. opinions and forms 
of wcnrship, excluded men of integrity and ability from 
serving their country." He was nearly a century in 
advance of his century. He had to reason with those who 
denied that a Roman Catholic or Dissenjer oould be a 
"man of integrity and ability.'' His ^ac<»-rHifterwards 
collected— did freih service, generations later. And so 
John Abemethy through life was ever foremost where mn- 
pepular truth and right were t5 be maintained; nor did he, 
for sake of an ignoble expediency, spare A smite the highest- 
seated wrongdoers any more than Qie hoariest errors (as he. 
believed). He died in 1740, having been twice married 
(Kippisf Biqg, Brit,^ a. ▼. ; Dr Duchal's Life, prefixed to 
Sennont; Lvxry in MS., 6 vols. 4to; History of Irish Pres- 
byterian Church), ' (a. b. g.) 

ABERNETHY, John, grandson of Jie preceding, an 
eminent surgeon, was bom in London on the 3d of April 
1764. His fEither was a London merchant Educated 
at Wolverhampton Grammar School, he was apprenticed 
m 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke, a surgeon in extensive 
practice in tibie metropolis. He attended Sir William 
Blizzard's anatomical lectures at the London Hospital, 
^•od was early employed to assist Sir William as ''de- 



monstrator ;" he also attended Pott's surgical lectures at 
St Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the lectures of ^ 
celebrated John Hunter. On Pott's resignation of the 
office of surgeon of St Bartholomew's, Sir Charles BIieke» 
who was assistant-surgeon, succeeded him, and Abemethy 
was elected assistant-surgeon in 1787. In this capacity 
he began to give lectures in Bartholomew Close, which 
were so well attended that the governors of the hospital 
built a regular theatre. (1790-91),^ and Abemethy thus 
became the founder of the distinguished School xA St 
Bartholomew's. He held the office of assistant-surgeon of 
the hospital for the long period of twenty HBight years, tiU, in 
1 8 1 5, ho was elected principal surgeon. He had before that 
time been appointed surgeon of Christ's Hospital (1813), 
and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the Royal 
College of Surgeons (1814). AbemeUiy had great fame 
both as 8 practitioner and as a lecturer, his reputation in 
both respects resting on the efforts he made to promote 
the practical improvement of surgery. His Surgical 06> 
serifotums on, the {JonstUutumal Origin and TreaimaU of 
Local DifMWM (1809)— known as "My Bpok," from the 
great frequency with which he referred his patients to it, 
and to page 72 of it in particiiar, under that name— was 
one of the earliest popular works on medical science. 
The views he expounds in it are based on physiological 
considerations, and are the more important that the con- 
nection of surgery with physiology had scarcely been 
recognised before the time he wrote. The leading prin- 
ciples on which he insists in " My Book *' are chiefly these 
two : — 1^, That topical diseases are often mere symptoms 
of (Constitutional maladies, and then can only be removed 
by general remedies; and ^d. That the disordered state of 
the constitution very often originates in, or is closely 
allied to deranged states of the stomach and bowels, and 
can only be remedied by means that beneficially affect the 
functions of those organs. His profession /owed him 
much for his able advocacy of the extension in* this way 
of the province of surgery. He had great success as a 
teacher from the thorough knowledge he hod of his 
science, and the persuasiveness with which ho enunciated 
his views. It has been said, however, that the influence 
he exerted on those who attended his lectures was not 
beneficial in this respect, that his opinions were delivered 
so dogmatically, and aU who differed from him were dis- 
paraged and denounced so contemptuously, as to repress 
inst^ of stimulating inquiry. It ought to be mentioned, 
that he ^s the first to suggest and to perform the daring 
operation of securing by ligature the carotid and the extern 
nal iliae orteriea The celebrity Abemethy attained in 
his practice was due not only to his great professional 
skill, but also m part to the singularity of his mdnnera 
He used great plainness of speech in his intercourse with 
his patients, treating them often brusquely, and sometimes 
even rudely. In the circle of his family and friends he 
was courteous and affectionate ; and in all his dealings he 
was strictly just and honourabl& He resigned his surgery 
at St Bartholomew's Hospital in 1827, and his professor- 
sl^p at the College of Surgeons two years later, on account 
of failing health, and died at his residence at Enfield 
on the 20th of April 1831. A collected edition of his 
works in five volumes was published in 1830. A bio- 
graphy, Memoirs of John Abemethy, by George Madlitain, 
F.E.C.S., appeared in 1853, and though anything but 
sat^^actory, passed through several editions. 

ABERRATION, or (more correctly) thb Abebbation 
OF LiGHf, is a remarkable phenomenon, by which' stara 
appear to deviate a little, in the course of a year, from' 
their tme placjes in the heavens. It results from the eye 
of the observer being carried onwards by the motion of the 
earth on its orbit, during the time that light takS0 to 



48 



A B E— -A B E 




travel from (he star to the earth. The effect of this com- 
bination Of motions may be best explamed by a familiar illus 
tration. Suppose a rain-drop falling vertically is received 
in a tube that has a lateral 
motion. In 'order that the 
drop may fall freely down 
the axis of the tube, the 
latter must be inclined at 
such an angle as to move 
from the position AD to BE, 
and again to CF. m the 
times the drop moves from 
D to O. and from O to C. 
The drop in this case, smce 
it moves down the axis all 
the way, must strike the 
bottom of the tube at C 
t» the directum FC. The 
light proceeding from a star is not seen in its true direc- 
tion, but strikes the eye obUquely, for \ precisely smiilar 
reason. If lines be taken to represent the motions, so that 
the eye is carried from A to C during the time that l^ht 
moves from D to C, the light will appear to the eye at C 
to come, not from D, but from F. The angle DCF, con- 
tained by the true and apparent directions of the star, is 
th^ aberration. It is greatest when the two motions are 
at right angles to each other, t.^., when the starts longitude 
is 90° in advance of, or behind, the heliocentric bugitude 
of the earth, or (which amounts to the same thing) 90° 
behind, or in advance of, the geocentric longitude of the 
sun. (See Astbokomy.) Now, in the right-angled triangle 

AC 
ACD, tan ADC (t.«., DCF) « gg , whence it appears that 

the tangent of the angle of aberration (or, since the angle 
is very small, the aberration itself) is equal to the ratio, 

''^^'^Xdty^^U^^^ •• '^^^ ^*« ^^ *^® ®^^'^ "'^^^ 
being to the velocity of light in the proportion of 1 to 
10,000 nearly, the maximum aberration is smalt, amounts 
ing to about 204 seconda of arc, — a quantity, however, 
which is vcty appreciable in astronomicid observations. 

Aberration always takes place in the direction of the 
earth's motion , that s, it causes the stars to appear nearer 
than t^ ey really are to the point towards which the earth 
is at t£e moment moving. That point is necessarily on 
the -ecliptic, and 90° in advance of* the earth in longitude. 
The effect is to make a star at the pole of the ecliptic 
appear to move in a plane parallel to the ecliptic, so as to 
form a small ellipse, similar to the earth's orbit, but haviiig 
its major axis parallel to the minor axis of that orbit, and 
vice vertd. As we proceed from the pole, the apparent 
orbits the stars describe become more and more elliptical, 
till in the plane of the ecliptic the apparent motion«is in 
a straight line The length of this line, as well as of the 
major axes of the different ellipses, amounts, in angular 
measure, to about 40" -8. The stars thus appear to oscil- 
late, m the course of the year, 20" *4 on each side of their 
true position, in a direction parallel to the plane of the 
ecliptic, and the quantity 20" 4 is therefore called the 
conetant of aherrahon. 

For the discovery of the aberration of light, one of the 
finest m modem astronomy, we are Indebted to the dis- 
tinguished astronomer Dr Bradley. He was led to it, in 
1727, by the result of observrtions he made with the view 
of determining^ the* annual parallax of some of the stars; 
that IS. the angle subtended at these stars by the diameter 
of the earth's orbit He observed certain changes m the 
positions ot the stars that he could not account for. The 
deviations were not in the direction of the apparent motion 
that j^arallax would give rise to^ and he had no better 



success in attempting to expkiin the phenomenon by the 
nutation of the earth's axis, radiation, errors of observa- 
tion, &c At last the true solution ot the difficulty occurrud 
to him, suggested, it is said, by the movements of a vane 
on the top of a boat's mast. Roemer had discovered, a 
quarter of a century before, that light has e velocity which 
admits of measurement; and Bradley perceived that the 
earth's motion, having a perceptible relation to that of 
light, must affect the direction of the visual rays, and with 
this the apparent positions of the stars. He calculated the 
aberration from the known relative velocities of the earth 
and of light, and the results agreed entirely 'with his 
observations. 

The observed effects of aberration are of importance as 
supplying an independent method of measuring the velocity 
of light, but more particularly as presenting one of the few 
direct proofs that can be given of the earth's motion round 
the sun.* It is indeed the most satisfactory proof of thia 
that astronomy furnishes, thp phenomenon being quite in- 
explicable on any other hyputhesia. 

ABERYSTWITH, a municipal and parliamentary bo- 
rough, market town, and seaport pf Wales, in the county 
of Cardigan, is situated at the western end of the Vale 
of Rheidol, near the confluence of the nvers Ystwith 
and Rheidol, and about the centre of Cardigan Bay. It 
is the terminal station of the Cambrian Railway, and a 
line to the south affords direct commumcation with South 
Wales, Bristol, dsc The borough unites with Cardigan, 
Lampeter, &c., in electing a member of Parliament. Ooal^ 
timber, and lime ai^p imported, and the exports are lead, 
oak bark, flannel, and com. The harbour has of lute been 
much improved ; and the pier, completed in 1865« forms 
an excellent promenade. There are many elegant build- 
ings, and it has been proposed to establish here a Uni- 
versity College of Wales. On a promontory to the S.W. 
of the town are the ruins of its ancient castle, erected in 
1277, by £dward L, on the site of a fortress of great 
strength, built by Gilbert de Strongbow, and destroy^ by 
Owen Gwynedd. From its picturesque situation and 
healthy climate, and the suitableness of the beach for 
bathing, Aberystwith has risen into great repute as a 
watering-place, and attracts many, visitors. Much of the 
finest scenery in Wales, such as the Devil's Bridge, &rc., 
lies within easy reacL Population (1871), 6898. 

ABETTOR, a law term implying one who instigates, 
encourages, or assists another to perform some crimina) 
action. See Accessory. 

ABEYANCE, a law term denoting the expectancy of an 
estate. Thus, if lands be leased to one person for life, ydth 
reversion to another for years, the remainder for years is 
in abeyance till the death of the lessee. 

ABGAR, the name or title of a line of kings of Edessa 
in Mesopotamia. One of them is known from a corre- 
spondence he is said to have had with JesiL^ Christ. The 
letter of Abgar, entreating Jesus to visit him and heal hun 
of a disease, and offering Him an asylum rom the wrath 
of the Jews, and the answer of Jesus promising to send a 
disciple to heal Abgar after His ascension, are given by 
Eusebius, who believed the documents to be genuine. The 
same belief h^ been held by a few modems, but there can 
be no doubt whatever that the letter of bsus at least is 
apocryphal. It has also been alleged that ibgar possessed 
a picture of Jesus, which the credulous may see either at 
Rome or at Genoa. Some make him the possessor of the 
handkerchief a woman gave Jesus, as He bore the cross, 
to wipe the sweat from His face with, on which, it is 
fabled. His features remained miraculously impnnted. 

ABIAD, Bahr-el-, a name given to the western branch 
of the Nile, above Khartoum. It is bettei known as the 
White Nile. See Nile. 



AB 1-A B I 



49 



ABIEa SooFiR. 

ABILA, a city of ancient Syria, tho capital of tho 
tetrarchy of Abilcno, a territory whose limits and extent it 
is impossible now to dcfina The site of Abila is indi- 
cated by some ruins and inscriptions on the banks of the 
river Barada, between Baalboc and Damascus, about twelve 
miles from the latter city. Though tho names Abel and 
AbiLi ditfer in derivation and in meaning, their similarity 
has given rise to tho tradition that tliis was the scene of 
AbePs death. 

ABILDOAARD, Nikolaj. called '* the Father of Danish 
Painting," was bom in 1744. He formed his style on 
that of Clande and of Nicolas Poussin, and was a cold 
theorist, inspired not by nature but by art As a technical 
painter he attained remarkable success, his tone being 
very harmonious and evcm, but the effect, to a foreigner's 
eye. is rarely interesting. His works are ^scarcely known 
out of Copenhagen, where be won an immense fame in his 
own generation, and where he died in 1809. He was the 
founder of the Danish school of painting, and the master 
of Thorwaldsen and Eckersberg. 

A6IMELECH (l>?'?!!, JatUr of the kbig, or rather 
perhaps liw; father), occurs first in the Bible as the name 
of certain kings of the Philistines at Gerar (Qen. xx. 2, 
XXL 22, xxvL 1). From the fact that the name is applied 
in the inscription of the thirty-fourth psalm to Achish, it 
h.is been inferred with considerable probability that it was 
used as the official designation of the Philistinian kings. 
The name was also borne by a son of Gideon, judge of 
Israel, by his Shechemite concubine (Judges viii. 31). 
On the death of Gideon, who had refused the title of king 
both for himself and his children, Abimelcch set himself 
to obtain the sovereignty through the influence of his 
mother's relatives. In pursuance of his plan he slew 
seventy of his brethren "upon one stone" at Ophrah, 
Jolham, the youngest of them, alone contriving to escape. 
This is one of the earliest recorded instances of a pmctice 
exceedingly common on the accession of Oriental despots. 
Abimelcc)} was eventually made king, although his election 
was opposed by Jotham, who boldly appeared on Mount 
Gcrizim and told the assembled Shechcmitcs the fable of 
the trees desiring a king. At the end of the third year 
of his reign the Shechemites revolted, and under the 
leadership of Qaal made an unsuccessful attempt to throw 
off the authority of AbimclecL In Judges ix. there is 
an account of this insurrection, which is specially interest- 
ing owing to tho full details it gives of the nature of the 
military operations. After totally destroying Shechem, 
Abimelccli proceeded sgainst Thebez, which had also re- 
volted. Here, while storming the citadel, he was struck on 
(he head by the fragment of a millstone thrown from the 
wall by a woman. To avoid the disgrace of perishing by 
a woman's l^.'^nd, he requested his armour-bearer to run 
liim through the body. Though the immediate cause of 
his death was thus a sword-thrust, his mcmoiy was not 
saved from the ignominy he dreaded (2 Sara, xi 21). It 
has been usual to regard Abimelech's reign as the first 
attempt to esj^blish a monarchy in Israel The facts, 
however, seem rather to support the theory of Ewald 
{Ge9ch, ii 444), that Shechem had asserted its independ- 
ence of Israel, when it chose Abimelcch as its king. 

ABINGDON, a parliamentary and municipal borough 
and market town of England, in Berkshire, on a branch 
of tho Thames, 7 miles south of Oxford, and 51 miles 
W.N.W. of London. It is a place of great antiquity, and 
was an important town in the time of the Heptarchy. Its 
name is derived from an ancient abbey. The streets. «rbi«!b 
are well paved, converge to a spacious area, in which tho 
market is bel<L In the centre of this area stands the 
market-house, supported on lofty pillars, with a large hall 



above, appropriated to the summer assizes for the county, 
and Uie transaction of other public business. The town 
contains two churches, which arc said to have been erected 
by the abbots of Abingdon, one dedicated to St Nicholas 
and the other to St Helena ; several charitable institutions, 
and a free grammar school, with scholarships at Pembroke 
CoUpge, Oxford. In I8C4 a memorial of Prince Albert 
was erected at Abingdon, a richly ornamented structure, 
surmounted by a statue of the Prince. Abingdon was 
incorporated by Queen Mary. It sends one member to 
Parliament, and is governed by a mayor, four aldenncn, 
and twelve councillors. In the beginning of tlic century 
it manufactured much 8ail<loth and sacking, but its chict' 
trade now b in corn and malt, carpets, and coarse linen. 
It is a station on a branch of the Great Western Railway. 
Population (1871). 6571. 

ABIOG£NESIS, u a name for the production of living 
by not-Uving matter, has of late been superseding the Icsf- 
accurate phrase "Spontaneous Generation." Professor 
Huxley, who made use of the word in his presidential 
address to the British Association in 1870, distinguished 
A biogenesis from " Xenogcncsis " or " Hcterogcnesis," 
which occurs, or is supposed to occur, not when deail 
matter produces living matter, but when a living parent 
gives rise to offspring which passes through a totally 
different series of states from those exhibited by tho 
parent, and docs not return into the parent's cycle of 
change When a " living parent gives rise to offsprinit 
which passes through the same cycle of changes as itself, 
there occurs " Homogenesia" '* Biogenesis " includes both 
of these. Other names for Abiogenesis arc Caierafio 
j£quivoea, Gencratio Primaria, Archigenesis (Urzcugung), 
Archebiosis, &c. Tho question of Abiogenesis — whether 
under certain conditions living matter is produced by not- 
living matter — as it is ope of the most fundamental, is per* 
haps also the oldest in Biology; but within recent years— 
partly because the means of accurate experimentation have 
been increased and the microscope improved, and partly 
because the question has been recoimiscd in its im))or* 
tant bearings on evolution, the correlation of forces, and 
the theory of infectious diseases — naturalists have been 
led to bestow more attention upon it than at any previous 
period. While, therefore, the doctrine of Abiogenesis 
cannot bo said to be cither finally established or refuted, 
it is at least reasomfble to believe that we arc gradually 
advancing to a solution. Among the older obscrxers 
of i^enomena baring on ihe question may be named 
Aristotle, who, with tho ancients generally, favoured 
Abiogenesis ; Redi, the founder of the opposite view ; 
Vallisnieri ; Buffon ; Ncedham ; 'and Spalbnzani ; among 
later observers, ^Schwann and Schulzc, Schrecdcr and 
Dusch, Pasteur, Pouchet, Haeckel, Huxley, Bastian, and 
many others. The experiments and obser\'ations ntadc by 
these naturalists, and their results — tlie ingenious ex* 
podients employed to prevent inaccuracy— -the interesting 
and often marvellous transformations which micro$copists 
declare they have witnessed — ^will be discus.scd iiWthc 
article Histology; here it will be enough to note tbr 
general nature of the reasonings with which the opponents 
and defenders of Abiogenesis support their views. The 
opponents maintain that all trustworthy oliservations 
have hitherto shown living matter to have fipning ffom 
pre-existing living matter ; and that the further wc search 
and examine, the smaller becomes the number of thoss 
OTganisms which wc cannot demonstrate to have arivn from 
tiving parents. They bold that seeming instances (A 
spontaneous generation are usually to be explain^ by the 
germ-theory — ^the presence of invisible germs in the air ; 
and they odl to their aid such high authorities as Pasteur 
and TyndalL The defenders of Abiogenesis, on the othei 



50 



A B I — A B L 



hand, while iutcrpretmg cue restllU of past observation 
and experiment in their own favour, are yet less disposed 
to rest on these, rather preferring to argue from those 
wide analogies of evolution and correlation which seem to 
support their doctrine. Thus Haeckel expressly embraces 
A biogenesis as a necessary and integral part of the theory 
of universal evolution ; and Huxley, in the same spirit, 
though from the opposite camp, confesses that if it were 
given him to look beyond the abyss of geologically 
recorded time to the still more remote period when the 
«arth was passing through phjrsical and chemical con- 

. ditions, he should expect to be a witness of the evolution 
of living protoplasm from not-living matter. {Critigrues 
and Addresses, p. 239.) From this point of view, of 
course, any microscopic observations that have been made 
seem very limited and comparatively unimportant The 
Abiogenists, indeed, are not without arguments to oppose 
the results of past observation that seem unfavourable to 
their views; they argue that, as yet, all the forms 
observed and shown to be produced by. Biogenesis are 
forms possessing a certain degree of organisation, which 
;n their case makes Abiogenesis unlikely, from the first ; 
whereas it has hot been shown that the simplest struc- 
tures — ^the Monera-^o not arise by Abiogenesis. But 
it is not so much on grounds of fact and experiment the 

' defenders of the Abiogenesis theory are convinced of 
its truth, as because it seems to gain confirmation from 
reasonings of much wider scope; because Abiogenesis aids 
the theory of evolution by tracing the organic into the 
inorganic ; because it fosters the increasing unpopularity 
of the hypothesis of a special " vital force;" and because, 
if this theory of the '' perpetual origination of low forms 
of life, now, as in all past epochs," were established, it 
-would agree well with the principle of uniformity, and by 

' disclosing the existence of unknown worlds of material for 
development, would relieve natural Selection with its assist- 
ing causes from what many consider the too Herculean 
labour of evolving all species from one or a very few 
primary forms. The fullest discussion of the subject of 
Abiogenesis, from the Abiogenist's point of view, is to be 
found in Dr Bastian's Beginnings of Life. Professor 
Huxley's address, already reiferred to, contains an interest- 
ing" historical survey, as well as a masterly summary of 
facts and arguments in favour of Biogenesis. For many 
interesting experiments, see Nature, 1870-73. 

ABIFONES, a tribe of South American Indians, inhabit- 
ing the territory lying between Santa F6 and St lago. 
.They originally occupied the (5haco district of Paraguay,. 
1>ut were driven thence by the hostility of the Spaniards. 
Aoeoxding to M. Dobrizhoffer, who, towards the end of 
last century, lived among them for a period of seven years, 
ihtj have many singular customs .and characteristics. 
They seldom marry before the age of thirty, are chaste 
And otherwise virtuous in their lives, though they practise 
infanticide, and tire without the idea of Q^ " With the 
Abipones," says Darwin, " when a man chooses a wife, he 
I)argain8 with the parents about the price. But it fre- 
•quently happens that the girl rescinds what has been 
:agreed upon between the parents and bridegroom, obsti- 
nately rejecting the very mention of marriage. She often 
runs away and hides herself, and thus eludes the bride- 
groom." The Abiponian women suckle those infants that 
are spared for the space of two years, — an onerous habit, 
which is believed to have led to infanticide as a means of 
tsecape. The men are brave in war, and pre-emineDt]y 
expert in swimming and horsemanship. Numerically tne 
tribe is^ insignificant. M. Dobrizhoffer's account of the 

, Abiponians was translated into English by Sara Coleridge, 
a: the suggestion of Mr Souliicy, in 1822. 
.-^JURATION. See Aut.egiakce, Oath of. 



ABKHASIA, or Abasia, a tract of Asiatic Rusina, on ' 
the border of the Black Sea, comprehending between lat, 
42^ 30' and 44* 45' N. and between long. 37* 3' and 40* 3G' 
£. The high mountains df the Caucasus on the N. and 
N.E. divide it from Circassia; on the S.E. it ia bounded 
by Mingrelia ; and on the S. W. by the Black Sea. Though 
the country is generally mountainous, there are some deep 
well-watered valleys, and the climate is mild. The sod 
is fertile, producing grain, grapes, and other fruits. 
Some of the inhabitants devote themselves to agriculture, 
some to the rearing of cattle and horses, and not a few 
support themselves by piracy and robbery. Honey is 
largely produced, and -is exported to Turkey; and excellent 
arms are made. Both in ancient and in modem times 
there has been considerable traffic in slaves. This country 
was early known to the ancients, and was subdued by the 
Emperor Justinian, who introducea civilisation and Chris- 
tianity. Afterwards the Persians, then the Georgians, and 
more recently the Tufks, ruled over the land. Under 
the Turks Christianity gradually disappeared, and Moham- 
medanism was introduced in its stead. By the treaties of 
Akerman «nd Adrianople, Russia obtained possession of 
the fortresses of this terriitory; but till the insurrection of 
1866, the chiefs had almost unlimited power. The prin- 
cipal town is Sukuinkaleh. The population of Abkhasia 
is variously stotcd at from 50,000 to 250,000. See Pal- 
grave's Essays en Eastern Questions^; 1872. 

ABLUTION, a ceremonial purification, practised in 
nearly every age and imtioiL It consisted in washing the 
body in whole or part, so as to cleanse it symbolicaUy 
from defilement, and to prepare it for religious observances. 
Among the Jews we find no trace of the ceremony in patri- 
archal times, but it was repeatedly enjoined and strictly 
enforced under the Mosaic economy. It denoted either — 
(1.) Cleansing from the taint of kn. inferior and less pure 
condition, and initiation, into a higher and purer state, as 
in the case of Aaron and his sons on their being set apart 
to the priesthood; or (2.) Cleansing from the soil of 
co9imon life, in preparation for speciad acts of worship, as 
in the case of the priests who were commanded, upon pain 
of death, to wash their hauda and feet before approaching 
the altar; or (3.) Cleansing from the |X)llutiou occasioned 
by particular acts and circumstances, as in the case of the 
eleven species of uncleanness mentioned in the Mosaic 
law; or (4.) The absolving or purifying one's self from the 
guilt of some particular crimiual act, as in the case of 
Pilate at the trial of the Saviour. Tlie samtary reasons 
which, in a warm climate and with a dry sandy soil, ren- 
dered frequent ablution an imperative necessity, must not 
be allowed to empty the act of its symbolic meaning. In 
the Hebrew different words are used for the washing of 
the hands before meals, which was done for the sake of 
cleanliness and comfort, and for the washing or plunging 
enjoined by the ceremonial law. At the same time it is 
impossible to doubt that the considerations which made 
the law so suitable in a physical point of view were present 
to the mind of the Lawgiver when the rite was enjoined. 
Traces of the practice are to be found in the history of 
nearly every nation. The customs of the Mohammedans, 
in this as in other matters, are closely analogous to those 
of the Jews. With them ablution must in every case pre- 
cede the exercise of prayer, and their law provides that in 
the desert, where water is not to be found, the Arabs may 
perform the rite with sand. Various forms of ablution 
practised by different nations are mentioned in the sixth 
book of the iEneid, and we are told that iEneas washed 
his ensanguined hands after the battle before touching his 
Penates. Symbolic ablution finds a place under the New 
Testament dispensation in the rite of baptism, which is 
observed, though with some variety of form and circum- 



A B N — A BO 



^Dces, throTighout the whole Christian Church. By 
Homaa Catholics and BituoUstSy the. term ablution is 
applied to the cleansing of the chalice and the finsen of 
the celebrating priest after the administration of the Xord's 
Supper. 

ABNEB (?»», faOiiBr of ligU), first cousin of Saul 
<1 Sam. xIt. 60) and eommander-iu-^ef of his army. 
The chief references to him during the lifetime of Saul are 
found in 1 Sam. xvii 55, and zxvi 5. It was only after 
that monarch's death, however, that Abner was brought 
iDto a position of the first political imp(»tanoe. David, 
who had some time before been designated to the throne, 
was accepted as king by Judah alone, and was crowned at 
Hebron. The other tribes were actuated by a feeling 
hostile to Judah, and, as soon as they had thrown off the 
Philistinian yoke, were induced by Abner to recognise 
Ishboeheth, the surviving son of SaiU, as their king. One 
engagement between the rival factions under Joab and 
Abner respectively (2 Sam. ii 12) is noteworthy, inasmuch ' 
as it was preceded by an encounter between twelve chosen 
men from each side, in which* the whole twenty-four seem 
to have perished. In the general engagement which fol- 
lowed, Abner was defeated and put to flight He was 
closely pursued by Asahel, brother of Joab, who is said to 
have been '^ light of foot as a wild roe.** Aa Asahel would 
not desist from the pursuit, though warned, Abner was 
compelled to slay him in self-defence. This originated a 
deadly fend between the leaders of the opposite parties, for 
Joab, as next of kin to Asahel, was by the law and custom 
of the country the avenger of his blood. For some time 
afterwards the war was carried on, the advantage being 
ioTariably on the side of David. At length Ishboeheth 
lost the main prop of his tottering cause by remonstrating 
with Abner for marrying Bizpah, one of Saul's concubines, 
an alliance which, according to Oriental notions, implied 
pretensions to the thfonc^ Abner was indignant at the 
rebuke, and immediately transferred • his ^egiance to 
David, who not only welcomed him, but promised to give 
him the command of the combined armies on the re-union 
of the kingdoms. Almost immediately after, however, 
Abner was slain by Joab and his brother Abishai at the 
gate of Hebron. The ostensible motive for the assassina- 
tion was a desire to avenge Asahel, and this would be a 
eufident justification for the deed according to the mond 
standard of the tim& There can be littie doubt^ however, 
that Joab was actuated in great part by jealousy of a new 
and formidable rival, who seemed not unlikely to usurp 
his place in the king's favour. The conduct of David 
after the event was such as to show that he had no com- 
plicity in the act, though he could not venture to puniidi 
its perpetrators. The dirge which he repeated over the 
grave of Abner (2 Sam. iiL 82^4) has been thus trans- 
iated.'— 

Should Abner die as a vUlain dies 9— 

Thy hajvU— not boond, 

Thy fleet— not brooght into fetters : 

Am one falli before ue eons of wickedneea^ feUert thou. 

ABO, a city and seaport, and chief >>wn of tiie district 
vf the same jaame in the Bussian plfovince of Finland, is 
situated in N. lat 60'' 26', R long. 22** 19\ on the Aura- 
Joki, about 3 miles from where it faUs into the Qulf of 
Bothnia. It was a place of importance when Finland 
formed part of the kingdom of Sweden, and the inhabi- 
tants of the cit^ and district are mostly of Swedish descent 
By the treaty of peace concluded here between Bussia and 
Sweden on l7th August 1743, a great part of Finland was 
ceded to the former. Abo continued to be the capital of 
Finland till 1819. In November 1827, nearly tiie whole 
city was Immt down, the tmiversity and its valuable library 



being entirely deetroyel Before this calamity Abo 

tained 1100 houses, and 13,00^ ^habitants; and iu 
university had 40 professors, more than 500 students, and 
a library of upwards of 30,000 volumes, together with » 
botanical garden, an observatory, and a chemical laboratory* 
The univeraity has since been removed to Helsingfor& 
Abo is the seat of an archbishop, and of the supreme courl 
of justice for South Finland; and it has a cathedral, a 
to¥m-hall, and a custom-house. Sail-cloth, linen, leather, 
and tobacco are manufactured; shipbuilding is carried on, 
and there are extensive saw-niills. There is also a large 
trade in timber, pitch, and tar. Vessels drawing 9 or 10 
feet come up to the town, but ships of greater draught are 
laden and discharged at the mouth of -the river, which 
forms an excellent harbour and is protected. Population 
in 1867, 18,109. 

ABOLITIONIST. See Slavery. 

ABOMASUM, eaiUette, the fourth or rennet stomach d 
Buminantia. From the cmcuum the food is finaUy depo- 
sited in the abomasum, a cavity considerably larger than 
either the second or third stomach, although less than the 
first The base of the abomasum is turued to tiie omawm. 
It is of an irregular conical form. It is that part of the 
digestive apparatus which is analogous to the single stomach 
of other Mamma1ia» as the food there undereoes the process 
of chymification, si ter being macerated and ^und down 
in the three first stomachs. 

ABOMET, the capital of Dahomev, in West Africa, ia 
situated in If. kt 7^ £. long. 2^ 4', about 60 miles 
N. of Whydidi, the port of the kingdom. It is a clay- 
built town, surrounded by a moat and mud walls^ and 
occupies a large area, part of which is cultivated. The^ 
houses stand apart^ there are no regular atreets; and the* 
place iB very dirty. It has four larger market-places, and 
trade is carried on in palm-oil, ivory, and gold, Moham* 
medan traders from the interior resorting to its markets. 
The town contains the principal palace of the king of 
Dahomey. It is the scene of frequent human sacrifices, 
a '* custom" being held annually, at which many criminals 
and captives are slain; while on the death of a king a 
'* grand custom" is held, at which sometim'es as many as 
2000 victims have perished. The. slave-trade is also pro- 
secuted, and the efforts of the British Government to induce 
the I^ng to abolish it and the ** customs" hate proved un* 
successful Population, about 30,000. See Dahomey. 

ABOBIQINES, originally a proper name 'given to an 
Italian people who inhabited the ancient Latium, or 
country now called Oampoffna di Homo. Variods deriva* 
tions of this name have been suggested; but there can be 
scarcely any doubt that the usual derivation {ab criffine) is 
correct^ and that the word simply indicated a settied tribe, 
whose origin and earlier history were unknown. It is thus 
the equivalent of the Greek autocHihonei. It is therefore, 
strictiy speaking, not a proper name at all, although, from 
being applied to one tribe (or group of tribes), it came to 
be regarded as such. Who the Aborigines were, or whence 
th^ came, is uncertain; but various traditions that arp 
recorded seem to indicate that they were an Oscan oi 
Opican tribe that descended from the Apennines into 
Latium, and united with some Pelasgic tribe to form the 
Latins; The stories about iEneas's landing in It^v repre 
sent the Aborigines as at first opposing and then coalescmg 
with the Trojans, and state that the united people then 
assumed the name of Lalina, from thei» king Laiintu. 
These traditions clearly point to the fact that the Latins 
were a mixed race, a circumstance which is proved by the 
structure of their language, in which we find numerous 
words closely connected with the Greek, and also numerous 
words that are of an entirely different origin. These non- 
Greek words are mostly related to the dialects af tibe^ 



62 



A B — A B R 



Opicaa tribes. In modern timear the term Ahon^tnea has 
been extended in signification, and is used to mdicate 
the inhabitants found in a country at its first discovery, m 
contradistinction to colonies or new races, the time of whose 
introdnction into the country is known • 

ABORTION, in Muhnfery (from abonar, I perish), 
the premature separation and expulsion of the contents of 
the pregnant utcnia When occurring before the eighth 
lunar month of gestatioi abortion is the term ordinarily 
employed, but subsequei t to this period it is designated 
prenutture labgiir. The present notice includes both thesj^ 
terms. As an accident of pregnancy, abortion is far from 
uncommon, although its relative frequency, as compared 
with that of completed gestation, has been veiy differently 
estimated by accoucheurs. It is more liable to occur m 
the earlier than in the later months of pregnancy, and it 
would also appear to occur more readily at the penods 
corresponding to those of the menstrual discharge. Abor- 
tion may be induced by numerous causes, both of a local 
and general nature. Molfoxmations of tho pelvis, acci- 
dental iigunes, and the diseases and displacements to 
which the uterus is liable, on the one hand ; and, on the 
other, various morbid conditions of the ovum or placenta 
leading to the death of the foetus, are among the direct 
local causes of abortion. The general causes embrace 
certain states of tho system which are apt to exercise a 
more or less direct influence upon the progress of utero- 
gestation. A deteriorated condition of health, whether 
hereditary or as the result of habits of life, certainly pre- 
disposes to the occurrence of abortion. Syphilis is known 
to be a frequent cause of the death of the foetus. Many 
diseases arising in the course of pregnancy act as direct 
exciting causes of abortion, more particularly the eruptive 
fevers and acute inflammatory affections. Prolonged 
irritation in other organs may, by reflex action^ excite 
the utenis to expel its contents. Strong impressions 
made upon the nervous system, as by sudden shocks and 
mental emotions, occasionally have a similar effect Further, 
certain medicinal substances, particularly ergo*^ of rye, 
borax, savin, tansy, and cantharides, are commonly be- 
lieved to bo capable of exciting uterine action, but the 
effects, as re^irds at least early pregnane^, arf very un- 
certain, while the strong puigative medicines sometimes 
employed with the view of procuring abortioi have no 
effect whatever upon the uterus, and can only act remotely 
and indirectly, if they act at all, by irritating the alimen- 
tary canaL In cases of poisoning ^vith cartomc acid, 
abortion has been observed to take place, and the experi- 
ments of Dr Brown Sequard' show that anytmng inter- 
fering with the normal oxygenation of the blood may 
cause the uterus to Contract and expel its contents. Many 
cases of abortion occur without apparent cauM, but in 
such instances the probability is that some morbid condition 
of the interior of the uterus eidsts, and the same mft^* be 
said of many of those cases where the disposition to tM>n 
has become habitual The tendency, however, to the 
recurrence of abortion in persons who have previously 
miscarried is well known, and should ever be borne in 
mind with the view of avoiding any cause likely to lead 
to a repetition of the accident Abortion resem':>les ordi- 
nary labour m its general phenomena, excepting that in 
the former hemorrhage often to a large extent forms one 
of the leading symptoms. The treatment of abortion 
embraces the means to be used by rest, astringents, luad 
sedatives, to prevent the occurrence when it merely 
threatens ; or when, on the contrary, it is inevitable, to 
accomplish as speedily as possible tlie complete removal 
of the entire conten\;S of the uterua The artificial induc- 
tion of premature labour is occasionally resortod to by 
— coucheurs under certain conditions involving the safety 



of the mother or the fostus. For Criminal Abortion, see 
Medical Jubibpbudencs. 

ABOUKIR, a small vilhge on the coast of E^t, 1.H 
miles N.E. of Alexandria, containing a castle whidi was 
used as a state prison by Mehemet Aii. Near the village^ 
and connected with the shore by a chain of rocks, is u 
small iidand remarkable for remains of ancient buildings. 
Stretching to the eastward as far as the Rosetta mouth of 
the NUe ia the spacious bay of Aboukir, where Nelson 
fought ''the Battle of the Nile," defeating and almost 
destroying the French fleet that had conveyed Napoleon 
to Egypt It was near Aboukir that the expedition to 
Bgyptf under Sir Ralph Abercromby, in 1801, effected a 
landing in the face of an opposing force. 

ABRABANEL, Isaac (called also Abravanel, Abarband, 
Barbcmdla^ and RavaneUa), a celebrated, Jewish statesman, 
philosopher, theologian, and commentator, was bom at 
Lisbon in 1437 He bebnged to an ancient family that 
claimed descent from the royal house of David, and hi& 
parents gave him an education becoming so renowned a 
lineage. He held a high place m the fiivour of King 
Alphonso v., who intrusted him with the management of 
important state affairs. On the death of Alphonso in 
1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly treated 
by his successor John ; and Abrabanel was, in consequence, 
compelled to flee to Spain, where h£ held for eight years 
(1484-1492), the post of a minister of state under Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella. When the Jews were banished from 
Spam m 1492, no exception 'was made m Abraband's 
favour. He afterwards resided at Naples, Corfu, and 
Monopoli, and m 1503 removed to Venice, where he held 
office as a minister of state till his death in 1508. Abra- 
banel was one of the most learned of the rabbis. His 
writings are chiefly exegetical and polemical ; ho displays 
in them an intense antipathy to Christiamty, though he 
lived on terms of friendship with Christiana. He wrote 
commentaries on tlie greater part of the Old Testament, 
in a clear but somewhat diffuse style, anticipating much 
that has been advanced as new by modem theologians. 

ABRACADABRA, a meaningless word once supposed 
to have a magical efficacy as an antidote against agues .and 
other fevers. Ridiculously minute directions Tor the 
proper use of the charm are given m the Profcepta de 
Medicina of Serenus Sammonicus. The paper on which 
the word was written had to be folded in the form of 
a cross, suspended from the neck by a strip of linen so aa 
to rest on the pit of the stomach, worn m this way for 
nine days, and then, before sunnse, cast -behind the wearer 
into a stream running to the east. The letters of this word 
were usuaUy arranged to form a triangle id one or other of 
the following ways : — 

abbacadabba abbacadabea 

abbacadabb bbacadabb 



ABBACAOAB 

abracada 

ABRACAB 
ABBACA 
ABBAC 



RACADAB 

ACADA 

CAD 



ABB 
AB 

A 

ABRAHAM or ABRAM, father of the Israelite race^ 
was the first-bom son of Terah, a Shemite, who left Ur 
of the Chaldees, in the north-east of Mesopotamia, along 
with Abram, Sarai, and Lot, and turned westwards id the 
direction of Canaan. Abram had married his half-sister 
Sarai, who was ten years younger than himself ; and 
though such rclationslup was afterwards forbidden by the^ 
law, it was common m ancient times, both among •other 



A B R A HAM 



53 



]peoplcfl^ and among the Hebrews themaclTes at' least before 
Moeea. The caiise of Tcroh's remoYing from his native 
coimtry is not given. Having come to Haran, he abode 
there till his death, at the age of 205. According to 
Genesis ziL, Abnun left Ilaran when he was 75 years of 
age, that is, before the death of his father, in consequence 
of a divine command, to which was annexed a gracious 
promise, " And I will make of thee a great nation, and I 
will Uess thee, and make tl^ name* great ; and thou shalt 
be a blessing. And I will bless them that bless thee, and 
curse him that enrseth thee ; and in thee shall all families 
of the earth be^ blessed" (zii 2, 5). Another tradition 
makes him leave Haran only after Tetah's deetee (Acts 
viL 4): ' The later acoount is that Abram's departure was 
the result of religious considerations, because he. had 
already become emancipated from surroimding idolatry. 
J'erhaps^the desire of a nomadic life, the love of migration 
^aturil to an Oriental, had more to do with his pilgrimage 
than a spiritual impulse from within ; but it is likely that 
his culture advanced in the course of his sojoumings, and 
that he gradually attained to purer conceptions o{ duty 
and life. Traditions subsequent to the Jehovistic represent 
bim as driven .forth by the idohitrous Chaldeans (Judith 
V. 6, &c) off account of his inorfotheistic doctrines, and 
then dwelliig^ in Damiisctis as its king (Josephus's AnU- 
quitia, i^y),'" The ira^ caus^ of departure may be sug- 
gested by Kicolaus if Damascus saying that he came out 
of Chaldei'^th an i£r1^y. The leader of a horde, worsted 
in 80^0 i^(!&u2i^'^1nsvifTection, he emigrated at the 
head of his a^eriSniS'in quest of better fortunes. The 
vord fpde€^i£cL^ in.lsaiali xxii. 22, o\it of which Ewald 
conjectii^'^ mdch^ as if Abram had been rescued from 
great Hodily dangl^ and battles, does not help the portrait, 
becaiiSS it td^^ nd more than thd patriarch's migration 
from heathen Me^potamia into the Holy Land. Journey- 
ing south-west {^ Canaan with his wife and nephew, he 
arrived at Sichetd, at' tke oak 6/ the uer or prophet, where 
Jehovah appeared to hiifi, Assuring him for the first time 
that his ieed should possess the land he had come to. 
lie travelled' thence southward, pitching his tent east of 
BctheL'v Btill proceeding in the same direction, he arrived 
at the Negel), or most southern district of Palestine, 
whence' a famii^e forced him d^wn to Egjrpt His plea 
that Sarai was his sister did not save her from Pharaoh ; 
for she was takeu into the royal harem, but restored to 
her husband iii consequence of divine chastismcnts inflicted 
upon the lawless possessor of her person, leading to the 
discovery of her true relationship. /The king^was glad to 
send the patriarch away under the Escort and protection 
of his men. A similar thing is said to have subsequently 
happened to fiarai at Gerar with the Philistine king 
Abimelech (Genesis xz.), as also to Rebekah, Isaac's wife 
(zxvi) The throe narratives describe ode and the^same 
ev^nt in different shapes. 'But the more 0rinnal (the 
junior Elohistifi)^ is that of the 2Qth chapter, so that Gerar 
^vas the scene, and Abimelech the offender; whilfe the later 
Jehovistac narrative (zii.) deviates stiU more from^veri- 
«imilitnd& • Though this occurrence, however, belongs to 
the southern borders of Pdestine, we need not doubt the 
fact of Abram's sojourn in £g3rpt, especiaUy as he had an 
Egyptian slave (Genesis zvi) How long the patriarch 
remained there is not related ; nor are the infliiences which 
the religion, science, and learning of that civilised hind 
had upon him alluded to. ^ That they acted beneficially 
upon his mind, enlightening and enlarging it, ^n scarcely 

be doubted. Hb religious conceptions were transformed. 

■ - 1 . ■ I . ■ . . ' i . ■ 

' Three documents at tettt are traceable in the Pe&tatettcb ; the 
JQohietie, the junior Eluhhttic, and the Jehovistic These were pat 
together bv » vedAcUnr. Nearly the whole of the fifth book was 
eddad by tho Deuteronomist. 



The manifold wisdom of Egypt impressed him. Inter- 
course with men far advanced in civilisation taught him 
mucL Later tradition speaks of his communicating to 
the Egyptians the sciences of arithmetic and astronomy 
(Josephus L 7); but this is founded upon the notion 
entertained at the time of the civilised Chaldeans uf 
Babylon, whereas Ur of the Chaldees was a district 
remote from the subsequent centre of recondite knowledge. 
Abram received more than he imparted, for the Egyptiana 
were doubtless his superiors in science. He found the 
rite of circumdsion in use. There, too, he acquired great 
substanoe^flocks and herds, male and feinale ^slaves. 
After returning to Canaan, to his former locality, Abram 
and Lot separated, because* of disputes between their 
herdsmen, there not being sufficient room for aU their' 
cattle in common. After this separation the possession of* 
Canaan was again assured to Abram and to his seed, who 
should be ezceedingly numerous. -^This is the third 
theocratic promise he received. He is also commanded 
by Jehovah to walk through it in its length and breadth 
as a token of inheritance, — a bter Jehovistic tradition that 
must be judged according to its inherent verisimilitude. 
Abram settled again at the oak of Mamre near Hebron. 
This was his headquarters. ..After Lot had been taken 
prisoner in the ezpedition of the kings of Shinar, EUasar, 
Elam, and Go]Km, against the old inhabitants of Basan, 
Ammonitis, Moabitis, Edomitis, and others besides, Abram 
gave chase to the enemy, accompanied by his 318 slaves 
and friendly neighbours, rescuing his nephew at Hobah, 
near Damascus. On his return, the royal priest Melchizedek 
of Salem came forth to meet him with refreshments, blessed 
the patriarch, and received from him the tithe of the spoils.. 
The king acted generously towards the victor, and was stilll^ 
more generously treated in return. 

Jehovah again pfoAised to Abriod'&numerdu&'^ffspnng, 
with thd jkissesiion' 6f C&ndari.'.'v'tt'He also concluded a 
covenant with him ixt^"^ solemn form | and revealed the 
fortunes of his posterifyid Egypt, with their deliverance 
from bondage. : In consequence of the barrenness of 
Sarai, she gave her handmaid Hagar to •Abram, who, 
becoming pregnant by him, was haughtily treated by her 
mistress, and fled towards Egypt But an angel met, 
her in the desert and sent her back, telling of a numerous 
race that should spring from her. Having returned, she 
gave birth to Ishmacl, in the 8Gth year of Abram's age. ^ 

•Again djd Jehovah appear to the patriarch, promising aa 
before a multitudinous seed, and changing his name in 
conformity iiith such promise. -.He assured hun and his 
posterity of the possession of Oandan, and concluded a 
covenant with him for all time. . At the institution of 
circumcision on this occasion, Sarai's name was also changed,. 
because she was to be the maternal progenitor of the 
covenant pedple through Isaac her sdn. Abram, and all 
the males belonging to him, were then circumcised. Hse 
had become acquainted with the rite in Egypt, and trans^ 
ferred it to his household, making it a badge of distinction 
between the worshippers of the true God and the idolatrous 
Canaanites^ — the symbol of the flesh's subjection to the 
spirits Its introduction into the worship of the colony at 
Mamre indicated a decided advance in Abram's religious 
conceptions. He had got beyond the cruel practice of human 
sacrifice. The gross worship of the Canaanites was left 
behind ; and the small remnant of it which he retained com-' 
ported with a faith approaching monotheism. Amid pre- 
vailing idolatry tlus institution was a protection to his 
family ahd servants— a magic circle drawn around theoL 
But, though powerful and respected wherever his namo< 
was known, he confined the rite to his own domestics,, 
without attempting to force it on the inhabitants of 
the land where he sojoomed. The punishment of deaths 



54 



ABRAHAM 



for ncglocttng it, bocauso the ondrcomcised person ivas 
tboughi to bo a breaker of tbo covenant and a despiser 
of its Author, seems a harsh mcasuro on tho part of 
Abrnm ; yet it can hardly bo counted an arbitrary trans- 
fcrcnco of tho later Lcvitical seventies to the progenitor of 
the nice, sinco it is in the Eloliist 

Accompanied by two angels, Jchovoh appeared again to 
Abram at the oak of Mamrc, accepted his proposed hospi- 
tility, and promised him a son by Sarai within a year 
Though she laughed incredulously, the promise was definitely 
repeated. When the angels left, Jehovah communicated 
to Abram the divnie purpose of destroying the dwellers 
in Siddim because of thciV wickedness, but acceded to t^e 
patriarch's intercession, that the cities of the plain should 
bo siiored if ten righteous mcu could be found in them 
The two angolti. who had gone before, arrived at Sodom in the 
evening, and were entertained by Lot, but threatened with 
ihameful treatment by tlie depraved inhabitanta Seeinc 
!lhat the vengeance of Heaven was deserved, they proceeded 
to execute it, saving -Lot with his wife and two daughters, 
and s[)nnng Zoar as a place of refuge for theoL Jenovoh 
rained down fire and brimstone from heaven, turning all 
the Jordan district to desolatioui so that whez) Abram 
looked next morning from tbo spot where Jehovah and 
himself had parted, he saw a thick smoke ascend from the 
ruins. 

Abraro then ioumeyed from Hebron to the Negeb, settled 
between Radesh and Shur in Oerar, where Sarai is said to 
have been treated as a prior account mokes her to have been 
in Egypt At the patriarch's prayer the plague inflicted on 
the king and his wives was removed. This is a duplicate of 
the other story. Whatever historical truth the present nar- 
rative has belongs to an earlier penod of Abrom's life. His 
iiccond removal toGerar originated in the former journeying 
through it into Egypt. He must have remained in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hebron, his first settlement, where Isaac was 
bom according to the Elohistic account After the birth of 
the legitimate heir, succeeding events were the expulsion of 
Hagar and Ishmael from the paternal home, and the making 
of a covenant between Abimelech and Abram at Beersheba. 
Hero Abram "called on tho name of the Lord," and is 
said to have planted a noted tamarisk in commemoration 
of the event 

Abram was now cpmmanded by Qod to offer up Isaac in 
tbo laud of Morioh. Proceeding to obey, be was prevented 
by an angel just as he was about to slay his son, and 
aacrifioed a ram that presented itself at the time. In 
reward of his obedience he received the promise of a nomer* 
ons seed and abundant prosperity. Thence he returned to 
Beersheba. 

Sarai died and was burled in tJie cave of Machpelah near 
Hebron, which Abram purcliascd, with the adjoining field, 
from Ephrou the Hittitb. • Tho measures taken by the 
patriarch for the marriage of Isaac are circumstantially 
doscribcd. His steward Eliezer was sent to the country 
aud kindred of Abram to find a suitable bride, which he 
did in Haran, whither he was divinely conducted. Rebekah 
appeared as the intended one; ske parted from Bethuel 
and her family with their fuU approbation, was brought 
to Isaac, and became a maternal ancestor of the choeen 
people. 

It is curiouB that^ after Sarah's death, Abram should 
have contracted a second marriage with Ketorah, and 
begotten six sons. The Chronicles, however, make her 
bis concubine (1 Chron. i 32), so that these children may 
bave been bom earlier. Probably the narrative fntends 
to account for the diffusion of Abram's posterity in Arabia. 
Keturah's sons were sent away with gifts from their home 
into Arabia, and all the father's substance was given 
4o Isaoa The patriarch died at the age of 175 years, 



and was buned by Isaac and Ishmael beside Sarai in 
Machpehih. Tho book of Gendsis gives two lists of Arab 
tribes, ^descended partly from Abram and Kcturah, parti/ 
from him and Hagar or Ishmael. These dwelt in Arabia 
Deserta and Petrasa, as also in the northern half of Arabia 
Felix. 

1 We cannot adopt the opinion of Von Bohlen and Dozy 
that Abnun Is a mythical person. He most be regarded as a 
historicai cnaractcr thouch the accounts of his life have 
mythical elements intermingled with much that is tradi- 
tional or l^cndary The difficulty of separating the historic 
^rom the merely traditional, bmders the presentation of a 
natural portaait Later legeuds have invested him with ex* 
traord^arv excellence They have made him a worshipper 
of Jehovah, a prophet, the friend of Ood, favoured with 
visible manifestations of His presence, and receiving 
repeated promises of the most far-reaching ehoracter. He 
is the typical aucestor of the chosen race, livins under the 
constant guidance of Qod, prospenhg in worldly goods, 
delivered from imminent perila A superhuman halo 
surrounds him. It is tho Jehovist in particular who 
invests him with tho marvellous and improbable, con- 
necting him with altars and sacrifices—^ coitus poetehor 
to botn his time and mental development — ^makine him 
the subject of thoophanies, talking familiarly to Jehovah 
himself, and feedins angels with flesh. The Elohist's 
descriptions aro simpler. His patriarchs are usually colou^ 
less men, upright and phin. Thev have neither char- 
acteristic features nor distinct outline. Abram stands 
out an honest, peaceable^ generous, high-minded patriarch; 
a prince, rich, powerful, and honoured, fitted for nde, 
and exercising it with prudence. We need not expect 
a full history of the man from writers long posterior, the 
representatives of popukir traditions. Only fragments 
of^ the life are fpven, designed to show his greatness. 
L<^nd assigned ideal lineaments to the progenitor whom 
a remote antiquity shrouded with its hoary mantle^ vad 
thus he became a model worthy of imitation. 

2. The biblical sources of his biography aro three at 
least; and sometimes all appear in a single chapter, as in 
Qea zxii, which describes ihe severest tnal of faith. The 
oldest or Elohim-document is seen in versos 20-24, which 
link on to chap, xxi 2-(^, from the sama The rest of thf> 
chapter belongs to the junior Elohist, except verses 14-18, 
added by the Jehovist to connect Abram's saoifice will) 
Jerusalem. These different documents, out of which tlio 
general narrative was finally put together by a redactor, 
create diversities and contradictions. Thus the Elohist 
makes Abram laugh at the announcement of a son by Sarai 
(xviL 17); the Jehovist, jealous for the patriarch'e honour, 
assigns tho Liughter to the woman as a sign of incredulity 
(xviiL 12). 

3. The account of the change of names given to Abnim 
and Sarai when circumcision \va8 instituted, cannot be 
regarded as historical The Elohist says that Abram becaino 
Abraham^ the latter meaning /aeA^ of much people, I^at 
the Hebrew tonguo has no word roAdtn, and no root with 
the three letters om. Hence the Jews found the etymo* 
logy a puzzle.^ The old. reading was undoubtedly Abram 
and Sarai^ though the later Jews expressly forbade Abram 
either in speaking or writing. The difference is one of 
mere orthography. The forms om and on are cognato 
ones, as are yyjf and mo- The etymologising propensity 
of the Elohist is well known. The names tagady faJther of 
heighi and princess respectively. 

4. The religion of Abnim was not pure Jehovism. Ac- 
cording to Exodus vi 3, the name Jehovah was unknown 
before Mosea Pure Jehovism was a growth not reached 

8(w Beer's Ltben Abrtthan\ pp 150, 151. 



A B R — A B R 



&& 



bctore the propbcta It was a lato development, the creed 
of the most spiritual teachers, not of the people ccncrallT. 
Abram was a distinguished Oriental sheikh, who laid aside 
the grOteoess of idolatry, and rose by decrees, through cuo- > 
tact with many peoples and his own rcflccthin, to the con* 
ccption of a Being oigher than the visible world, the God 
of the tight and the sun. Ho was a civilised nomad, 
having wider and more spuntiml ospu-dtioiis than the 
peoples with whom he lived. As a worshipiwr of God, 
his faith was magnified by later ages throwing bftck 
their more advanced ideas into his tune, bccniiae he «tis 
tho founder of a favoured noe, the type of Israel s% 
they weit or should be. 

5. Tho leading idea forming the essence of the story re- 
specting Abram's sacrifice of Isaac, present) some difficulty 
of explanation. The chapter did not proceed from the 
earliest writer, but from one acquainted wuh the institu- 
tion of animal sacrifices. That the patriarch «as fanitluir 
with human sacrifices among the )M?oples round about is 
beyond a doubt Was he tempted from within to comply, 
on ono occasiotti with the prevailing aistom; or did the 
disaffected Canaanites call upon him to give such proof 
of devoGon to his Qodt Perhaps there was a struggle in 
hb mind between the better ideas which led to the habitiml 
renunciation of the barbarous rite, and scruples of tho urn* 
versal impropriety attaching to it The persuasion that it 
could never be allowod may havo been sliaken at timca 
The general purport of the namittve u to place in a strong 
light tho faith of ono prepared to make tho most costly 
sacrifice in obedience to the divine command, a» well as 
God's aversion to human offeringa 

6. It is impossible to get dironological exactness m 
Abram's biography, because it is composed of different tra* 
ditions incorporated with one another, the product of dif- 
ferent times, and all passing through the hands of a later 
redactor for whom the true succession of events was not 
of primary importance. The writers themselves did not 
know the accurate chronolcgy. having to do with legends 
as well as facts unpregnaieawtth the legendary | which the 
redactor afterwards alterod or adapted. The Elohist is 
much more chronological than tho other i^ntera It is 
even imi)o»abIe to tell the time when Abrom lived. Ac- 
cording toLcpsius, he entered Palestine 1700-1730 ac. ; 
according to Bunsen, 288G; while Stthciikelgives2 130-2 140 
&a In Beer's Ltben Ahrakam'$ his birth is given 1948 
A.M., ».f., 2040 B.a 

7. Tho Midrashim contain a ^ood deal about Abram 
which is either founded on bibhcal accounts or spun out 
of tho fancy. Nimrod was king of Babylon at Uie time. 
The patriarch's early announcement of the doctnne of one 
Crod, his zeal in destroying idols, including those worshipped 
by his father, his nuraculous escape from Nimrod's wrath, 
his persuading Terah to leave the king's service and go 
with him to Canaan, are minutely told During his life 
he had no fewer than ten temptationa Satan tried to ruin 
him, after the fiend had ap|)earcd at the great feast given 
whetf Isaac was weaned, in the form of a poor bent old man, 
who had been neglected Wc can odI^ refer to one speci- 
men of rabbimc dialoguo-making. God appeared to 
Abnun bv mght, saying to him, *' Take thy son "—{Abram 
interrupting), " Which? I have two of them." The voice 
of Qod^*' Kim who is esteemed by you as your only soa" 
Abram— "Each^ of them is the only son of his iriother.* 
God's voice— •• Hun whom thou lovcst* Abram — *• I love 
both." God's voice— •• Him whom thou especially lovest* 
Abram— ••I cherish my children with like love" God's 
▼oice— •♦Now, then, tjQce Isaac" Abram— "And what 
ehaillbegmwithinhimr God's voice— V Go to the land 
where at my.caU mountains will nso up out of valleys 
to Moriah, and offer thy son Isaac as a holocaust." 



Abram— "Is it a sacrifice I shall offer, LordI Where is the 
pnest to prepare itl" " Be thou mvested with that dig- 
nity as Shorn was fonnerly " Abram—*' But that land 
counts several mountains, which shall I ascend 1" ^'The 
top of the niountam where thou shalt see my glory veiled 
in tho clouds," Ac (Beer, pp. 59. GO ) 

Tho Arabic tegcnds about Ibralum are mostly taken from 
the Jewub fouutam, very few being mdcpendent and pre- 
Iilamitc Xohaitimcd collected all that wcro current, and 
presented them in forms best smted to his purpose His 
sources wcro the bibUcnl sccounts and bter Jewish legends. 
Those about the patriarch building the Kaaba along with 
Uhinael. his giving this son the house and all the country 
in winch It was, his go)ng as a pilgnm to Mecca overv 
year, seeing lUimacl, and then returning to his own land, 
Syna, his foot-pnnt on the black stone of the temple, 
A lid smiilar stones, are of genuine Arabic origin. The 
rc-st are Jewish, with cortam alterationa Tho collected 
narratives of the Arabic historians are given by Tabari, 
constmiung a confused mass of legends drawn from the 
Old Testament, the Koran, and the Rabbina (See 
Ewald's GtKkuJUe da Volke$ Itraei, vol. i. pp. 440-484, 
third edition, Bcrtheau's Zur GftcKvchU der InmtlxUn^ 
p. 206, €t Kq.t Tuch's Romnuntar utbn die Genem, 
1838; Knobel's Du Getutu, 1862*, Dozy's /)<s liraetiten 
2u Mekka^ ^ 16, c< to/., E Beer's Ubcn Abraham'§ 
naek AvffauHng der Judiichen Sage^ 1859; G'Aront^iie 
d^AboH Djafar Aloltammed 7>t6an, par L Dubeux. tome 
premier, chapters 47-60; Chwolson's StabifT und dtr 
SiaOtsmtut, vol. iL) (a d.) 

ABRAIIAM-ASANCTA^LARA, was bom at Krahen- 
heimstctten, a i-tlLnge in Suabia, on the 4th of June 1642. 
His family name was Ulnch Megerlo. In 1662 hejomed 
the order of Barefooted Augustinians, and assumed the 
name by which alone he is now known. In this order he 
rose step by step until he became prior provincialia and 
dcfinitor of his province. Having early gained a great 
reputation for pulpit eloquence, he was appomted court 
preacher at Vicnua m 1069. There the people flocked in 
crowds to hear bm, attracted by the force and homeliness 
of his language, the grotcsqueness of his humour, and the 
impartial seventy with which he lashed the follies of all 
classes of society. The vices of courticre and court-life 
in particular were exposed with an admirable intrepidity 
In general he spoke as a man of the people in the lan« 
guago of the people, the predominating quality of his 
style, which was altogether unique, being an overflowing 
and often coarse wit There are, however, many passages 
in his sermons in which he rises to loftier thought, and 
uses more refined and dignified . language. He died at 
Vienna on the Ist December 1709. In his published 
writings Abraham-a-SanctarClara displayed much the same 
qualities as in the pulpit Perhaps the most favourable 
specimen of his style is furnished in Judas der Brueheim, 
Ills works have been several times reproduced m whole 
or part, though with many spunous mterpolations, within 
the last thuiy years, and have been very extensively read 
by both Protestants and Catholics. A selection was issued 
at Hcilbnmn m 1845, and a complete edition in 21 vola 
appeared at Passau and Lindau, in 1835-54. 

ABRANTES, a town of Portugal, Estremadura province. 
on the Tagus, about 70 miles N.E. of Lisbon, delightfully 
situated on the brow of a hill, of which the slopes aro 
covered with olive trees, gardens, and viDcvards. It has 
considerable trade with Lubon. particulariy in fruit, 
com, and oil. The town is strongly fortified, and is 
an important military position. At the convention of 
Cintra It was surrendered to tno British. Junot derived 
from It his title of Duke of Abrantcs. PopulaUon about 
6000. 



56 



A B R — A B S 



ABBANTES, Dukb akd Duchess of. See Junot. 

ABRAXAS, or Abrasax, a word eDgravcd on cortain 
antique stones, which were called on that account Abraauu 
stones, and were used as amulets or charms^ The Basili- 
dians, a Gnostic sect, attached importance to the word, if j 
indeed, they did not bring it into use. The letters of 
ifipatas, in the Greek notation, make up the number 360, 
and the Basilidians gave the name to the 365 orders of 
spirits, which^ as they conceived, emanated in succession 
from tiie Supreme Being. These orders were supposed to 
occupy as many heavens, each fashioned like, but inferior 
to that above it; and the lowest of the heavens was 
thought to be the abode of the spirits who formed the 
earth and its inhabitants, and to whom was committed 
the administration of its affairs. The Abraxas stones, 
which are frequently to be met with in the 6ibinets 
of the curious, are of very little value. In addition to 
the word Abraxcu and other mystical characters, they 
have often engraved on them cabalistic figures. The com- 
monest of these have the head of a fowl, and the arms 
and bust of a man, and terminate in the body and tail of 
a serpent 

ABRUZZO, originally one of the four provinces of the 
continental part of the kingdom of the two Sicilies, after- 
ward subdivided into Abruzzo Ulteriore I., Abruzzo' Ulte- 
riore II., and Abruzzo Citeriore, which were so named from 
their position relative to Naples, and now form three of 
the provinces of the kingdom of Italy. The district, 
which was the most northerly part of the kingdom of the 
two Sicilies, is bounded by the Adriatic on the R, and 
by the provinces of Ascoli Piceno on the N., Umbria and 
Rome on the W., and Terra di Lavoro, Molise, and Capi- 
tanata on the S.' The Abruzzi provinces have an area of 
nearly 4900 English square miles, and extend from N. lat 
4 1 ** 40' to 42°55'. Though presenting to the Adriatic a coast 
of about 80 miles in length, they have not a single good 
port This torritoiy is mostly rugged, mountainous, and 
covered with extensive forests, but contains also many 
fertile and well-watered valleys. The Apennines traverse 
its whole extent, running generally from K.W. to S.E., and 
here attaining their greatest elevation. Near Aqu^ is 
Monte Corno, the loftiest peak of that chain, called II ffnm 
Sasso d*It<dta, or the great rock of Italy, which rises to the 
height of 9813 feed Monte Msjella and Monte Velino 
attain the height of 9500 and 8792 feet respectively. 
From the main range of the Apennines a number of smaller 
branches run off towards the west The country is 
watered by numerous Bmall rivers, most of which faU into 
the Adriatic They are often suddenly swollen by the 
rains, especially in the spring, and thus cause considerable 
damage to the lands through which they psss. The 
principal rivers are the Tronto, Trentino, Pescara, and 
Sangro. In Abruzzo Ulteriore IL is lake Celano or Lago 
di Fucino, the Locus Fucinus of the Romans, now reduced 
to about one-third of its former ex tent The climate varies 
with the elevation, but, general y speaking, is temperate 
and health/. Agriculture is but little understood or 
attended to, although in many of the lower parts of the 
country the land is fertile. Th^ rivers are not e m b a nked, 
nor is irrigation practised; so that the best of the land is 
frequently flooded during the rainy season^ and parched in 
the heat of summer. The principal productions are com, 
hemp, flax, almonds, olives, figs, grapes, and chestnuts. 
In the neighbourhood of Aqmla saffron is extensively 
cultivated, although not to such an extent as formerly. 
The rearing and tending of sheep is the chief occupation 
of the inhabitants of the highlands; and the wool, which 
is of a superior quaKty, is an important article of com- 
meroe, while the skins are sent in large quantities to the 
Le^'ant Bears, wolves, and wild boara inhabit the moun- 



tain fastnesses ; and in the extensive oak forests nlimeroas 
herds of swine are fed, the hams of which are in high 
repute. The manufactures are veiy inconsiderable, being 
chiefly woollen, linen, and silk stuffs, and earthen and 
wood wares. Abruzzo was of great importance to the 
kingdom of Naples, being its chief defence to the north, 
and presenting almost insurmountable dilBcultios to the 
advance of aa enemy. The country is now free of the 
daring brigands by whom it was long infested. The 
inhabitants are a stout, well-built, brave, and industrious 
race. Their houses are generally miserable huts; thoir 
food principally maize, and their drink bad wine. The 
railway from Ancona to Brindisi passes through Abruzzo 
Ulteriore I. and Abruzzo Citeriore, skirting the coast; and 
a line has been projected from Pescara, by Popoli, the Lego 
di Fucino, and the valley of the Liris, to join the railway 
from Rome to Naples, and thus open up the interior of the 
country. The Une is open for traffic between Pescara 
and Pupoli. 

Abruzzo Ultebioke L is the most northerly of the 
three provinces, and has an area of 1283 square mUes, with 
a popukition in 1871 of 245,684. The western part of the 
province is very mountainous, the highest crest of the Apen- 
nines dividing it from Abruzzo Ulteriore I]L The valleys 
possess a rich soil, well watered by rivulets and brooks in 
the winter and spring, but these are generally dried up in 
the summer months. The streams run mostly into the 
Pescara, which bounds the province towards Abruzzo 
Citeriore, or into the Tronto, which is the northern 
boundary. The city of Toramo is the capital of the 
province. 

Abeuzzo Ulteriors n. is an inland district, -nearly 
covered with mountains of various heights, one of which 
b the Gran Sasso, There are no plains ; but among the 
mountains are some beautiful and fruitful valleys, watered 
by the various streams that run through them. None of 
the rivers are navigable. The province has an area of 25 1 
square miles, and in 1871 contained 332,782 inhabitanta 
Its chief town is Aquila. 

ABBU2Z0 Citeriore lies to the south and .east of the 
other two province& It is the least hilly of the three, but 
the Apennines extend through the south-west part They, 
however, gradually decline in height, and stretch away into 
phdns of sand and pebbles. The riven all run to the 
Adriatic, and are veiy low during the summer months. 
The soil is not veiy productive, and agriculture is in a 
veiy backward state ; the inhabitants prefer the chase 
and fidung. The province contains 11 04 square miles, 
with a population of &40,299 in 1871. Its chief town is 
Chieti. 

ABSALOM (b*»^??», father of peace), the third aon of 
David, king of Israel He was deemed the handsomest 
man in the kingdom. His sister Tamar having been 
violated by Amnon, David's eldest sou, Absalom caused 
his servants to murder Amnon at a feast, to which he had 
invited aU the king's sons. After this deed he fled to the 
kingdom of his maternal grandfather, where he refmained 
three yeare; and it was not till two yeara after his return 
that he was fully reinstated in his father's favour. Absalom 
seems to have been by this time the eldest surviving son 
of David, but he was not the destined heir of his father's 
throne. The suspicion of this excited the impulsive 
Absalom to rebellion, for a time the tide oi public 
opinion ran so strong in his favour, that David found it ex- 
pedient to retire beyond the Jordan. But, instead of adopt- 
ing the prompt measures which his sagacious counsellor 
Ahithophel advised, Absalom loitered at Jerusalem till a 
large force was raised against him, and when he took the 
field his army was completely routed. The battle was 
fuught in the forest of Ephraim ; aud Absalom, caught in 



A B S — A B S 



sr 



the buoghs of a tree by the superb hair in which he ^kmed, 
was nm through the body by Joeb. The king't grief for 
hie worthless son Tented itadf in the tondiing lamentation 
— «' O my son Abeslom, my son, my eon AbMlom I would 
God I Iwi died for thee^ O Absalom, my son, my son I" 
' ABSALOX, Archbishop of Lund, in Denmark, was bora 
jia 1128, near Soroe in Zealand, his ftunily name being 
Axel. In 1148 he went to study at Puis, where a edlege 
for Danes had been established. He afterwards travelled 
extensively in different countries; and returning to Den* 
mark in 1157, was the year after chosen Bishop cf Boes- 
kilde or RothschiUL Eloquent^ learned, endowed with 
uncommon physical strength, and possessing the confidence 
of the king, Waldemar JL, known as the Qteoty Absalon 
held a posUion of great influence botii in the church and 
state. In that age warlike pursuits were not deemed in- 
consistent with the derical office, and Absalon was a 
renowned warrior by sea and land, as well as a zealous 
ecclcsuistic, his avowed principle bemg that " both swords, 
the spiritual and the temporal, were entrusted to the 
clergy." To his exertions as statesman and soldier Wal- 
demar was largely indebted for the independence ^and o<m- 
solidotion of Ms kingdom. -^Jn 1177 he was choeeli by the 
cha^jter Azchbiahop of Lund and Primate of tiie chtirch, 
but he declared himself unwilling to accept the appoint- 
ment; and vrbioa an attempt was mode to instsU him. by 
forcd, he resisted, and appealed to Bome. The Pope de- 
cided that the choice of the chapter must be respected, 
and commanded Absalon to accept the Frimoqr on pain of 
ezcommunication. He was consecrated aooozdinfil^ by the 
papal l^^ate Galandius in 1178. He set the Oisteician 
monks oi Boroe the task of pr^Muring a history of the 
coimtry, the most Tohiable result being the DcmiBh 
Chronicle of Soxo Qrommaticus, who was seczetoiy to 
Absalon and his companion in on ezpeditson ^j^unst the 
Wendish pirstes. '*■ A tcftrar or castie which the archbishop 
caused to be built sb a defence against these pirates, was 
the commeneement ol the present, capital, Oi^penhagen, 
which £rom this dieumstance is sometimes known in his- 
tory oa AzelrtodL The ardibishop died in' 1201, m the 
monasterfrstSonw^andwas buried in the parish church, 
where his awe may still be seen. 

ABSCISS, in Bwgent (from abtoedo,' to sepaxiteX a 
collection of pui||mong tiie tissues of the body^ the result 
of inflammation* '?; Abscesses ore divided into oonte and 
dmmic. See Svbojbst. 

ABSHTTHE, a liqueur or aromatised spirit^ prepared by 
pounding tiie loires aikd flowering tops of various qpedes 
of womrwood, chiefly ArUmmd Almnikium^ along with 
angelica root {Artkcmgelica offidmM), sweet fb^ root 
{Aeartu Cahmva), ^e leaves of dittany of Chete {Ort^vm 
DidamiMu), stor-onise fruit (HHdum aniaatumjf and other 
oromatics, and macerstiog these in alcohol After soaking 
for about eight days the oomi^^cmnd is dktilled, yielding an 
emerald-coloured Hqdor, "- to whidi a propcfftion o2 an 
essentia3^oil, usually tiiat of anise^ is added. The liqueur 
thus prepond constitutes ^the geoeuine JBxirait d^Abnnike 
of the IVench; but mudi'of on inferior quality is made; 
vTxth other herbs and essential oils, widle the adulterations 
practised in the manufsctuve of absinthe are very numerous^ 
and deleterious. '^ In Jhe-adulteni^ the green^ 

colour is usually produced by tumeric iftid indigo^ j^uli the 
presence of even cupric sn^p^iate (blue vitriol) as a colour-' 
ing ingredient has been ' frequently defected. ^^'In? com- 
merce ^o varieties cf absinthe are recc^pused— common 
and Swiss abrinthe-^he latter of which is prepared with 



biglily concentrated spirit; and when really of Swiss manu- 
iactme, is of most trustworthy quality ss regards the herbs 
used in its preparation. ' The chief seat of the manufac- 
ture is in the canton of Keufddlltsl iu Switzerland, although 



absinthe distilleries are aeattersd genenlly throuj^ioQl 
Switaerland and France. The liqueur Is chiefly **9f!/B^mi>d 
in Fnnce, but there Is also a considerable export trade to 
the United States of America. In addition to the quaiH 
atf distilled for home eonsumptioii in Fiance, the amount 
imported from Switserlond in recent yeart has not been 
leee than 2,000,000 gallons yeariy.^ The introduction of 
this beverage into general use in France is curious. Duiw 
ing the Algerian war (1844-47) the soldien were adrised 
to mix abnnthe with their wine as a febrifuge. On their 
return they brought with them the habit of drinking it, 
which is now so widely dinseminnted in Frsnch sooe^, 
and with such disastrous consequences, thst the custom la 
justiy esteemed a grave notional evO. A French physidaa, 
M. Legrond, who has studied the physiological effects of 
ahsintfe drinking, dirtingnishes two trains of results aocoird» 
ing as the victim indcQges in violent excesses of driddng 
or only in continuous steady tippling. In the case o3 
excessive drinken there is fizst the feeling ol exaltation 
peculiar to a state of intoxication. The mcEeasing dose 
necessary to produce tlus state quiddy derangea the digee- 
tive -oigans, and destrovs the appetite^ An nnappeasabk 
thirst tuces possession of the victinvwith giddiness, tingling 
in the ears, and hallucinations of si§^t and Kesxing, followed 
by a constant mental oppression and anxiety, loss of brain, 
power, and, eventually, idiocy. The vfmptowM in the 
case of the tippler commence with muscular quiverings and 
decrease of physical strength; the hair begins to drop off, the 
face assumes a melancholy aspect, and he becomes ema* 
elated, wrinkled, and sallow. Lesion of the brain follows, 
horrible dreams and delusions haunt the victim, and gradu* 
ally paralysis overtakes him and lands him in lus grave. 
It has been denied by a French authority, M. Moreau, that 
these symptoms ore due to wormwood or any cf the essen* 
tial oils contsined in absinthe, and he maintains that tiie 
strong spirit and such adulterations as salts of copper are 
sufficient to account for the effects ol the liqueur. There 
is, however, no doubt that proportionately the consumption 
ai absinthe is mucb mora deleterious to the human frsmo 
than the drinking of brandy or other strong spirits. The 
use of absbthe has been prohibited in. both the anny and 
navy of Frsncei 

ABSOLUTE (from' the Latin al^iohere), having the 
general meaning of loosmedfrom, or unreOnded, in which 
sense it is popularly utod to qualify such words as ''mon- 
ardiy" or ** power,** has be^n variously employed in philo* 
sophy. "^ Logicians use it to mark certain classes of nameei 
Thus a tenn has been called absolute in opposition to aitri- 
by^ve^ when it signifies something that has or is viewed as 
having independent existence; most commonly,. however, 
the opposition conveyed is to reUUive. A teUtive name 
being taken as one which, over and abave the object 
which it denotes, implies in its signification the existence 
«of another object^ also deriving a denomination from the 
same fact, which is the ground of the first name (Mill), 
oSy^e^., father and son, &e non-relative or abe<dutc nsme 
fis'one that has its meaning for and in itself as man. 
Tlus distinction is a convenient one, although, as has been^ 
observed, it can hardly in perfect strictness be maintained. 
Hie ao-called absolute name, if used with a meaning; does 
always stand in some relation, however variable or in* 
definite, and the meaning varies with the relation. Thus 
man, which is a word of very different meanings, as, e,g,, 
net woman, notboy, not master, not brute, and so fortii^ 
may be said to have them according to the different 
relations in which it admits of being vieired, or, as it lias 
been otherwise expressed, according to the different notions 
whose '^ universe" it composes, along with its different 
correlatives. From this noint of view there is always one 
relation in which a real thing mnst iftand» namely, ther. 



58 



ABS — A BS 



relation to its eontradictoiy (as not man) ^Uun the 
uniyezse of being; the correlatiYeSy nnder 1m$ general 
notions, bdng then generally escpiessed podtiTely as con- 
traries (woman, boy, master, bmte, and so f orthy for man). 
If there is thns no name or notion that can strictly be 
called absolute, all knowledge may be said to be relative 
or qf the relativa But the knowledge of an absolute has 
also been held impossible, on the ground that knowing is 
itself a relation between a subject and an object; wha^ is 
known only in relation to a nnnd cannot be Imown as 
absolute. This doctrine, now commonly spoken of nnder 
the Dame of the Relativity of Knowledge, may, indeed, be 
brought under the former view, in which subject-object 
, uiarks the relation of hi^est philosophical sigmfidLuce 
within the whole universe of things. Keeping, however, 
the two views apart, we may say with double force that 
of the absolute there ia no knowledge, — (1), bec^rase, to be 
known, a thing must be consciously discnminated from 
other things; and (2), because it can be known only in 
relation with a kno^nng mind. Notwithstanding; there 
have been thinkers from Jiie earliest times, who, in dif- 
ferent ways, and more or less explicitly, allow of no such 
restriction upon knowledge, or at least consciousness, but, 
on Uie contrary, starting tram a notion, by the latter 
among them called the absolute, which includes within it 
the opposition of subject and object, pass therefrom to 
the explanation of all the phenomena of nature and of 
mind. In earlTi^ days the Eleatics, Plato, and Plotinus,, 
in modem times Spinoza, Leibnitz, Fichte, Schelling, 
Hegel, and Ck}usin, all have joined, under whatever dif- 
ferent forms, in maintaining this view. Kant, while 
denying the absolute or unconditioned as an object of 
knowledge, leaves it conceivable, as an idea regulative of 
the mind's intellectual experience. It is against any such 
absolute, whether as real or conceivable, that Hamilton 
and Mansel have taken ground, the former in his famous 
review of Ck}usin's philosophy, reprinted in his Discussions, 
the latter in his Bampton Lectures on The Limiu of 
Jtdigicui Thought^ basing their arguments indifferently on 
the positions as to the Relativity of Knowledge indicated 
above. For absolute in its more strictly metaphysical use, 
see MjrrAPHTBios. (can.) 

ABSOLUTION, a term used in dvil and ecclesiastical 
law, denotes the act of setting free or acquitting. In a 
criminal process it signifies the acquittal of an accused 
person on tiie ground that the evidence has either dis- 
proved or failed to prove the charge brought against him. 
It is now little used, except in Scotch law, in the fonns 
aswUxie and absolvitor. The ecclesiastical naage of the 
word is essentially different from the civil It refers to 
sin actually committed, and denotes the setting of a person 
free from its guilt, or from its penal consequences, or from 
both. It is Invariably connected with penitence, and some 
form of confession, the Scripture authority, to which the 
Roman Catholics, the Qieek Church, and Protestants 
equally appeal, being found iu John xx. 23, James v, 16, 
&C. In the primitive church the injunction of James was 
literally obeyed, and confession was made before the 
whole congregation, whose presence and concurrence were 
reckoned necessary to the validity of the absolution pro- 
nounced by the presbyter. In the 4th ceqtuiy the bishops 
began to exercise the power t>f absolution iu their own 
right, without recognising the congregations. In conse- 
quence of this the practice of private confession {con/essio 
awricttlaris) was established, and became more and more 
eonmum, until it was rendisred imperative once a year by 
a decree of the fourth Lateran Council (1215). A dis- 
tincti^ indeed, was made for a time between peecata 
vmid/ui, which might be confessed to a layman, and 
pecofo mofiaJtia, which could only be confessed to a priest; 



but this- was ultimately abolished, and the Roman Canon 
Law now stands, .Neo' veniaSa lusc mortalia possumus 
conflieri sacramentaliier, wisi meerdotL A change in the 
form of absolution was almost a logical sequence of the 
change.in the nature of the oonfession. At first the priest 
acted ministerially as an intercessory, using the formula 
absolutioadspreeativa or depreeaUtftu which consiflted of the 
words t Dominua ahtdtat U^^Miiertaiwr Uii omnipotens 
Jkui €t diandUat iibi omnia peecata- tua. This i$ atUl the 
only form in the Greek Chnrch, and it finds a "place in the 
Roman Catholic service thongh it is bo longer used in 
the act of absolution. The Bonu&h form was altered ia 
the 13th century, and the Council of Trent decreed the 
use of ihAformvla absoluUowU imdicoHifa, wiiere the priest 
acts judicially, aa himself possessed of the power of bind- 
ing and loosmg, and says, £go absolvo ie. Where a form 
of absolution is used in Protestant Churchy it is simply 
declarative, the state beipg only indicated, and in no sense 
or degree assumed to be caused by the declaration. 

ABSORPTION, in the ahimal economv, the function 
possessed by the absorbent mtem of vessels of taking up 
nutritive and other fluids. See Phtbioloqy. 

ABSTEMTT, a name formerly given to such persons aa 
could not partake of the cup of the eucharist on account 
of their natural aversion to wine. Calvinists allowed these 
to communicate in the species of .bread only, touching 
the cup with their lip; which was by the Lutherana 
deemed a profanation. Among several Protestant sects, 
both in Great Britain and America, abstemU on a some- 
what different principle have recently appeared. These 
are total abstainers, who maintain thai the use of stimu- 
lants is essentially sinful, and allege that the wine used 
by Christ and his disciples at'the supper was unf ermented. 
They accordingly communicate m the unfermentcd "juice 
of the grape." The difference of opinion on this point 
has led to a good deal of controversy m many congrega- 
tions, the solution generally arrived at bcmg to allow both 
wine and the puro juice of the grape to be served at the 
communiontable ._ 

ABSTRACTION, in Psychology and Logic, is a word 
used in several distinguishable but closely aUied senses. 
First, in a comprehensive sense, it is often applied to that 
process by which we fix the attention upon one part of 
what is present to the mind, to the exclusion of another 
part; abstraction thus conceived being merely the nega- 
tive of Attektion {q. V.) In this sense we aro able m 
thought to abstract one object from another, or an attribute 
from an object, or an attribute perceived by one sense 
from those perceived by other sensea Even in cases 
when thoughts or images have become insepaiably 
associated, we possess something of this power of abstract- 
ing or turning the attention upon one rather than another. 
Secondly, the word is used, with a more special significa- 
tion, to describe that concentration of attention upon the 
resemblances of a number of objects, which constitutea 
classification. And thirdly, not to mention other iesa 
important changes of meanmg, the whole process of 
generalisation, by which the mind forms the notiona 
expressed by common terms, is frequently, through a 
curious transposition of names, spoken of as abstractioii. 
Especially when underatood in its less comprehensive 
connection, the process of abstraction possesses a peculiar 
interest To the psychologist it is interesting, because 
there is nothing he is more desirous to understahd than 
the mode of formation and true nature of what are called 
general notions. And fortunately, with reeard to the 
abstractive process by which these are f orme(^ at least in 
its initial stages, there is little disagreement ; since every 
one describes it as a process of comparison, by which the 
mind is enabled to consider the objects, confusedly pre> 



A B S— AB U 



69 



tented to it in intuitLon, to raeogniae and attend ezduuTely 
to thflir pointa'of agreement^ and so to claMify them in 
•ccordanoe . with^tlieir perceiyed resemblances. Further, 
this proeta 18 admitted without much dispute' to belong 
to the diaeursiTe or elaboiatiTe action orthe intellect; 
although, perhaps — should the view ' of TMrn^ modem 
psychologists be correct, that all intelligence proeeeds by 
the establishment of re]ati<ms of Itkc m e u and tmUkmeit 
— abstraction will be better. ponceiTed as thus related to 
intelligenoe in general and ^ical of ^ its prooesseSy thfla 
as the action merely of a special and s(»newhat indefinite 
faculty. . No such hannpny, howerer/ exists regarding the 
nature of the product of abstraction ; for that is Uie subject- 
matter of Nominal tmn ..and Realism, which has produced 
more oontroyergy/ and stimulated to more subtls^ of 
thought, than any othe^ subject ever debated in philo- 
Bophy. The concept or absttact idea has been represented 
in a multitiujle of waya: sometimes as -an idea possessing 
an objectiTe existence independent of particularB, eyen 
more real and pennanent than theirs ; sometimes as' an 
idea composed of all the drcomstances in which the par- 
tienlazs agree, 'and of no others ; again, as the idea of an 
indiyidnaj, retaining its indiridualjinng qualities, but with 
the accompanying knowledge that these are not the pro- 
fxurties d the daas ; and y0i again,' as the idea of a 
misceOaneoos assemblage of individuals ^belonging to a 
dass. It i^ still impossible to say. that the many-sided 
eo n t ro ihi n iy is at an end.. The only conclusion generally 
admitted seems to be, that there exists between, the cott- 
er and the particular objects .of. ! intuition. somiBi yenr 
intimate relatbn of thought, so that it is necessary^ for aU 
porpoaas of reasoning, , that the general '.and particular go 
hand in hand, that thei idea of Uui^ class if such exists' 
—be capable of being'applied, in cvIot 'completed act ^o^ 
thought^ to the objects comprised within the class. 

To the -student- of' ontology^' also/ abatraction is of 
q>ec2al interesi^ since, according to^tmany distinguished 
thinkezs, the recognition, of abstraction as a powerful and- 
universal mental process is .to explain' all ' ontology away, 
and give the ontologist his eternal quietus. The thorough- 
^ing Q<»nina]kt professes to discover in the mind an 
uveterate tendency to abstraction, and a pronenesa to 
sscribe separate existence to abstractions, amply sufficient 
to account for all those forms of independent reality which 
metaphysicB defend, and to exhibit them all in their true 
colours aa fictitious assumptions. . In reply, the ontologist, 
strengthened by the instinct of self-preservation, commonly 
contends that the analogy between general notions and 
metaphysical principles does not hold good, and that the 
latter are always more than simple abstractions or mere 
names. Only after abstraction, is understood can the 
question be settied 

' ' In like manner to logic, whether regarded as the science 
of the formal la«B«f thought^ or, more widely, aa the science 
of scientific methods, a true understanding of abstraction 
^is of the ^eatest importance. It is important in pure 
logic, because, as we have seen, every act of judgment and 
reasoning postulates a concept or concepts, and so pre- 
supposes abstraction. Abstractioti, determining the possi* 
.bility alike of^eason and speech, creates those notions 
,that bear 'common, names ; it is indi8pen8a.bl^jto*;,the 
formation of classes,' great or smaUj^ind just accox^g as. 
it ascends,' increasing the extension . and^ diminishing .the 
intension of classes,, the horison visible. to. reason .^ and to 
logic gradually recedes, and widens.' Ajid to lopo as the 
.sdenoe of the sdeboes ia true doctrine of abstraction is not 
less necessary ; because the process of extending know- 
ledge is, in all its developments^ essentially the same as 
^ths first mdimentaiy effort to form a concepi and think of 
particulars as- members of a class; a ''natural law«" at 



least in its subjective aspect, is invariably an abstiactioa 
made 'by comparing phenomena— «n abstraction under 
which phenomena are classed in order to the extension ef 
knowledge, just as under a concept are grouped the par- 
ticulars presented in intuition: As proof of this identitjr 
it is found that the same differences exist regarding th» 
objective, or, subjective 'jnature of the./' natural law'^ a» 
regarding that of the concept Some affirm that the law- 
is brought ready-made by the mind and superinduced oia 
the facts ; others, that it is never in any sense more than 
a mera mental conception^ got by obeerving the facts; 
while there are yet others who maintAin it to Im such a sub- 
jective conception, but one corresponding at the same tim& 
to an external relation whidi is real though unknowable, 

ABSURDUM, RxDUcno iJ>, a mode of demonstrating 
the trtith^.of a proposition,' by ahowing that its oontnip> 
dictory leads to an absurdity. It is much employed \m 
Euclid 

'ABU, a celebrated mountain of Westen India, betweea 
6000 and 6000 feet in height, situated ia 24* 40' N. lalj 
wd 72'' 48' R long., within the RAjputiLdl State of SirohQ 
It is celebrated as the site of the most ancient Jain temples 
in India, and attracts pilgiims from all parts of the country. 
The Jains are the modem Indian representatives of^ the 
Buddhists, and profess the ancient theistic doctrines of that 
sect, modified by saint worship and incarnations^ • The 
elevations and platforms of the mountain are covned with 
elaborately sculptured shrines, temples, and tombs. On 
the top of the hill is a small round platform containing a 
cavern, with a block of granite, beaxing the impression of 
the feet of DAt^Bhrigu, an incarnation of Vishnu. Tlusi 
is the chief great place of pilgrimage for the Jains, Shrawaks, 
and Banians. Th^ two principal temples are situated at 
DeulwM, about the middle of the mountain, and five milea 
south-west of Guru Sikri, the highest summit. They ore 
, built of white marble, and are pre-eminent alike for their 
beauty and, aa typical specimens of Jain architecture in 
India. The foUowii^ description is condensed from Mr 
Fergusson's Hidorp of ArMUehtre, voL ii pp. 623 to 
625 : — lUie more modem of the two was built by two 
brothers, rich iherchants, between the yean 1197 and 
1247» and for'delicacy of carving and minute beauty of 
detafl stands almost unrivBiled, even in tlus land of patient 
and lavish labour. The . other was built by another, 
merchant prince, Bimal4 Shih, appafentiy about 1032 a.d.,' 
and although simpler and bolder in style, i^as elaborate as 
good taste would allow in a purely architectural object | 
It IB one of the oldest as well as one of the most completo 
examples of Jain architecture known. The principal object 
within the temple is a cell lighted only from the door, con« 
taining across-legged seated figure of the fiod Paresnith.| 
The portico is composed of forty-eight pilkn, the wholo| 
enclosed in an oblong court-yard about 140 feet by 90 
feet, surrounded by a double colonnade of smaller pillara, 
forming porticos to a range of fifty-five ceUs, which enclose 
it on all sides, exacUy as they do in a Buddhist monastery 
{vihdra\ In this temple, however, each cell, instead of 
being tne residence of a monk, is occupied by an image of 
ParcAU^. and jover the door, or on the jambs of each, are 
sculptured' scenes from . the life .of the deity. The whole 
interior is magnificenUy oniamented! . The Emv&oT Akbar^ 
by a farmin dated in th^ nioiith of^Babi-uUnl,. in the 
d7th year of his. reign^ corresponding with 1093, made m 
grant of the. hill ai^ temples of Abu, as well as of the 
other hills and places of Jain pilgrimage in the empire, to 
Harb^ai Sur, a celebrated preceptor of the Setdmbaif sect 
of the Jain religion^. He alao prohibited the slaughter of 
aninuJir at these placesl'^' The fsrmAn of this enlightened 
monarch declared that " it is the rule of the woEsnippeift 
of God to preserve all religions.^ 



60 



A B U — A B U 



ABU-BEKR (father of the virgin), was originally called 
Abd-el-Caaba {jtervant of the temple), and received the name 
by which he is known historically in consequence of the 
marriage of his virgin daughter Ayesha to Mohammed. He 
was bom at Mecca m the year 573 A.D., a Koreishite of 
the tribe, of Benn-Taim. Possessfsd of immense wealth, 
which ^h^had himself acquired in commer^, and held in 
bigh estoetti as a judge, an interpreter of dreams, and a 
'depositary of the traditions of his race, his early accession 
to Islamism was a fact of great importance. On his con- 
version ho assumed the name of Abd-AUa (servant of God), 
His own belief in Mohammed and his doctrines was so 
thorough as to procure for him the tkle £1 ^ddik (the 
faithful), and his success in gaining converts was corre- 
spondingly great In his personal relationship to the 
prophet he showed the deepest veneration and most un- 
swerving devotion. When Mohammed fled from Mecca, 
Abu-Bekr was his sole companion, and shared both his 
hardships and his triumphs, remaining constantly with 
him until the day of his death. During his last illness 
the prophet indicated Abu-Bekr as his successor, by desir- 
ing him to offer up prayer for the people. The choice 
was ratified by the chiefs of the army, and ultimately con- 
firmed, thoc^ Ali, Mohammed's son-in-law, disputed it, 
asserting his own title to the dignity. After a time Ali 
submitted, but the difference of opinion as to his claims 
gave rise to a controversy which still divides the followers 
of the prophet into the rival factions of Sunnites and 
Shiites. Abu-Bekr had scarcely assumed hid new position 
under the title Khalifet-Kesul-AIlah (eucceesor of -the prophet 
of God), when he was called to suppress the revolt of the 
tribes He<yaz and Nedjd, of which the former rejected 
Islamism, and the latter refused to pay tribute. He en- 
■countered formidable opposition from different quarters, 
but in every case he was successful, the severest struggle 
being that with the impostor Mosailima, who was finally 
defeated by Khaled at the battle of Akraba. Abu-Bekr's 
seal for the spread of the new faith was as conspicuous as 
that of its founder had been. When the internal disorders 
had been repressed and Arabia completely subdued, he 
directed his generals to foreign conquest The Irak of 
Persia was overcome by Khaled in a ^gle campaign, and 
there was eJso a successful expedition into Syria. After 
the hard-won victory over Mosailima, Omar, fearing that 
the sayings of the prophet would be entirely forgotten 
ivhen those who had listened to them had all been re- 
moved by death, induced Abu-Bekr to see to their preserva- 
tion in a written form. The record, when completed, was 
^eposit^ with Hafsu, daughter of Omar, and one of the 
^vives of Mohammed. It was held in great reverence by all 
Moslems, though it did not possess canonical authority, 
-and furnished most of the materials out of which the 
Koran, as it now exists, was prepared. When the authori- 
tative version was completed, all copies of Hafsu's record 
Were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and 
^visions. Abu-Bekr died on the 23d of August 634, 
iiaving reigned as Khalif fully two years. Shortly before 
hja death, which one tradition ascribes to poison, another 
to natural causes, he indicated Omar as his successor, after 
the manner Mohammed had observed in his own case. 

ABULFARAQIUS, Gregob Abulfakaj (called also 
Barhbbraus, from his Jewish parentage), was bom at 
Malatia, in Armenia, in 1226. His father Aaron was a 
physician, and Abulfaragius, after studying under him, 
also practised medicine witn great succesa His command 
of the Arabic, Syriac, and Greek languages, and his know- 
ledge ol philosophy and theolc^, gained for him a very 
high' reputation. In 1244 he removed to Antioch, and 
shortly after to Tripoli, where he was consecrated Bishop 
^ Cuba, when only twenty years of age. He was subse- 



quently transferred to the see of Aleppo, and was elected 
in 1266 Maphrian or Primate of the eastern section of 
the Jacobite Christums. This dignity he held till his 
death, which oecurred at Mai-agha, in Aserbgan, in 1286. 
Abulfaragius wrote a large number of works on various 
subjects, but his fame as an author rests chiefly on his 
EixUnry of the World, from th« creation to his own 
day. It was written 'first in Syriac, and then, after a 
considerable interval an abrid§^ version in Arabic 
was published by the author at the request of friends. 
The latter is divided into ten sections, each of which con- 
tained the account of a separate dynasty. The historic 
value of the work lies entirely in the portions that treat of 
eastern nations, especially in those renting tathe Saracens, 
the Tartar Mongols, and the conquests of Genghis Khan. 
The other Sections are full of mistakes, arising partly no 
doubt from the author's comparative ignorance of classical 
languages. A Latin translation of the Arabic abridgement 
was published by Dt Pococke at Oxford in 16G3. A por- 
tion of the original text, with Latin translation, edited, by 
no means carefully or accurately, by Bruns and F. W. 
Kirsch, appeared at Leipsic in 1788. 

ABULFAZL, vizier and historiographer of the great 
Mongol emperor, Akbar, was bom about the middle of 
the 16th century, the precise date being uncertain. His 
career as a minister of state, brilliant though it was, would 
probably have been by this time forgotten but for the 
record he himself has left of it in his celebrated history. 
The Akbar Nameh, or Book of Akhar, as Abulfad's chief 
literary work is called, consists of two parts^ — ^the first being 
a complete history of Akbar's reign, and the seconcC 
entitled Ayin^Ahbari, or Inetitvies of Akbar, being an 
account of the religious and political constitution and 
administration of the empire. The style is singularly 
elegant, and the contents of the second part possess a 
unique and Listing interest An excellent translation of 
that part by Mr Francis Gladwin was published in Cal- 
cutta, 1783-6. It was reprinted in London very in- 
accurately, and copies of the original edition are now 
exceedingly rare and correspondingly valuable. Abulfazl 
died by the hand of an assassin, while returning from a 
mission to the Deccan in 1602. Some writers say tlutt the 
murderer was instigated by the heir-apparent^ who had 
become jealous of the minister's influence. 

ABULFEDA, Ismail bek-Ali, Euab-kddik, the cele> 
brated Arabian historian and geographer, bom at Damascus 
in the year 672 of the Hegira (1273 A.D.), was directly 
descended from Ayub, the father of the emperor Saladin* 
In his boyhood he devoted himself to tiie study of the 
Koran and the sciences, but from his twelfth year he was 
almost constantly engaged in military expeditions, chiefly 
against the crusaders. In 1285 he was present at the 
assault of a stronghold of the Knights of St John, and he 
took part in the sieges of Tripoli Acre, and Ronm In 
1298 the princedom of Hamah and other honours, origin* 
ally conferred by Saladin upon Omar, passed by inherit- 
ance to Abulfeda; but the succession was violently . dis- 
puted by his two brothers, and the Court availed itself of 
the opportunity to supersede all the tiiree, and to abolish 
the principality. The sultan Melik-el-Nassir ultimately 
(1310) restored the dignity to Abulfeda, with additional 
honours, as an acknowledgment of his military services 
against the Tartars and Bibars, the sultan's rival He 
received an independent sovereignty^ with the right of 
coining money, &c, and had the title Melik Mowayyad 
(victorume prince) conferred upon him. For twenty yeais^ 
till his death in October 1331, he reigned in tranquillity 
and splendour, devoting himself to the duties of govern- 
ment and to the composition of the works to which he is 
chiefly indebted for his fame. He was a munificent patron 



A B — A B Y 



61 



of men of letteia^ who repaired in large omnbert to his 
craii Abolfeda't ehkf historical iltnk is An AMdgemaU 
of the HidoTf iff the, Human Race^ in the f onn of annals, 
ettending frm the creation of the worid to the year 1328, 
A great part of it is compiled from Uie works of preTious 
writers, and it is difficult to determine aecorately what is 
the author's and what is not Up to the time of the birth 
of Mobammedy the narrative is very succinct; it becomes 
moTO fall and valuable the nearer the historian approaches 

. his own day. It is the only source of information on 

. many facts connected with the Saracen empire, and alto- 
gether is by fiir the most important. Arabian history we 
now possess. Various translations of parts of it exist, 
the earliest being a Latin rendering of the section relating 
to the Arabian conquests in Sicily, by Dobelius, Arabic 
professor at Fklarmo, in 1610. This is preserved in 
Muratori's J2snw» Italiearum Scriptores^ vol L The his* 

• toiy from the time of Mohammed was published with a 
Latin translation by Beiake, under the title AnnaUi Mot- 
lemid (5 vols^^ Copenhagen, 1789>-9i), and a similar 
edition of the earlier part was published by Fleischer at 

' L^psic in 1831, under the title Abu{f9dcB Hittoria Ante- 
IdamUica, His Orography is chiefly^ valuable in the his- 
torical and descriptive ports relating to the Moslem empire. 
From his necessarily imperfect acquaintance with astro- 
nomy, his nolation of latitude and longitude, though fuller 
than that of any geographer who preceded him, can m no 
case be depended on, and many of the places whpse posi- 
tion he gives with the utmost apparent precision cannot 
be now klentified. A complete oiition was published by 
MM. Beinaud and De Slano at Pans m 1840; and Reinaud 
pblished a French translation, with notes and illustrations, 
in 184a MSS. of both Abulfeda's great works are pre* 
served in the Bodleian Library and in the National 
library of France. 

ABULGHAZI-BAHADUR (1605-1663), a khan of 
EhiTSy of tlie race of Qenghis-Ehan, who, after abdicating 
in favour of his son, employed his leisure in writinff a 
history of the Mongols and Tkirtars. He produced a 
valuable work, which has been translated into Qenni^i, 
French, and Russian. 

AfiUNA, the title given to the archbishop or metropoli- 
tsn of Abyssinia. 
ABUSHEHR See Busflnti. 
ABU-SIMBEL, or Ipsambul, the ancient AhoeeU or 
IhtncU^ a place in Nubiai on the left bank of the Nile, 



about 60 miles 8 W. of Derr, remarkable for its ancient 
Egyptian temples and colosul figures hewn out d the 
soud rocL For a description of these see Nubia. 

ABU/TEMAN, one of the most highly esteemed 6t 
Arabian poets, was bom at Djacem in the year 190 of the 
Uegira (806 a.o.) In the little that is told of his life it 
is 'difficult to distinguish between truth and fable. He 
tttm:% to have lived in £gypt in his youth, and to have> 
been engaged m servile employment, but his rare poetic 
talent speedily raised him to a distinguished position at 
the court of the caliphs of Bagdad. Arabian hisUnians 
assert that a single poem frequently gained for him many 
thousand pieces of gold, and the rate at which his con- 
temporaries estimated his genius may be understood from 
the saying, that^ ** no one could ever die whose name had 
been praised in the verses of Abu-Teman." Besides 
writing original poetry, he made three collections of select 
pieces from the poetry of the East, of Ihe most important 
of which, called Jlamasa, Sir William Jones speaks highly. 
Professor Carlyle quoted this collection largely iaina Specie 
mens of Arabic Poetry (1796). An edition of the text| 
with Latin translation, was published by Freytag at 
Bonn n 828-61)^ and a meritorious translation in Qennao 
verse oy Ruckert appeared m 184p. Abu-Teman died 
845 A.D. 

ABYDOS (1.), in Ancun$ Geography, a city of Mysia» 
in Asia Minor, situated on the Hellespont, which is here 
scarcely a mile broad. It probably was originally a 
Thracian town, but was afterwards colonised by Milesians* 
Neariy opposite, on the European side of the Hellespont^ 
stood Sesios; and it ^-as Bere that Xerxes crossed the 
strait on his celebrated bridge of boats when he invaded 
Qreece. Abydos was celebrated for the vigorous resistance 
it made when besieged by Philip IL of Macedon ; and is 
famed in story for the loves ol Hero and Leander. The 
old castle of the Dardanelles, built by the Turks, lies a 
little southward o) Sestos and Abydos. 

ABTDOS (2.), in Ancient Geography ^ a town of Upper 
Kgypt» a Uttle to the west of the Nile, between Ptoicmais 
and Diospolis Parya, famous for the palace of Memnon and 
the temple of Osiris. Remains of these two edifices are 
still in existence. In the temple of Osiris Mr Bankes 
discovered in 1818 the tablet of Abydos, containing a 
double series of twenty-six shields of the predecessors of 
Bameses the Great. This tablet is now deposited in the 
British Museum. 



V 



ABYSSINIA 



ABYSSINIA is an extensive country of Eastern Africa, 
the limits of which are not well defined, and authorities 
are by no means agreed respecting them. It may, however, 
be regarded as lying between 7"" SO' and lb"" 40' N. lat, and 
35* and 40* 30' E long., having, N. and N.W.. Nubia ; E., 
the territoiy-of the Danakils ; S., the country of the QaUas; 
and W., the regions of the Upper Nil&i It has an area of 

> It is Qsaal to taclade^ Abjssinia the flat country which lies between 
U tod the Bed Set, and to re^idtho Utter as forining its bonndaiy on 
(beeest This, however, Is not etiietly eorreet Abynlnia proper com- 
prises only the monntaiooas portkm of this territory, the low lying por- 
tion being inhabited by distinct and hostile tribes, and claimed by the 
Viceroy of Cgypt as part of his dominiona. The low country is very 
Q&bealthy,the soil dry and arid, and with few exceptions uncultivated, 
whereas the highlands are generally salubrious, well watered, and in 
Bsny pans very fertile. This arid track of coiintxy ia only a few miles 
broad at Uassowah, in the north, but widens out to 200 or 300 miles at 
Tsjurrsh, In the south. It ts, in a great measure, owing to Abyssinia 
beiog thus cut off from intercourse with the dvUised world by this in- 
boepitable region, which has for three oenturlsB been tn fbe hands of 
tnomiea, that it Is at present so Sax sank in ignocaaos and barbarism. 



abont 200,000 square miles, and a population of from 
3,000,000 to 4,000,000. 

The name Abyssinia, or more properly Habossittia, is 
derived from the Arabic word Haheechj which signifies 
mixture or confusion, and was applied to this countiy by 
the Arabs on account of the mixed character of the people, 
llus was subsequently Latinised by the Portuguese inta 
Ahassia and Ahauinoe^ and hence the present nama The 
Abyssinians call themselves Itiopyavan, and their coimtiy 
ItiopiOj or Mangkeeta Itiopia, the kingdom of Ethiopia: 

The country of Abyssinia rises rather abruptly from the 
low arid district on the borders of the Red Sea in lofty 
ranges of mountains, and slopes away more gradually to 
the westward, where the tributaries of the Nilohave formed 
numerous deep valleys. It consists for the most part of 
extensive and elevatod table-lands, with mountain ranges 
extending indifferent directions, and intersect«^ by numerous 
valleys. The table-lands are gencraUy from 6000 to 9000 
feet above the level of the sea, but in the south there ait 



62 



ABYSSINIA 



£ 



cf coDsider&ble extent^ wMch attain a Le^ht of more 
than lOjOOO feet The moantains in varioaa parts of the 
countiy rise to 12,000 and 13,000 feet above the sea, and 
«ome <tf the peaks of Semen are said to reach to 15,000 
^eet, and to be always oovexed with snow. The average 
tieight of the range which divides the siareema lowing to 
<the east from those that flow westward is about 8000 feet, 
oiaing t(> 10,000 or 11,000 in the south, and sinking intlie 
north. The whole country presents the appearance of 
lianng been broken up and tossed about in a remarkable 
manner, the mountains assnming wild and fantastic forms, 
ifith aides frequently abrupt and precipitous, and only 
^usceasiWft by very difficult passes The Samen range of 
mountains are Ae*highest in Abyssinia, and together with 
the Lamalmon and Lasts mountains form a long but not 
continuous chaiui running from north to south. 




Sketch Chart of AbyssInUL 

The principal rivers of Abyssinia are tributaries of the 
Kile; The western portion of the country may be divided 
into three regions, drained respectively by the Mareb, the 
Atbara, and tibe AbaL The most northern of these rivers 
is the Mareb^ which rises in the nHwntaius of Taranta, 
flows first south, then west, and afterwards turns to the 
north, where it is at length, after a xxnirse ol upwards of 
<600 miles, lost in the sand, but in ibe rainy season it falls 
into the Atbara. The Atbara^ or Takazsa^ rises in the 
mountains of Lasts, and flowing first north, th^n west, and 
again toming to the north, at length falls into the Nile, 
after a course of about 800 miles. TheAbai,Bahr^-Aaek 
or Blue River, the eastern branch of the Nile, and considered 
by Bruoe to be the main stream of that river, rises from 
two mountains near Qeesh, in lat 10** 59' 25' N , long. 
dOl^'t^' 30* R, about 10,0Q0 feet above the level of the 
«ea. It flows first north to the Lake of Dcmbea or Tzana, 
then takes a long semidrcalar sweep round the province of 
Ckxijam, and afterwards flows northward to about the loth 
degree of N. lat, where it unites with the Bahr-el-Abiad, 
which has now been asoertained to be the true Nile. The 
Haw&sl). the principal river of eastern Abyssinia, rises about 
lat Q*' 30' N., long. 38"* R, and, flowing in a north-easterly 
-''^izection towards the Bed Sea, is lost in Lake Aussa, lat 



ir25'N.,long.4l?40'R The principal lake of Abyssinii^ 
is the Dembea, which lies between 11 30^ and 12^ SO' N. 
lat, and S?"" and Sr 35' £. long., being about 60 miles in 
length by 40 ix\ width, and containing a number of smaU 
islands. It is fed by numerous small stxeama. The lake 
of Ashangi, in lat 1 2° 35' N., long. SS^" 4^ £., is about 4 
miles long by 3 broadband upwards of 8000 feet above th» 
se& 

The fundamental rocks of IRffi, «ad probably of all 
Abyssinia, are metamorphie. They co mp o se the mass of 
the table-land, and whOe thsy oecopy no inoonsideiablo 
portion of its surf aoe, they are eacpeeed, in Tigr4 at least, in 
every deep vaQey. The mefcamorpluca vary greatly in 
mineral character, "every intermediate grade b^og found 
between the most coarsely crystalline granite and a slaty 
rock so little altered that the lines of the original bedding 
are still apparent Perhaps the most prevSent form of 
rock is a rauier finely cTfstaillinegneissL Homblendehschist 
and mica-schist are met with, but neither of the minerals 
from which they are named appears to be so abundant as 
in some metamorphie tracts. On the other hand, a compact 
f elspathio rock, approaching felsite in composition, is pre- 
valent in places, as in the Sum defile, b^een Komayli 
^and Senaf 6." Thiste are a few exceptions, but as a general 
'rule it may be asserted that in the neighbourhood of the 
route followed by the British army, so much of the country 
as is more than 8000 feet above tibie sea consists of bedded 
traps, and this is probably the case in general over Abys- 
sim&> " Between the traps and the metamorphics a 
series of sandstones and limestones intervene, one group of 
the former underlying the latter. The limestone alone is 
f ossiliferous, and is of Jurassic age." " On the route to 
Magdala volcanic rocks were first met with at Senafd, where 
several hHIs consist of trachyte, passing into claystone and 
basalt Trap hills, chiefly of tr^hyte, are dotted over the 
country to the southward as far as Fokada, a distance of 
nearly 30 miles. Here a great range di bedded traps com- 
mences, and extends for about 25 miles to the south, pass- 
ing to the west of Adigerat* At Meshek, two marches 
south of Antalo, " the route entered high ranges entirely 
composed of trap, and thence no other rocks were seen as 
far as Magdala." "* The trapjpean rocks belong to two dis- 
tinct and unconformable groups. The lower of these is 
much inclined, while the higher rests on its uptumed and 
denuded edges.'* Denudation has evidentiy been going on 
to a great extent in this country. One of its most striking 
features are the deep ravines which have been n^orked out 
by the action of the streams, sometimes to the depth of 
3000 or 4000 feet " How much of the Abyssinian high- 
lands has been removed by these great torrents, and spread 
as an alluvial deposit over the basin of the Nile r ^Probably 
over the whole of northern Abyssinia there existeci at least 
4000 feet of bedded traps, of which«now only a few vestiges' 
remain.*'— JT. T. Blanfard. 

Abyssinia is said to enjoy "probably as salubrious a 

climate as any oountry on the face of the globoL" 

Parkytu. The heat is by no means oppressive, a fine^ 
light air counteracting the power oLthe sun ; and during 
the rainy season, the sky being doudy, the weather is 
always agreeable and cool, while the rain itself is not very 
severe. In certain of the low valleys, however, malarious 
influences prevail before and after the rainy season, and 
bring on dangerous fevers. On the higher parts the oold 
is sometimes intense, particularly at n^t The natural 
division of the seasons is into a cold, a hot, and a rainy 
season. The cold season may be said to extend from; 
October to February, the hot from the beginning of March [ 
to the middle of June, and the wet or monsoon period from I 
this time to the end of September. The rainy season is of 
importance, not only in equalising the temperature, ineieasiDg 



ABYSSINIA 



63 



tiie feitniiy, and keeping up the water snpply of the coontiy, 
imt, es Sir S. Baker bas showni it plays a moat important 
port in the annnal OTorflow of tJie Nile. 

On the eommits and slopes of the highest moontaina 
the vegetation is of a thoroaghly temperate and even 
English character ; the plateaux have a flora of the same 
character ; while on the lower slopes of the hills and in the 
nivines occur many trees and shrubs of warmer dimes. 
** The general appearance of the plateaux and plains is that' 
x)f a comparatively bare country, with ti«es and bushes 
thinly scattered over it, and clumps and groves only occur- 
ring round villages and churches. But the glens and ravines 
in the plateau sides, each with its little bright spring, are 
often thickly wooded, and offer a delicious contrast to the 
open country.''^-ifarMam. This refcn more particularly 
to the northern portion of the country, tiiat drained by the 
^areb; the central and southern parts are much more fertile 
and productiva Here the fertility is so great that in some 
parts three crops are raised annually, i^^culture receives 
considerable attention, and large quantities of maize, wheat, 
barley, peas, beans, &c, are grown. Very extensively 
cultivated is tef (Poa abymniea), a herbaceous plant with 
grains not larger than the head of a pin^ of which is made 
the broad in general nee throughout the country. The low 
grounds produce also a kind of com called tocussa, of 
which a black bread is made, which constitutes the food of 
the lower classes. Coffee grows wild on the western 
moontains, and the vine and sugar-cane are cultivated in 
favourable localities. Cotton is also grown to a consider- 
able extent Among the fruit-trees are the date, orange, 
lemon, pomegranate, and banana. Myrrh, balsam, and 
various kinds of valuable medicinal plants are common. 

Most of the domestic animals of Europe are found here. 
The cattle are in general small, and the oxen belong to the 
htunped rooei The famous Galla oxen have horns some- 
times fovir feet long. The sheep belong to the short and 
fat-tailed race, and are covered with wool Qoats are very 
common, and have sometimes horns two feet in length. 
The horses are strong and active. Of wild animals the 
spotted hysena is among the most numerous, as well as the 
fiercest and most destructive, not only roaming in immense 
numbers over the country, but frequently entering the 
-towns, and even the houses of the inhabitants. The 
elephant and rhinoceros are numerous in the low grounds. 
The Abyssinian rhinoceros has two horns ; its skin, which 
has no folds, is used for shields, and for lining drinking 
vessels, being regarded as an antidote to poison. Crocodiles 
and hippopotami are plentiful in the rivers ; lions, panthers, 
4md leopanis are seen occasionally, and buffaloes frequently. 
Among other animab may ^ mentioned as common various 
epedcs of antelopes, wild swine, monkeys, hares, squirrels, 
several species of hyrax, jackals, &c. 

The buds of Abyssinia are veiy numerous, and many of 
them remarkable for the beauty of their plumage. Great 
numbers of eagles, vultures, hawks, and other birds of prey 
are met with; and partridges, snipes, pigeons, parrots, 
thrushes^ and swallows are veiy plentiful Among insects 
the most numerous and useful is the bee, honey everywhere 
constitnfing an important part of the food of the inhabi- 
tants, and several of the provinces paying a large proportion 
of their tribute in this article. Of an opposite chiss is the 
locust, the ravages of which here, as in other parts of 
Northern Africa, are terriblei Serpents are not numerous, 
but several species are poisonous. 

The inhabitants of Abyssinia form a number of different 
tribes, and evidently belong to several distinct races. The 
majority are of the Caucasian race, and are in general well- 
iormed and handsome, with straight and regular features, 
lively ^es, hair long and straight or somewhat curled, and 
vcolour dark olive, approaching to black. Btippell regards 



them as identical in features with tbe Bedouin Arabs. The 
tribes inhabiting Tigr6, Amhara, A^w, 4ec., belong to thia 
race. The Qalla race, who came ongmally from the 8outh| 
have now overrun the greater port of the country, constir 
tuting a large portion of the soldiery, and, indeed, there art 
few of the chiefs who have not an intermixture of Qalla 
blood in their veins. They are fierce and turbulent in ^ 
character, and addicted to cruelty. Many of them are still * 
idolaters, but most of them Iiave nowadonted the Moham- 
medan faith, and not a few of them the Christianity of the 
Abyssinians. They are generally large and weil-buii.t,'of a 
brown complexion, with regular featujres, small deepl/-siuiU 
but very bright eyes, and long Uack hair. A race of Jeus, , 
known by the name of Falashai, inhabit the district of 
Samen. They affirm that their forefathers came into tha I 
country in the days of Rehoboam, but it seems more 
probable that they arrived about the time of the destruction 
of Jerusalem. From the 10th century they eryoyed their 
own constitutional rights, and were subject to their own 
kings, who, tliey pretend, were descended from King David, 
untjl the year 1800, when the royal race became extinct, 
and they then became subject to Tigrd. 

The prevailing religion of Abyssinia is a rciy corrupted 
form of Christianity. This is professed by tlie m2\iority of 
the people as well as by the reigning princes of the different 
states. There are else scattered over the country many 
Mohammedans, and some Falashas or Jcwa Christianity 
was introduced into this country about the year 330, but 
since that time it has been so corrupted by errors of various 
kinds as to have become little more than a dead formality 
mixed up with much superstition and Judaism. Feasts 
and fast-days are very freiquent, and baptism and the Lord's 
supper are dispensed after the manner of the Greek Church. 
The children are circumcised, and the Mosaic command- 
ments with respect to food and purification are observed. 
The eating of animals which do not chew the cud and which 
have not cloven hoofs is prohibited. The ecclesiastical body 
is very numerous, consisting of priests of various kinds^ 
with monks and nuns, and is looked upon with great awe 
and reverence. If a priest be married previous to his 
ordination, he i» allowed to remain so ; but no one can 
marry after having entered the priesthood. The primate 
or chief bishop is called Abvna {i.e., our father), and is 
nominated by the patriarch of Cairo, whom they acknow- 
ledge as their spiritual father. The churches are rude 
edifices, chiefiy of a circular form, with thatched roofs, the 
interior being divided into three compartments, — an outer 
one for the laity, one ^s-ithin for the priests, and in the 
centre the Holy of Holies, exactly after the maimer of a 
Jewish temple. The worship consists merely in reading 
passages of Scripture and dispensing the Lord's tnpi'cr, 
without any preaching. Like the Greek Church, they l:,.7e 
no images of any kind in their places of worship, but i<ih.U 
ings of the saints are very common — their faces alwav;} in 
fuS, whatever may be the position of their bodies. They 
have iimumerable saints, but above all is the Virgin, whom 
they regard as queen of heaven and earth, and the great 
intercessor fur the sins of mankind. Their reverence for a 
saint Lb often greater than for the Almighty, and a man 
who would not hesitate to invoke the name of his Maker in . 
witness to a falsehood may decline so to use the name of 
*St Midiael or St George. Legends of saints and works of 
religious controversy form almost their entire literature. 
"At present," says Bishop Gobat, '<the Christians of 
Abyssinia are divided into three parties, so inimical to each 
ether that they curse one another, and will no longer par- 
take of the sacrament together. It is one single point of 
theology that disunites them — ^the unceasing dispute con* 
ceming the unction of Jesus Chxist" 

In manners the Abyssinians are rude and barbaroui,. 



«4 



ABYSSINIA 



Engagod as tli^ ara in joontinual wan, and aociistomed 
lo uoodshedt humaa life ia litde regarded among them. 
MnrdeiB and execationa aze frequent, and yet cmelty is 
aaid not to be a marked f eatora of their character ; and m 
wax thev seldom kill their prisoners. When one ia con- 
victed of mnrder, he is hand^ over to the relatives of the 
deceased, who may either pnt him to death or accept a 
ransom. When the murdered person has no relatives, the 
priests take upon themselves the office of avengers. The 
Abyssuuans are irritable, bat easUy appeased ; and are a 
gay people, fond of festive indulgences. On every festive 
occasion, as a saint's day, birth, marriage, &c., it is 
customary for a rich man 10 collect his friends and neigh- 
bours, and kill a cow and one or two sheep The principal 
parts of the cow are eaten raw while yet warm and quiver- 
ing, the remainder being cut into small pieces, and cooked 
with the favourite sauce of batter and red pepper past& 
The raw meat in this way is considered to be very supenor 
in taste and much tenderer than when cold. *' I can 
readily believe," says Mr Park3ms," that raw meat would be 
preferred to cooked meat by a man who fn)m childhood 
had been accustomed to it" The statement by Bruce 
respecting the cutting of steaks from a live cow has fre- 

rintly been called in question, but there con bo no doubt 
t Bruce actually saw what he narrates, though it woiil() 
appear to have been a very exceptional case. Mr Parkyns 
was told by a soldier, '* that such a practice was not un- 
common among the Gollaa, and even occasionally occurred 
among themselves, when, as m the case Bruce relates, a cow 
hod iMSon stolen or taken ui foray " The principal drinks 
are mite, a kind of mead, and fyouaa^ a sort of beer made 
from fermented cokes Their dress consists of a largo 
folding mantle and close-fitting drawers . and their bouses 
ore very rude structures of a conical form, covered with 
thatch. Marriage is a very slight connection among them, 
dissolvable at any time by cither of the parties . and poly- 
gamy is by no means uncommon. Hence there v little 
family affection, and what exists is only among children of 
the same father and mother Children of the same father, 
but of different mothers, are said to be " always enemies to 
each other "--G'o6at 

Abyssinia is one of the most ancient monarchies in the 
world, and has been governed from time unmemonal by an 
emperor For many years, howovor. until the accession of 
the late Emperor Theodore, he hud been a mere puppet in 
the hands of one or other of hiii clucfa E^b r-hief is 
entire mastei of all sources of rovcnue within his territoi^, 
and has practically full prAvnr of Life and death. Uis Kub- 
jcction consists u an ohh^tion to send from time to time 
presents to his superior, and to follow him tjo war with aH 
large a force as he can muster For nevcral generations 
the emperor had been Lttle better than a prisoner in hi!« 
palace at Oondar. his sole rcvmmo consisting of h Bmall 
stipend and the tolls of tbit weekly m.irketti of that city, 
the real power being in the bands of the ras or vizior of 
the empire, whs was^ always the most powerful chief for the 
tima If at any time a chief *' has found himself strong 
enough to march upon the capital, he has done so, placed 
upon the throne another puppet emperor, and been by him 
appointed ras or rizier, till a rival stronger than himself 
eould torn him out and take his place " — Dr Beke, 

The three principal provinces of Abyssinia are Tigr6 in 
the north, Amhara (in which Oondar the capital is situated) 
in the centre, and 6hoa in the south The governors of 
these have all at«difierent times assumed the title of Raa 
Throe other provinces of some importance are Lasts and 
Waag. whose capital is Sokota ; Oodjam. to the south of 
Lake Dembea ; and Kivoro, to the west of that lake, the 
birth-place of the Emperor Theodora The two provinces 
of Tigr^ and Shoa have generally been in a state of rebellion 



from or acknowledged independence of the central power at 
Oondar. The geographical position of Tigr6 enhfuioes its 
political imnortance, as it lies between Gondar and the sea 
at Massowan, and tiiua holds as it were 4he gate of the 
capital The province of Shoa is almost aepeiated from 
that of Amhara by the WoUa Qallas, a Mohammedan tribe, 
and for a long time the former had been virtually indepen- 
dent, and governed by a hereditary line of princes, to one 
of whom the Indian government sent a special embassy 
under Major Harris in 1841. 

The principal towns are Oondar in Amhara, the former 
capital of the kingdom, and containing about 7000 inhabit- 
ants. Debra Tabor in Amhara, formerly a small village, 
but which rose to be a place of considerable size in conse- 
quence of the Emperor Theodore having fixed upon it as 
his residence, and near it was Oaffat, where the European 
workmen resided. It was burned by the emperor when he 
set out on his fatal march to Ma^ala. Adowa is the 
capital of Tigr6, and the second city in the empire, having 
aboat 6000 inhabitants Antalo is also one of the principal 
towns of Tigr6, and the capital of Enderta. Near Antalo 
is Chelicut! Sokota, the capital of Lasta Waag, is a town 
of considerable siza The capital of Shoa is A^kober, and 
near it is Angolalo, also a place of considerable size. Tha 
capital of Agam6 is Adigerat 

The hmguage of the religion and literature of the oonntiy 
is the Oeez, which belongs to the £ liiopic class of languages, ■ 
and is the ancient language of Tigr^; of this the modem 
Tigr6 is a dialect The Amharic, Uie language of Amhara^ 
is that of the court, the army, and the mert:hants, and is 
that too which travellers who penetrate beyond Tign^ have 
ordinarily occasion to use. But the Agow in its various 
dialects is the language of the people in some provinces 
almost exclusively, and in others, where it has been super- 
seded by the language of the dommant race, it still exists 
among the lowest classes This last is believed to be the 
onginal language of the people; and from the affinity of the 
Oeez, Amharic, and cognate dialects, to the Arabic, it 
seems probable that they were introduced by conquerors 01 
settlers from the opposite shores of the Red Sea. The 
Oallas, who have overrun a great part of Abyssinia* have 
introduced their own language into various parts of tho 
country, but in many cases they have adopted the hmguage 
of the people among whom they have come. The literature 
of Abyssmia is very poor, and contains nothing of much 
value During the late war the libranes in cunnoction 
with the religious communities were found to contain only 
modem works of little interest On the capture of Magdala, 
a large number of MSS. were foimd there. Which had been 
brought by Theodore from Oondar and other parta Of 
these 359 were brought home for examination, and are 
now deposited m the British Museum The oldest among 
them belong to the 15th and 16th centuries, but the great 
bulk of them are of the 17th and 18th, and some ui-e of 
the present century. They are mostly copies of the Holy 
Scnptures, canom<^ and apociyphal, including the Book of 
Enoch, prayer and hymn books, misMi^li^ y ves of saints, and 
translations of various of the Oreek fatiiers. 

The trade and manufactures of Abyssinia are insignificant, 
the people being chiefly engaged in agricaltare and pastoral 
pursuita Ootton cloths, the universtd dress of the country, 
are made in lar^ quantities. The preparation of leather 
and parchment is also carried on to some extent, and manu- 
factures of iron and brass. "The Abyssiniahs are, I 
think," says Mr Markham, " capable of civilisatioa Their 
agriculture is good, their manufacturesvare not to be 
despised; but the combined effects of isdation, Oalla 
inroads, and mtemal anarchy, have thrown them back for 
centuries." The foreign trade of Abyssinia is carried on 
entirely through Massowah. Its princix>al imports are lead. 



ABYSSINIA 



65. 



tin^'copper, silk, gunpowder, glass wares, Persian "carpet87 
and coioored cloths. The chief exports are gold, ivory, 
6<aves, coffee, butter, honey, and wax. 
^Abysauiia, or at le^st the northern portion of ity'^was 
inchxded 'in the andeni^ngdom of Ethiopia. . The conneo- 
tioD between £!gypt and Ethiopia was in early times very 
intimate, and occasionally the two countries were under 
the same roler, so that the arts and civilisation of the one 
naturally found their way into :the other. In early times, 
too, the Hebrews had comiGercial intercourse with the 
Ethiopians ; and according to the Abyssinians, the Queen 
of Sheba^ who visited Solomon, was a monarch of their 
country, and from her son Menilek the kings of Abyssinia 
are descended. During the captivity many of the Jews 
settled here, and brou^K with them -& knowledge of the 
Jeim]^ religion. Under the Ptolemies, the arts as wqU as 
the enteipnse of the Greeks entered Ethiopia, and led to 
the establishment of Qreek colonies. A Greek inscription 
at Adulis, no longer extant^ but copied by Cosmos, and 
preserved in his Topograpkia Christiana, records that 
Ptolemy Eueigetes, tbe tibird of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, 
invaded the countries on both sides of the Bed Sea, aiid, 
having reduced most of the prpvinces of Tigrd to subjection, 
returned to the port o{ AduUs, and there oJVred sacrifices 
to Jupiter, Mars, aind Neptuna . Another inscription, not 
so ancient, found at Axum, and copied by Salt and others, 
states tfiat Aeizanas, king of tka Axomites, the Home- 
rites, d^, conquered the nation of the Bagos, and returned 
thanks to his father, the god Mass, lor hisr victory. The> 
ancient kingdom ci Auxume flourished in the first or 
second oentniy of our era, and was at one time nearly 
coextensive witb^tha modern Abyssumk The capita] 
Auxume and the seaport Adnlia were then the chief 
centres of the trade with the interior of Africa in gold dUst, 
ivoiy, leather, aibmattcs, &c At Axum, the Site of the 
andent capital^ iDany vestiges of its former greatness still 
exist; and the rains of Adulis, which was once & sei^rt 
on t^ Bay of Annesley, are now about 4 miles from the 
shorer Christiaaity was introduced into the country by 
Fmmentius, who was consecrated first bishop of Abyssinia 
by St Athsmasius of Alexandria;' about ajx d30L « Subse- 
quently the monastic system wa^ introduced, and between 
470 a^ 480 a great company of monks appear to have 
entered and established themselvee in the countiy.'ft l^ce 
that time Monacfaism has been -a power am6ng the people. 
And not without its influence on tiie comse of events. In 
522. the king of* the Homerites, on the opposite coast of 
the Red Sea, having pesseeuted the Christians, the Empea>r 
Justinian requested the king of Abyssinia, Caleb or 
Elesbaan, to avel^ their cause. ^ He accordingly collected 
on army, crossed over into Arabia, and conquered Yemen, 
which remained subject to Abyssinia for 67 years. This was 
the most flourishing period in the annals of l£ecoimtry. The 
Ethiopians possessed the richest part of Arabia, carried on a 
large trader which extended as far as India and Ceylon, and 
were in constant communication with the Greek empire. 
Their expulsion from Arabia, followed by the conquest of 
£^ypt by the Mohammedans in the middle of t^ 7tii 
centuiy^chani^ this.state of aflairs, and the continued ad- 
vances of the foUowezs of the Prophet at length out them 
off from almost every means of communication vitii the 
civiliaed world ; so that, as Gibbon says, " encompassed by 
the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for near a 
thousand years, forgetfcd of the world by whom they were 
foTgotteu." About a.i>. 960, a Jewish princess, Judith, 
conceived the bloody design of murdering aJU the members 
of the royal family, and of estabtiahing herself in their stead. 
During the execution of this project, the infant king was 
carried off by some faithful adherents, and conveyed to Shoe, 
where hie authooi^ was aeknowledged, while Judith reigned 



foir 40 years over the rest of the kingdom, and transmitted 
the crown to her descendants. T In 1268 the kingdom was 
restored to the royal house in the person of Icon Imlaa tki 
:1^ Towards the close of the, 15th century the Portuguese 
missions into Abyssinia ' commenced, f A belief had long' 
prevailed in Europe of the existence of a Christian kingdom 
in the far oast, whoso monarch was known as Prester John,* 
and various e^q)editions had^been sent in quest of it,' 
Among others who had engaged in this search was Pedre 
de Covilham,'' who 'arrived in Abyssinia in 1490,' and,' 
believing that he had at length reached the far-famed kingj 
dom, presented to th^ Negus, or emperor of the country, ^ 
letter from his master the king of Portugal, addressed t«> 
Prester John. Covilham remained in the country, but in 
1507 an Armenian i^med Matthew was sent by the Negus 
to the long of Portugal to request his aid against ^e TurkiL 
In 1 520 a Portuguese fleet, with Matthew on board, entered 
the Red Sea in compliance with this request, and as 
embassy from the fleet visited the country of the Negus, 
and remained there for about six years. -One of,.thia 
embassy was Father Alvarez, from whom we have the 
earliest and not the least interesting account of .^tl^e countiy.- 
Between 1528 and 1 540 armies of Mohammedan^ under teh» 
renowned general Mohammed Qragn, entered Abyssinia from 
the low country, and ovisrran the kingdom, obliging the 
emperor to take refuge in the.mountain fastnesses. ^ In thie 
extremity recourse was again had to the Portuguese, and 
Bevmudez, who had remained in the countxy after the^ 
departure of the embassy, was ordained successor to fhe, 
Abuna, and sent on this mission. iA In consequence a 
Portuguese fleet, under the command of Stephen de Oama,' 
was sent from India and arrived at MassowaLllA force 
of 450 musqueteers, under the command of ^duistopbef 
de Ghuna, younger brother of the admiral, marched into 
the interior, and being joined by native troops were at first 
successful against the Turks, but were subsequently defeated, 
and their commander taken prisoner and put to death. 
Soon afterwards, however, Mohammed Gragn was shot in 
an engagement, and his forces totally routed. % After tBis, 
quarrels arose between the Negus and the Catholic primate 
Bermudez^ who wished the former pobUdy to. profess him- 
self a convert to Some. & This the Negus refused to do,' 
and at leng^ Bennudez was obliged to make his way out of 
the countxy. ; The Jesuits who had aoeompanied or f ollt>wed 
Bermudes into Abyssinia, and fixed their headquarters 
aS Fremona, were oppressed and neglected, but not actually 
expelled. K In the lx^;inning of the following century Fathei 
Paez arrived at Fremcma. a man of great tact and judgment,^ 
who soon rose into high f^vour^at court, and gained ovei 
the emperor to his faith. ^ He directed the ereetion of 
drarches, palaces, and biiitges in different parts of thf 
country, and carried out many useful works, v His successoi) 
Mendez was a man of much Ites condHatory manners, and thi( 
feelings of ih» pee^e. became more strongly exmted against; 
the intruders, till at length, on the death of the Negus, and 
the accessioxi of his son FaciUdas in 1633, they were afl 
sent out of the country, after having had a footing there 
for yearly •& century and a halljj^Tlie French physician 
Poncet, who went there in 1698, was the only Europeaa 
that altervazds visited the country before Bruce in 1769. - 
} It was about the middle of the 16th century that the 
QaQa tribes first entered Abyssinia from the south; and 
notwithstanding fi^uent efforts to dislodge them, they 
graduaDy extended and strengthened their positions tiO 
they had overrun the greater part of the countiy. The power 
of the emperor was Stub weened, independent duefs set 
th^mselves up in diflerent parts, until at length he became, 
little better than apuppet in tiie hands d the most pewe^ 
ful of his chiefs. In 1805 ^the coontiy was visited by 
Lord ValAutiaand Mr Salt, and again by Selt in 1810. ^la 



■66 



ABYSSINIA 



1829 Measn Gobat and ivtigler «rere sent oat as misaionaries 
hy the Chnrcli Misaionaiy Society^ and were well leceiTed 
by the Has of Tigrd. Mr Kuj^er died isoon after his 
imivaly and his place was subsequently supplied by Mr 
Isenberg, who was foUolwed by Messrs Blumhardt and Krapf. 
In 1830 Mr Qobat proceeded to Qondar, where h& also 
met with a favourable reception. In 1833 he returned to 
Europei and published a journal of his residence here. In 
the following year h& went back to Tigr^, l)ut in 1836 he 
was compelled to leave from ill hea]£b. In 1838 other 
xniBsionaries were obliged to leave the Country, owing to 
the opposition of the native p^ests.': Messrs Isenbcrg and 
Krapf went south; and established themselves at Shoa. 
The former soon after retiimed to England, and Mr Krapf 
remained in Shoa till March 1842. Dr Riippel^the German 
naturalist, visited the country in 1831, and remained 
nearly two years. MM. Combes and Tamisier arrived at 
Massowah in 1835, and visited districts which had not been 
traversed by Europeans since the time of the Portuguese. 
In 1839 the French Government sent out a scientific com- 
mission under M. Lefebvre. Its labours extended over five 
years, and' have thi^wn great light on the condition and 
productions of the country. In 1841 a political mission 
was sent by the Governor-General of India to Shoa, under 
the direction of Msjor Harris, who subsequently published 
an account of his travels. One who has done much to ex- 
tend our geographical knowledge of this country is Dr Beke, 
who was there from 1840 to 1843. • Mr Mansfield Parkyns 
yas there from 1843 to 184C, and has written the most 
interesting book on the country since the time of Bruca 
Bishop Gobat having conceived the idea of sending lay 
missionaries into the country, who would engage in secular 
occupations as well as carry on missionary work, Dr Krapf 
and Mr Flad arrived in 1855 as pioneers of that mission. 
Six came out at first, and they were subsequently joined by 
others. Their work, however, was more valuable to Theodore 
than their preaching, so that he employed them as work- 
men to hfrnsclf , and established them at Gaifat, near his 
capital Mr Stem arrived in Abyssinia in 1860, but re- 
turned to Europe, and came backm 1863, accompanied by 
Mr and Mrs Rosenthal. 

! Lg Kassa, who came subsequently to be known as the 
Emperor Theodore, was bom in Kuara, a western province 
of Abyssinia, about the year 1818. His father was of noble 
family, and his uncle was governor of the provinces of 
Dembea, Kuara, and Chclga. He was educated in a con- 
vent, but, preferring a wandering life, he became leader of 
a band of malcontents. . On the death of his uncle he was 
made governor of Kuara, but, not satisfied with this, he 
seized upon Dembea, and having defeated several generals 
sent agciinst him, peace was restored on his receivii^ 
Tavavitch, daughter of Kas Ali, in marriage. ^.This lad^ is 
said to have been his good genius and counsellor, and during 
her life his conduct was most exemplary. He next turned 
his arras agailiat'thc Turks, but was defeated ; and the mother 
of Ras Ali having insulted him in his fallen condition, he 
proclaimed his independence. The troops sent against him 
ti'cre successively defeated, and eventually the whole of the 
possessions of Ras Aii feU into his hands. \ He» next de- 
feated the chief of Godjam, and then turned his anna 
against the governor of T^gr^ whom he. totally defeated in 
February 1855. In Mardi of .the same year he took the 
title of Theodore III. /and caused himself to be crowned 
king of Ethiopia by the Abuna. Theodore was now in the 
cenith of his career. /.He is described as being generous 
to excess, free from cupidity, merciful to his vanquished 
enemies, and strictly continent. But subject to violent bursts 
of anger, and possessed of unyielding ^ride and fanatical 
religious zeaL He was also a man of eaucation and intelli- 
gence, superior to those among whom he lived, vnth natnial 



talents for governing, and gaining ine esteem of otnoiCl 
He had farther a noble beanng and nujestic walk, a frame 
capable of enduring any amount of fatigue, and is said ta 
have been *Uhe best shot^ the best spearman, the best 
runner, and the best horseman in Abyssinia." Had he 
contented himself with what he now possessed, the sove* 
reignty of Amhara and Tigr6, ho might have maintained his 
position ; but he was led to exhaust his strength against 
the Gallas, whidi was probably one of the chief causes of 
his ruin. He obtained several victories oyer that people, 
ravaged their country, took possession of Magdak^ which 
he afterwards made his principal stronghold, and enlisted 
many of the chiefis and their followers in his. own ranks.. 
He shortly afterwaids reduced the kingdom of Shoa, 
and took Ankobar, the capital ; but in the meantime his 
own people were groaning under his heavy exakstions, 
rebellions were brealdng out in various parts of his pro- 
vinces, and his good queen was now dead. He lavi^ed 
vast sums of money upon his army, which at one time 
amounted to 100,000 or 160,000 fighting men; and iu 
order to meet this expenditure, he was forced to exact 
exorbitant tributes from his peopl& « . The British consul, 
FloWden, who was strongly attached to Theodora, having 
been ordered by his Government in 1860 to return to 
Massowah, was attacked on his way by a rebel named 
Garred, mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. Theodore 
attacked the rebels, and in l^e action tiie murderer of Mr 
Flowden was slain by his friehd and companion Mr Bell, 
but the latter lost his life in preserving that of Theodore. 
The deaths of the two Englishmen were terribly a^'engcd by 
the slaughter or mutilation of nearly 2000 rebels. Theodore 
soon after married his second wife Terunieh, the proud 
daughter of the late governor of Tigr6, who felt neither 
affection nor respect for the upstart who had dethroned her 
father, and the union was by no means a happy one. In 
1862 he made a second expedition against the Gfdlas, which 
was siained with atrocious cruelties. Theodore had now 
given himself up to intoxication and lust When the 
news of Mr Plowden's death • reached England, Captain 
Cameron was appointed to succeed him as consul, and 
arrived at Massowah in February 1862. He proceeded to 
the camp of the king, to whom he presented a rifle, a pair 
of pistols, and a letter in the Queen's name. • In October 
Captain Cameron was dismissed by Theodore, with a letter 
to the Queen of England, which reached the Foreign Office 
on the 12th of February 1863. .>For some reason or other 
this letter y^m put aside and no answer returned, and to 
this in no small degree is to be attributed the difficulties 
that subsequently arose with that country, r After forward- 
ing the letter, Captain Cameron, hearing that the Christians 
of Bogos had been attacked by the Shangallas and other 
tribes under Egyptian rule, proceeded to tbat district, and 
afterwards went to Kassala, the seat of the Egyptian ad- 
ministration in that quarter. ' Thence he went to Metemeh; 
where he was taken ill, and in order to recruit his health 
he retnmed to Abyssinia, and reached Jenda in August 
1863. In .November despatches were received from 
England, but no answer to the empetor's letter, and tins, 
together with the consult visit to Kassala, greatly 
of^nded him, and in January 1864 Captain Cameron and 
his suite, widi Messrs Stem and Rosenthal, were cast Into 
prison. When the news of this reached FiUg^and, the 
Government resolved, when too late, to eend an answer to 
the .emperor's lettw, and selected Mr Homnued Rassam to 
be its bearer. He aniv«d at Massowah in July 1864^ and 
inunediatdy despatched a messenger requesting permission 
to present himself before the emperor. Keitfaer to tibis nor 
a subsequent application was any answer cetaraed till 
August 1865, when a curt note waa received, stating that 
Consul Cameron had been released, and if Mr Bassiyn stiD 



ABYSSINIA 



67 



desired to visit the king, he was td proceed by the route of 
Metemeh. They reached Metemoh on 2l8t November, and 
fire weeks more wore lost before they heard from the 
emperor, whose reply was now courteous, inf ormmg them 
that the governors of all the distncts through which they 
had to march had received orders to furnish them with 
every necessaiy. They left Metemeh on the 28th December, 
and on 25th January foUowmg arrived at Theodore's camp 
in Damot They were received with all honour, and were 
afterwards sent to Kuarata, on Lake Dembea, there to await 
the arrival of the captives. The latter reached this oii 1 2tb 
March, and everything appeared tp proceed very favourably. 
A month later they started for the coast, but had not pro- 
ceeded far when they were all brought back and put mto 
confinement Theodore then wrotA a letter to the Queen, 
requesting European workmen and machinery to be sent to 
him, and despatched it by Mr Flad. The Europeans, 
although detained as pnsoners, were not at first unkindly 
treated ; but in the end of June they were sent to Magdala, 
where they were soon afterwards put in chains. They 
suffered hunger, cold, and m^ery, and were m constant 
fear of death, till the spring of 1868, when they were 
relieved by the British troops. In the meantime the power 
of Theodore in the country was rapidly waning. In order 
to support his vast standing army, the country was drained 
of its resources : the peasantry abandoned the fertile plains, 
and took refuge in the fastnesses, and large fertile tracts 
remamed uncultivated Rebellions broke out in various 
parts of the country, and desertions took place among his 
troops, till his army became little more than a shadow of 
what it once was. Shoa had already shaken off his yoke ; 
Qodjam was virtually independent ; Walkeit and Samen 
were nnder a rebel chief, and Lasta Waag and the 
country about Lake Ashangi had submitted to Wagsham 
Gobftze, who had also overrun Tigr6, and appointed Deja,ch 
Kassai his governor. The latter, however, in 1867 rebelled 
against his master, and assumed the supreme power of that 
provinoa This was the state of matters when the English 
troops made their appeacance in the countiy. -With a view 
if possible to effect the release of the prisoners by con- 
ciliatory measures, Mr Flad was sent back, with some 
artisans and machinery, and a letter from the '.Queen, 
stating that these would be handed over to his Majesty on 
the release of the prisoners and their return to Massowah. 
Thisi, however, failed to influence the raiperor, and the 
En^h Qovemment at length s^w that they must have 
recourse to arms. In July 1867, therefore, it was resolved 
to send an army into Abyssinia to enforce the release of 
the captives, and Sir Robert Napier was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief. A reconnoitring party was despatched 
beforehand, nndw Colonel Merewether, to select the landing- 
place and anchorage, and explore the passes leading into 
the interior. They also entered into friendly relations 
with the different chiefs in order to secure their co-operation. 
The landing-place selected was Mulkutto, on Annesley Bay, 
the point of the coast nearest to the site of the ancient 
Adulis, and we are told that ** the pioneers of the English 
ezpeditioB followed to some extent in the footsteps of the 
adventnroos soldiers of Ptolemy, and met with a few famt 
traces of this old world enterprise." — C. R. Marhkanu 
The force amounted to upwards of 16,000 men, besides 
12,640 belonging to the transport service, and followers, 
making in all upwards of 32,000 men. The task to be 
accomplished was to march over 400 miles of a mountainous 
and little-known country, inhabited by savage tribes, to 
the camp or fortress of Theodore, and compel Imn to deliver 
up his captivea The commander-in-chief landed on 7th 
January 1868, and soon after the troops. began to move 
forward tlirough the pass of Senaf ^, and southward through 
the districts of Agam^ Ten^ Endarta, Wojcrat, Lasta, and 



Wadela. In the meantime Theodore had been reduced to 
great straits. His army was rapidly deserting him, and he 
could hardly obtam food for his followers. Ue resolved to 
quit his capital Dcbra Tabor, which he burned, and set 
out with the remmns of his army for Magdala During 
this march be displayed an amount of engmeenng skill m 
the construction of roads, of military talent, and fertility 
of resource, that excited the admiration and astonishment 
of his enomiea On the afternoon of the 10th of April a 
force of about 3000 men suddenly poured down upon the 
Engbsh m the plain of Arogid, a few miles from Magdala. 
They advanced again and again to the charge, but were 
each time dnven back, and finally retired in good order 
Early next morning Theodore sent Lieut Prideaux, one of 
the captives, and Mr Flad, accompanied by a native chief, 
to the Engbsh camp to sue for peace. Answer was returned, 
that if he would dcbver up all the Europeans m his hands, 
and submit to the Queen of England, he would receive 
honourable treatment The captives were liberated and 
sent away, and along with a letter to the English general 
was a present of 1000 cows and 500 sheep, the acceptance 
of which would, according to Eastern custom, imply that 
peace was granted. Through some misunderstanding, word 
was sent to Theodore that the present would be accepted, 
and he felt that he was now safe ; but in the evening he 
learned that it had not been received, and despair again 
seized him. Early next morning he attempted to escape 
with a few of his followers, but subsequently retnmed 
The same day (13th April) Magdala was stormed and 
taken, and within they found the dead body of the 
emperor, who Irkd fallen by his own hand. The iiiliabitante 
and troops were subsequently sent away, the fortificatioDe 
destroyed, and the town burned The queen Terunish 
having expressed her wish to go back to her own country^ 
accompanied the British army^ but died during the march, 
and her son Alam-ayahu, the only legitimate son of tiie 
emperor,. was brought to England, as this was the desire 
of his father. The success of the expedition was in no 
small degree owing to the aid aifbrded by the several native 
chiefs through whose country it passed, and no one did 
more in this way than Prince Kassai of Tigrd In acknow- 
ledgment of this several pieces of ordnance, small arms, 
and ammunition, with much of the surplus stores, wore 
handed over to him, and the English troops left the country 
in May 1868. Soon after this Prince Kassai declared his 
independence; and in a war which broke out between him 
and Wagsham Gobaze, the latter was defeated, and his 
territory taken possession of by the conqueror. In 1872 
Kassai was crowned king of Abyssinia with great ceremony 
at Axam, under the title of King Johannes. In that year the 
governor of Massowah, Munzinger Bey, a Swiss, bv com- 
mand of the Viceroy of Egypt^ marched an armed foree. 
against the Bogos country. The king 'Solicited the aid of 
England, Qermany, and Russia sgainst the Egyptians, whose 
troops, however, were after a time, withdrawn. Sir Bartlo 
Frere, in the blue-book published respecting his mission to 
Zanzibar, is of the opinion that England, having regard to 
the passage to India by the Red Sea, should not have wholly 
abandoned Abyssima. (d. k.) 

(See Travels of Bruce, 1768-73; Lord Valentia, Salt, 
1 809-1 ; Combes et Tamisier, 1 835-37 , Ferret et Qalinier, 
1839-43; RuppeU. 1831-33; MM.TLLefebvre, A. Petit, et 
Quartin-Dillon, 1839-43; Major Harris; Gobat; Dr C. 
Beke; Isenberg and Krapf, 1839-42; Mansfield Parkyns, 
Von Heuglin, 1861-62; U. A. Stem, I860 and }868; 
Dr Blanc. 1868; A. Rassam, 1869; C. R Markham. 1869; 
W. T. Blanford, 1870; Recordof the Expedition to Abyssinia, 
compiled by order of the Secretary of State for War, by 
Major T. J. Holland and Captain H. Hozier, 2 vols. 4to, 
and plates, 1870; various Parliamcntaiy Papers, 1867-68.). , 



GS 



A C A — A C A' 



ACACIA, a genas of shrubs and trees belonging to 
the natural family Leguminosae and the section Mimoseae. 
The flowers are small, 
arranged in rounded or 
elongated clusters. The 
leaves are compound 
pinnate in general In 
some instances, how- 
ever, more especially in 
the Australian species, 
the leaf-stalks become 
flattened, and serve the 
purpose of leaves; the 
plants are hence call- 
ed leafless Acacias, and 
as the leaf -stalks arc 
often placed with their 
edges towards the sky 
and earth, they do not 
intercept light so fully 
as ordinary trees. Tlierc are about 420 species of 
Acacias widely scattered over the warmer regions of the 
globe. They abound in Australia and Africa. Various 
species, such as Acacia vera, arahica, EhrenJbergih ai^d 
tortUU, yield gum arabic ; while Acacia Voeh, Seijal, and 
Adansonii furnish a similar gum, called gum Senegal These 
species are for the most jxirt natives of Arabia, the noith- 
castcrn part of Africa, and the East Indies. The wattles 




Leaf of Acaeia heterophylla. 



of Australia are species of Acacia with astringent barks? 
Acacia dealbaia is used for tanning. An astringent 
medicine, called catechu or cutch, is procured from several 
species, but more especially from Acacia Catechu, by boiling 
down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get 
an extract The bark. of Acaeia arabica, under tne 
name of Bahul or Babod, is used in Scinde for tanning. 
Acacia formosa supplies the valuable Cuba timber called 
sabicu. Acacia Scyal is the plant which is supposed to bo 
the shittah tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood 
The pods of Acacia nilotica, under the name of neb-neb, aro 
used by tanners. The seeds of Acacia Niopo aip roasted 
and used as snufif in South America. The seeds of all tho 
varieties of Acacia in South Australia to the west, called 
Nundo, are used as food after being roasted. Acacia t 
^netanoxylony black wood of Australia, sometimes called 
light wood, attains a great size ; its wood is used for 
furniture, and receives a high polish. Acacia homaiophylla^ 
myall wood, yields a fragrant timber, used for ornamental 
purposes. A kind of Acacia is called in Australia dricklow. 
In common language the term Acacia is often applied to 
species of the genus Robinia, Which belongs also to the 
Leguminous family, but is placed in a different section.] 
Robinia Pseudo-^icacia, or false Acacia, is cultivated in 
the milder parts of Britain, and forms a large tree, with 
beautiful pink pca-likc blnssoms. The tree is sometimes 
called the Locust tree. 



ACADEMY 



ACADEMY, oxaSiy/Lifttt,* a suburb of Athens to the north, 
• forming part of the Ccramicus, about a mile beyond 
|lhe gate named Dypilum. It was said to have belonged 
to the hero Acadenms, but the derivation of tho word is 
unknown. It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus, 
and adorned with walks, groves, and fountains by Cimon, 
the son of Miltiades, who at his death bequeathed it as a 
public pleasure-ground to his fellow-citizens. The Academy 
was the resort of Plato, who possessed a small estate in the 
neighbourhood. Here he taught for nearly fifty years, till 
his death in 348 B.c. ; and from these '* groves of the 
Academy where Plato taught the truth," ^ his school, as 
distinguished from the Peripatetics, received the name of 
the Academics. 

Tlie same name (Academia) was in after times given by 
Cicero to his villa or country-house near PuteolL There 
was composed his famous dialogue. The Academic Que^ 
iionx. 

Of the academic school of philosophy, in so far as it 
diverged from the doctrines of its groat master (see Plato), 
we must treat very briefly, referring the reader for parti- 
culars to the founders of the various schools, whose names 
we shall have occasion to mention. 

The Academy lasted from the days of Plato to those of 
Cicero As to the number of successive schools, the critics 
are not agreed Cicero himself and Varro recognised only 
two, the old and the new; Sextus Empiricus adds a third, 
the middle; others a fourth, that of Philo and Charmidas ; 
and some even a fifth, the Academy of Antiochus. 

Of the old Academy, tho principal loaders were Speusip- 
pus, Plato's si^ter^s son, and his immediate successor; 
Xenocratesof Chalcedon,who with Speusippus accompanied 
^Plato in his journey to Sicily; Polemo, a dissolute young 

* The bye-form Uain/im, which occurs in Diogenes Laertius, is pro- 
bably a ratiouAlis»tic attempt to Interpret the word, ^^ch as we com- 
nonly meet with in the writingp of Plato. 
* * Horace, Ep. ii. 2. 4& 



Athenian, who C2tme to laugh at Xenocrates, and remained 
to listen (Horace, Sat., ii. 3, 253); Crates, and Crantor, the' 
latter of whom wrote a treatise, ircpl vivBov^, praised by 
Cicero. Speusippus, like the Pythagoreans, with whom; 
Aristotle coQiparcs him, denied that tho Platonic Good 
could be the first principle of things, for (he said) the' 
Good is not like the germ which gives birth to plants and 
animals, but is only to be found in already existing things. 
He therefore derived the universe from a primeval indeter-j 
minate unit, distinct from the Good; from this unit iio. 
deduced three principles— one for numbers, one for magni«| 
tudc, and one for the soul. The Deity he conceived as 
that living force which rules all and resides cverywhercj 
Xenocrates, though like Speusippus infected with Pytha* 
goreanism, was the most faithful of Plato's successors. He 
distinguished three essences : the sensible, the intelligible^ 
and a third, compounded of the other two. The sphere of 
tho first is all below the heavens, of the second all beyond, 
the heavens, of the third heaven itself. To each of these' 
three spheres one of our faculties corresponds. To the sen* 
sible, sense; to the intelligible, intellect or reason; to the 
mixed sphere, opinion (So^a). So far he closely follows 
the psychology and cosmogeny of his master; but Cicero 
notes as the characteristic of both Speusippus and Xcno-, 
crates, the abandonment of the Socratic principle oil 
hesitancy. 

Of the remaining three, the same writer (who is our pri u* 
cipal authority for the history of tho Academic school) tells 
us that they preserved the Platonic doctrine, but emphasised 
the moral part On the old Academy he pronounces the' 
following eulogium (De Fin, v. 3) : " Their writings and 
method contain all liberal learning, all history, all polite 
discourse ; and besides, they embrace such a variety of 
arts, that no one can undertake any noble career without 
their aid .... In a word, the Academy is, as it were, the 
workshop of every artist" Modern criticism has not en*! 
dorsod this hi^h estimate. They preserved* it is tmck and 



ACADEMY 



69 



elaborated many details of the Platonic teaching, which, we 
coaid iU have spared; but of Plato's originality and specu- 
lative power, of his poetry and enthusiasm, they inherited 
nothing; ''nor amid all l^e learning which has been pro- 
fusely lavished upon investigating their tenets, is there a 
single deduction calculated to elucidate distinctly the 
character of their progress or regression."^ There is a 
saying of Polemo's, which will illustrate their virtual 
alMindonment of philosophy proper: "We should exorcise 
ourselves in business, not in dialectical speculation." 

Arcesikus, the successor of Cratos, the disciple of Theo- 
phrastns and Polemo, was the founder of the second or 
middle Academy. He professed himself the 'strict fol- 
lower of Plato, and seems to have been sincerely of opinion 
that his was nothing but a legitimate development of the 
true Platonic system. He foUowed the Socratic method 
of teaching in dialogues; and, like Socrates,. left no writ- 
ings, — at least the ancients were not acquainted with any. 
.But we have no evidence that he maintained the id^ 
theory of Plato, and from the general tendency of ^ his 
teaching it is probable that he overlooked it He af&nned 
that neither our senses nor our mind can attain to any 
certainty; in all we must suspend our judgment; proba- 
bility is the guide of life. Cicero teUs us that 1^ was 
more occupied in disputing the opinions of others than in 
advancing any of his own. Arcesilans is, in fact, the 
founder of that academic scepticism which was developed 
and systematiscd by CarneadeSi the founder of the third 
or new Academy. He was the chief, opponent of the 
Stoics and their doctrine of certituda This is attested by 
a well-known saying of his: "If there had been no Ctry- 
sippus, there would have been no Cameades/' To the 
Stoical theory of perception, the tItavraauL KaraXrprTucq, by 
which they expressed a conviction of certain^ arising 
from impressions so strong as to amount to science, he 
opposed the doctrine of dKaroXiT^ui, which denied .any 
neciassary correspondence between (Perceptions . and ' the 
objects perceived. But while denying the possibility^ of 
any knowledge of things in themselves, he saved himself 
from absolute scepticism by the dqctrine of probability or 
verisimilitude, which piay serve as a practical guide in life. 
Thus he announced as his criterion of truth an imagination 
or impression (^Kroo-ui) at once credible, irrefragable, and 
attested by comparison with other impressions. The wise 
men might be permitted to held an opinion, though he 
allowed that that opinion might be false. In ethics, how- 
ever, he appeared as the pure sceptic. On his visit to 
Rome as an ambassador from Atlfens, he alternately main- 
tained and denied in his public disputationg the existence 
of justice, to the great scandal of Cato and all honest 
cifizens. 

On the four(h ajid fifth Academies, we need not dwell 
long. Philo and Antiochus both taught Cicero, and with- 
out doubt tommunicated to him that mild scepticism, that 
eclecticism compounded of almost equal sympathy with 
Plato and Zeno, which is the characteristic of his philo^ 
Eophical writings. The Academy exactly corresponded to 
the moral and political wants of Rome. With no genius 
(or speculation, the better Romans of that day were con- 
tent to embrace a system which, though resting on no 
philosophical basis, and compounded of heterogeneous 
dogmas,' offered notwithstanding a secure! retreat from 
religious scepticism and political troubles. " My words," 
says Cicero, speaking as a tru.e Academician, "do not 
proclaim the truth, like a I^hian priestess; but I conjeo- 
tore what is probable, like a plain man; and where, I ask, 
am I to search for anything more than verisimilitude)" 
And again : " The characteristic of the Academv is never to 

1 ArohM- Btttler. Leet on^Anc. PhiL u. 81ft. 



mierpose one's judgment, to approve what seems most pro> 
bable, to compare together different opimons, to see what 
may be advanced on either aide, and to leave one's listeners 
free to judge without pretending to dogmatise." 

Academy, in its modem acceptation, signifies a society 
or corporate body of learned men, established for the ad* 
vancement of science, literature, or the arts. 

The first institution .of this sort we read of in history 
was that founded at Alexandria by Ptolemy Soter, which 
he named the Museum, /m>vo-<7ok After completing his 
conquest of Egypti he turned his attention to the cultiva- 
tion of letters and science, and gathered about him a large 
body of literary men, whom he employed in collecting 
books and treasures of art This was the origin of the 
library of Alexandria, the most famous of the ancient world. 
Passing by the academies which were founded by the 
Moors at Qrenada, Corduba, and as far east as Samarcand, 
the next instance of an academy is that founded by Charle- 
magne at the instigation oi the celebrated Alcuin, foi 
promoting the study of .grammar, orthography, rhetoric, 
pctetry, history, and math^natics. In order to equalise all 
ranks, each member took the pseudonym of some ancient 
author or celebrated person of antiquity. For instance, 
Charlemagne himself was David, Alcuin became flaccua 
Aibinus. Though none of the labours of this academy 
have come down to us, it undoubtedly exerted considerable 
influence in modelling the language and reducing itto rules. 

In the following century Alfred founded an academy al 
Oxford This was rather a grammar school than a society 
of learned men, and from it the University of Oxford 
originated 

But the academy which may be more justly considered 
as the mother of modem European academies is that of 
Floral Games, founded at Toulouse in the year 1325, by 
Clemens Isaunis» Its object was to distribute prizes and 
rewards to the b'oubadourB. • The prizes consisted of 
flowers of gold and silver. It was first recognised by the 
state in 1694, and confirmed by letters-patent from the 
king, and its numbers limited to thirty-six. It has, except 
during a few years of the republic, continued to the present 
day, and distributes annmdly the following prizes^ — ^Aa 
amaranish of gold for the best ode, a silver violet for a 
poem of sixty to one hundred Alexandrine lines, a silver 
eglantine for the best prose composition, a silver marigold 
for an elegy, and a silver lily presented in the last century 
by M. de Malpeyre for a hymn to the* Virgin. 

It was the Renaissance which was par excellence the era 
of academies, and as the Italians may be said to have dis- 
covered anew the buried world of literature, so it was in 
Italy that the first and by far the most numerous academies 
arose. The earliest of these was the Flaionie Academy, 
founded at Florence by Cosmo de Medici for the study of 
the works of Plato, though subsequently they added the 
explanation of Dante and other Italian authors. 

Marsilius Ficinus, its principal ornament, in his Tkeolo^ica 
PUxUmica, developed a system, chiefly "borrowed from the 
later Platonists of the Alexandrian school^ which, as it 
seemed to coincide with some of the leading doctrines of 
Christianity, was allowed by the churcL His Latin trans- 
lation of Plato is at on(» literal, perspicuous, and correct; 
and as he had access to MSS. of Plato now lost, it has in 
several places enabled us to recover the original reading. 
After the expulsion of the Medici from Florence; the 
Platonic Academy was dissolved 

In giving some account of the principal academies of 
Europe, which is all that this artide professes to do, we 
shaU, as. far as possible, arrange them under different heads, 
according to — 1^^, The object which they were designed 
to promote; 2d, The. countries to which they belong 
This classification, though,- perhaps, the best a^^dlable, u 



.70 



ACADEMY 



decfissarily imperfect, inasmiicli as sc7eral of those we shall 
mention were at once literary and scientific, and many 
assobiations for similar objects were known by some other 
nabia Thus, with the doubtful^ excoptK)n of the* Boyal 
Academy of Art^, England has no academies in the proper 
sense of the word. For those institutions in England which 
answer to Italian academies, we must refer the reader to 
the article Society. 

1. SciENTrFic Academies — Jtcdy. — The first society 
ior the prosecution of physical science was tliat established 
(it Naphis, 1 500, under tJie presidency of Baptista Porta. 
It was called Acadcmm Sccretorum Natures or de Secreti, 
It arose from a meeting of some scientific friends> who 
assembled at Porta's house, and called themselves the OtiosL 
No member was admitted who had not made some useful 
discovery in medicine or natural philosophy. The name 
suggested to an ignorant public the prosecution of magic 
and the black arts. Porta went to Romei to justify himself 
before Paul III. He was acquitted by the Poi>e, but the 
academy was dissolved, and he was ordered to abstain for 
the future from the practice of all illicit arts. 

At Home he was admitted to the Lincei, an academy 
founded by Federigo Ccsi, the Marcese'di Monticelli. The 
device of the Lincei was a lynx with its eyes turned towards 
heaven tearing a Cerberus with its claws, mtimatmg that 
they were prepared to do battle with error and falsehood. 
Their motto was the verse of Lucretius describing rain 
dropping from a cloud — "Redit agmine dulci" Besides 
Porta, Galileo and Colonna were enrolled among its mem- 
bers. The society devoted itself exclusively to physical 
science. Porta, under its auspices, published his great work, 
Magus NaiuralU Libri xx., 1589, in foL , his Phytopyuh 
monica, or, the occult virtue of plants ; his De JJamanaPhi/- 
nc^Tiomiflf, from which Lavater largely borrowed ; alsovaripus 
works on optics and pneumatics, m wluch he approached 
the true theory of visioa Ho is even said by some to 
Jiavo anticipated Galileo in the invention of the tclcscopa 

But the principal monument still remaining of the zeal 
and industry of Cesi and his academy is the Fhytobasanos^ 
o compendium of the natural history of Mexico, written by 
a Spaniard, Hemendez. During fifty years the MS. had 
been neglected, when Cesi discovered it, and employed 
Terentio, Fabro, and Colonna, aU Lynceans, to edit it and 
enrich it with notes and emendations. Cesi's own great 
work, Theatrum Nainirae^ was never published. The MS. 
etill exists in the Afbani Library at Rome. Aiter Cesi's 
death, 1 630, the academy languished for some years under 
the patronage of Urban VIII. An academy of the same 
name was inaugurated at Rome 1784, and still flourishes. 
It numbers among its members some of our English philo- 
sophers. But the fame of the Lincei was far outstripped 
by that of tlie Accademm del Cimento, established in 
Florence 1G57, under the patronage of the Grand Duke 
Ferdinand II., at the instigation of his brother Leopold, 
acting under the advice of Viviani, one of the greatest 
geometers of Europa The object of this academy was 
(as the name imj)lics) to make experiments and relate them, 
abjuring all preconceived notions. Unfortunately for 
science, it flourished for only ten years. Leopold in 16G7 
was made a cardinal, and the society languished without 
its head. It has, however, left a record of its labours in 
a volume containing an account of the experiments, pub- 
lished by the secretary in 16G7. It is in the form of a 
beautifully printed folio, \Wth numerous full print pages of 
illustrations. It contains, among others, those on the 
supposed incompressibility of water, on the pressure of the 
air, and on the universal gravity of bodies. Torricelli, the 
inventor of the barometer, was one of its members. 

Passing by numerous other Italian Academies of Science, 
we come to those of modern times. 



The Tlo3Til Academy of Sciences at Turin originated m 
1757 as a private society; in 1759 it pubUshcd a volume 
of Miscellanea PhUosophico-Matkemaiica Societalis privates 
Taurinensis; shortly after it was constituted a Royal 
Society by Charles Emanuel III., and in .1783 Victor 
Amadeus III made it a Royal Academy of Sciences. It 
consists- of 40 members, residents of Turin, 20 non- 
resident, and 20' foreign members. It publishes each 
year a quarto volume of proceedings, and has crowned 
and awarded prizes to many learned .works. 

France. — ^The OldAcadmny of Sciences originated in much 
the same way as the French Academy. A private society 
of scientific men had for some thirty years been accustomed 
to meet, first at the house of Montmort, the mfiitre des 
requfites, afterwards at that of Theveuot, a great traveUer 
and man of universal genius, in order to converse on their 
studies, and communicate their discoveries. To this 
society belonged, among others, Descartes, Gassendi, 
Blaise Pascal, and his father. Hobbes, the philosopher 
of Malmesbury, was presented to it during hi$ visit tor 
Pans in, 1640. Colbert, just as Richelieu in the case 
of tlie French Academy, conceived the idea of giving an 
official status to this body of learned men. Seven eminent 
mathematicians, among whom were Huyghens and De 
Bessy, the author of a famous treatise on magic squares, 
were chbsen to form the nucleus of the new society. A 
certam number of chemists, ph3rsicians, and anatomist^ 
were subsequently added. Pensions were granted by 
Lotus XIV. to each of the members, and a fund for 
instruments and experimentations placed at their disposal. 
They commenced their session the 22d December 166C 
in the Royal Library. They met twice a week — the 
mathematicians on the Wednesdays, the physicists (as th^ 
naturalists and physiologists were then cilled) on the 
Saturdays. Duhamel was appointed secretary by the 
king. This post he owed more to his polished Latinity 
than to his scientific attainments, aU the proceedings 
of the society being recorded in Latin. A treasurer 
was also nominated, who, notwithstanding his pretentious 
title, was nothing more than conservator of the scientific 
instruments, &c. At first the academy was rather a 
laboratory and observatory than an academy proper. 
Experiments were undert<'d£en in common and results 
discussed. Several foreign savants, in particular the 
Danish astronomer Rcemer, joined the society, attracted 
by the liberality of the Grand Monarque; and the German 
physi&n and geometer Tschimhausen and Sir Isaac 
Newton were made foreign associates. The death of 
Colbert, who was succeeded by Louvois, exercised a disas- 
trous effect on the fortunes of the academy. The labours 
of the academicians were diverted from the pursuit *of 
pure saence to such works as the construction of fountains 
and cascades at Versailles, and the mathematicians were 
employed io calculate the odds of the games of lansquenet 
and bassett. In 1G09 the academy was reconstituted 
by M. de Pontchartrain, under whose department as 
secretary of state the academies came. By its new con- 
stitution it consisted of ten honorary membera, men of 
high rank, who interested themselves in science, fifteen 
pensionaries, who were the working membere, viz., three 
geometricians, and the same number of astronomers^ 
mechanicians, anatomists, and chemists. Each section of 
three had two associates attached to it, and besides, each 
pensionary had the power of naming a pupiL There were 
eight foreign and four free associates^ The officers were, 
a president and a vice-president, named by the king from 
among the honorary members, and a secretary and treaswrer 
chosen from the pensionaries, who held their offices for 
life. Fontenelle, a man of wit, and rather a populariser of 
sciences than an original investigator, succeeded Duhamel as 



ACADEMY 



it 



secretary. The constitution, as is erident, was purely aristo- 
cratical, and onlike that of the French Academy, in which 
the principle of equality among the members was never 
violated. Science was not yet strong enough to dispense 
with the patronage of the great The two leading spirits 
of the ac^emy at this period were Clairaut and lUaumUr. 
Clairaut vas the first to explain capillary attraction,, and 
predicted ^thin a few days of the correct time the return 
of Halle/s comet. His theory on the ^figure of the earth 
was only superseded by Laplace's MScan^que Celeste, 
Rdaumur was principally diBtingmshed by his practical 
discoveries^ and a thermometer in common use at the 
present day bears his name. 

To trace the subsequent fortunes of this academy would 
far exceed our limits, being equivalent td writing the history 
of the rise and progress of science in France. It hea 
reckoned among its members •Laplace, Buffon, Lagrange, 
D'Alembert, Lavoisier, and Jussiou, the father of modem 
botany. Those of our readers who wish for further informa- 
tion we would refer to M. Alfred Maury's excellent history. 
« On 2l8t December 1792, the old Academy of Sciences 
met for the last time. Many of the members fell by the 
guillotine, many were imprisoned, more reduced to indi- 
gence. The aristocracy of talent was almost as much 
detested and persecuted by the Revolution as that of rank. 

In. 1795 the Ck>nvcntion decided on founding an Insti- 
tute, which was to replace all the academies. The first 
class of the Institute corresponded closely to the old 
academy. See Institutjb. 

In 1816 the Academy was reconstituted as a branch of 
the Institute. The new academy has reckoned among its 
members, besides many other brilliant names, Camot the 
engineer, the physicians Fresnel, Ampere, Arago, Biot, the 
chemists Gay-Lussac and Thdnard, the zoologists G. Cuvier 
and the two Geoffroy Saint-Hilaires. 

The French had also considerable academies in most of 
their large to>vns. Montpellicr, for example, had a Royal 
Academy of Sciences, founded in 1706 by Louis XIY., on 
nearly the same footing as that at Paris, of which, indeed, 
it was in some measure the counterpart It Was recon- 
stituted in 1847, and organised under three sections — 
medicine, science, and letters. It has continued to publish 
annual reports of considerable value. Toulouse iJso had 
an academy under tha denomination of Lanternists; and 
there were analogou!^ institutions at Nimes, Aries, Lyons, 
Dijon, Bordeaux, and other places. Of these several, w^ 
believe, are still in existence, if not in activity. 

Before passing on to German academies, we may here 
notice a private scientific and philosophical society, the 
precursor of the French Academy of Sciences. It does not 
appear to have had any distinguishing name; but the pro- 
moter of it was Eusebius Renaudot, Counsellor and Phy- 
sician in Ordinary i^ the King of France, and Doctor 
Regent of the Faculty of Physic at Paris, by whom a full 
account of its conferences was published, translated into 
English by G. Havers, 1664. In the preface it is said to 
be ''a production of an assembly of the choicest wits of 
Prance." We will quote a few of the subjects of these 
discussions in order to show the character of the society: — 
** Why the loadstone draws iron ;" " Whether the soul's 
immortality is demonstrable by natural reason ;" " Of the 
little hairy girl lately seen m this city." On subjects of 
popular superstition their views were far in advance of the 
time. Of judicial astrology it is said, "Why should we 
seek in heaven the causes of accidents which befall us if 
we can find them on earth?" Of the philosopher's stone — 
I* This most extravagant conceit, that it is the panacea,; 
joined to the other absurdities of that chimerical art, makes 
• us believe that it is good for nothing but to^serve for 
imaginary consolation to the miserable." 



(rermany.*— The Collegium Curiosum was a scientific 
society, founded by J. C. Sturm, professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy in the University of Altorff, in 
Franconia, in 1672, on the plan of the Accademia del 
Cimento. It originally consisted of 20 members, and con- 
tinued to flourish long after the death of its founder. Th» 
early laboura of the society were devoted to the repetition, 
(under varied conditions) of the most notable experiments • 
of the day, or to the discussion of the results. Two volume^! 
of proceedings were published by Sturm in 1676 and 1685 
respectively. The Programma Invitalarium is dated June 
3, 1672; and Sturm therein urges that, as the day of dis- 
putatious philosophy had given way to that of experi- 
mental philosophy, and as, moreover, scientific societies had 
been founded at Florence, London, and Rome, it would 
therefore seem desirable to found one in Germany, for the 
attainment of which end he requests the cg-opcration of 
the learned. 

The work of 1676, entitled Collegium Experimentale sine 
Curiosum, commences with an account of the diving-bell, 
"a new invention;" next follow chjiptcrs on the camera 
obscura, the Torricellian experiment, the' air-pump, micro* 
scope, telescope, dec. The two works have been pronounced 
by a competent authority ' to constitute a nearer approach 
to a text-book of the physics of the perir>d than any pre- 
ceding wortr 

The Eoyal Academy of Sciences cU Berlin was founded 
in 1700 by Frederic I. after Leibnitz' comprehensive pkn, 
but was not opened till 1711. Leibnitz was the, first presi- 
dent Under Maupertuis, who succeeded him, it did good 
service Its present constitution dates from January 24, 
1812. It is divided into four sections — physical, mathe- 
matical, philosophical, and historical Each section is imder 
a paid secretary elected for life ; each secretary presides in 
turn for a quarter of a year. The members are— 1*^ Re- 
gular members who are paid; these hold general meetings 
every Thursday, and sectional meetings every Monday. 2</, 
Foreign membera, not to exceed 24 in number. 3d, Hon- 
orary members and correspondents. Since 1811 it has 
published yearly, Memoires de l*AccuUmie Roycde des ScieiiceS' 
et Belles Lettrcs d Berlin, For its scientific and philoso- 
phical attainments the names of W. and A. v. Humboldt,. 
Ideles, Savigny, Schleiermacher, Ropp, and Rahke, will- 
sufficiently vouch. 

The Academy of Sciences at Mann/ieim was established- 
by Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, in (he year 1755.. 
The plan of this institution was furnished by Schaepflin, 
according to which it was divided into two classes, the hiar 
torical and physical In 1780 a sub-division of the latter 
took place into the physical, properly so-called, and the 
meteorological. The meteorological observations are pub- 
lished separately, under the title of Ephemerides Societatis 
Meteorologico! Falatince, The historical and physical me- 
moirs are published under the title of Acta Academics. 
TAeodoro-Palatince, 

The Electoral Bavarian Academy of Sciences at Munich 
was established iu 1759, and publishes its memoirs under 
the title of Abliandltingen der Baierischen Akademie, Soon 
after the Elector of Bavaria was raised to the rank of king, 
the Bavarian government, by his orders, directed its atten- 
tion to a new organisation of the Academy of Sciences of 
Munich. The design of the king was, to render its labours 
more extensive than those of any similar institution in 
Europe, by giving to it, under the direction of the ministry, 
the immediate superintendence over all the establishments 
for public instruction in the kingdom of Bavaria. The Privy* 
Councillor Jacobi, a man of most excellent character, and of' 
considerable sdeirtific attainments, was appointed president 



^ Mr a F. BodweU, In tiio CKemiecd Aewy, June 1^1, 1867 



72 



ACADEMY 



The Electoral Academy at Erfurt was established by the 
Elector of Mentz, in the year 1754. It consists of a pro- 
tector, president, director, assessors, adjuncts, and asso- 
cutcs. Its object is to promote the useful sciences. The 
memoirs were originally published in Latin, but afterwards 
in German. The Hessian Academy of Sciences at Gicsscn 
publish their transactions under the title of Acta Philo- 
iop/iico-MedicOrAcademice ScierUiarwn Frincipalis ffessiaccs. 
In the Netherlan^ there are scientific academies at Flush- 
ing and Brussels, both of which have published their 
transactions. 

Bitssia. — The Impeinal Academy of Sciences ai St 
Petersburg was projected by the Czar Peter the Great. 
Haying m the course of his travels observed the advan- 
tage of pubhc societies for the encouragement and promo- 
tion of literature, be formed the design of founding an 
academy of sciences at St Petersburg. By the ad\'ice 
of Wolff and Leibnitz, whom he consulted on this occasion, 
the society was accordingly regulated, and several learned 
foreigners were invited to become members.' Peter him- 
self drew the plan, and signed it on the 10th of February 
1724; but he was prevented, by the suddenness of his 
death, from carrying it into execution. His decease, how- 
ever, dtd not prevent its completion ; for on the 21st of 
December 1725, Catharine I. established it according to 
Peter's plan, and on the 27th of the same month the society 
assembled for the first time. On the 1st of August 1726, 
Catharine honoured the meeting with her presence, when 
Professor Bulfinger, a German natunUist of great eminence, 
pronounced an oration upon the advances made ^ in the 
theory of magnetic variations, and also on the progress of 
research in so far as regarded the discovery of the longi- 
tude. A short time afterwards the empress settled a fund 
of £4982 per annum for the support of the academy; and 
15 members, all eminent for their learning and talents, 
were admitted and pensioned, under the title of professors 
in the various branches of science and literature. The most 
distinguished of thcs.e professors were Nicholas and Danfcl 
Bernouilli, the two De Lisles, Bulfinger, and Wolff. 

During the short reign of Peter IL the salaries of the 
members were discontinued, and the academy utterly 
•leglected by the Court; but it was again patronised by the 
Empress Anne, who even added a seminary for the educa- 
tion of youth under the sui>crintendence of the professors. 
Both institutions flourished - for some time under the 
direction of Baron Korf ; but upon his death, toward.^ the 
end of Anne^ reign, an ignorant person beins appointed 
president, many of the moat able members quitted Russia. 
At the accession of Elizabeth, however, new Ufc and vigour 
were infused into the academy The original plan was 
enlarged and improved; some of the most learned foreigners 
were again drawn to St Petersburg ; and, what was considered 
AS a good omen for the hterature of Russia, two. natives, 
Lomonosof and Rumovsky, men of genius and abilities, 
who had prosecuted iheir studies in foreign universities, 
were enrolled among its members. Lastly, the annual 
income was increased to X10,G59, and sundry otlier advan- 
tages were conferred upon the institution. 

The Empress Catharine II. , with her usual zeal for 
promoting the diffusion of knowledge, t^ok this useful 
society under her immediate protection. She altered the 
court of directors greatly to the advantage of the whole 
body, corrected many of its abuses, apd infused a new 
vigour and spirit into their researches. By Catharine's 
particular recommendation the most ingenious professors 
visited the vanous pro\'incc3 of her vast dominions ; and as 
the funds of the academy were not suflicicnt to defray the 
whole expense of these expeditions, the empress supplied 
the deficiency by a gnint of £2000, which was renewed aa 
nocasion required. 



The purpose and object of these travels will appear from 
the lustructions given by the academy to the several per- 
sons who engaged in them They were ordered to institute 
inquiries respecting the different sorts of earths and waters; 
the tfcst methods of cultivating barren and desert spots ; 
the local disorders incident to men and animals, together 
with the most eificacious means of relieving them; the 
breeding of cattle, particularly of sheep, the rearing of bees 
and silk-worms ; the different places and objects for fishing 
and hunting; minerals of all kinds; the arts and trades; 
and the formation of a Flora Russica, or collection of indi- 
genous plants. They were particularly instructed to recti ly 
the longitude and latitude of the principal towns; to make 
astronomical, geographical, and , meteorological obscrva 
tions; to trace the courses of rivers; to construct the most 
exact charts; and to be very distinct and accurate in re 
marking and describing the manners and customs of the 
different races of people, 'their dresses, languages, onti- 
quities, traditions, history, religion; m a word, to gam 
every information which might tend to illustrate the real 
state of the whole Russian empira More ample instruc- 
tions cannot well be conceived ; and they appear to have 
been very zealously and fjiithfuliy executed. The conse- 
quence was that, at that time, no 'country could boast, 
within the space of so few years, such a number of excellent 
publications on its mtemal state, its natural productions, 
its topography, geography, and history, and on the manners, 
customs, and languages of the different tribes who inhabit 
it, as issued from the press of this academy. In its researches 
in Asiatic languages, and general knowledge of Oriental 
customs and religions, it proved itself the worthy rival of 
our own Royal Asiatic Soacty. 

The first transactions of this society were published in 
1728, and entitled Commentarii Academias Sdentiai-um 
Imperialis Petropotitance ad annum 1726, with a dedica- 
tion to Peter IL 'The publication was continued under 
this form until the year 1747, when the transactions were 
called Nod Commentarii Academioe, &c. ;.and in 1777, the 
academy again changed the title into Acta Academics Sciai- 
tiarum Imperialis Petropotitance, and likewise made some 
alteration in the arrangements and plan of the work. The 
papers, which had been hitherto published in the Latin 
language only, were now written mdiffcrently either in 
that language or in French, and a preface added, entitled 
Partie Historique^ which contains an account of its pro- 
ceedings, meetings) the admission of new members, and 
other remarkable occurrences. Of the Commtntanes, 14 
volumes were published- the first of the New Commtnr 
taries made its appearance m 1750, and the twentieth in 
1 776. Under the new title of Acta Academice, a number ot 
volumes have been given to the public ; and two are printed 
every year. These transactions abound with ingenious and 
elaborate disquisitions upon various parts of science and 
natural history; and it may not be an exaggeration to assert, 
that no society in Europe has more distinguisljed itself for 
the exceUence of its publications, particularly in the more 
abstruse parts of pure and mixed mathematics. 

The academy is still composed, as at first, of 15 pro- 
fessors, besdes the president and director. Each of these 
professors has a house and an annual stipend of from £200 
to £600. Besides the professors, there are four adjuncts, 
with pensions, who are present at the sittings of the society, 
and succeed to the first vacancies. The direction of the 
academy is generally entrusted to a person of distinction- 

The buildings and apparatus of this academy are on a 
vast scale. There is a fine library, consisting of 36,000 
curious books and manuscripts ; together with an extensive 
museum, in which the various bmnches of natural history, 
«tc., are distributed in different apartments. The latter 14 
extremely rich in native productions, having been con^- 



ACADEMY 



75 



dorably augmnuted by me collections made by Paitosi 
Gmolin, Guldenstaedt, and other professors, during their 
esneditioxLB through the various parts of -the Russian em- 
pire. The BtulTed animals and birds occupy one apartment 
The chamber of rarities, the cabinet of coins, dsc, contain 
inniunerable articles of the highest curiosity and value. 
The motto of the society is exceedingly modest; it consists 
of only one word, PatUatim. 

Stifeden. — The Academy of Sciences at Stoc^tolm, or fJie 
Royal Swedish Academy, owes its institution to six persons 
(•f distinguished learning, among whom was the celebrated 
Linnams. They originally niet on the 2d of June 1739, 
when they formed a private society, in which some dis- 
sertations were read; and in the end of the same year 
their first publication made its appearanca As the meet- 
ings continued and the members increased, the society 
attracted the notice of the king; and, accordingly, on the 
31st of March 1741, it was incorporated under tj^e mime 
of the Royal Swedish Academy. Not receiving any pen- 
sion from the crown, it is merely under tha protection of 
the king, being directed, like our Koyal Society, by its own 
members. It has now, however, a large fund, which has 
chiefly arisen from legacies and other donations ; but a pro- 
fessor of experimentiil philosophy, and two secretaries, are 
still the only persons who receive any salaries. Each of 
the members resident at Stockholm becomes president by 
rotation, and continues in office during three months. 
There arc two kinds of members, native and foreign ; the 
election of the former take places in April, that of the latter 
in July; and no money is paid at the time of admission. 
The dissertations read at each meeting are collected and 
published 'four times in the year : they are written in the 
Swedish language, and printed in octavo, and the annual 
pubbcations make a volume. The first 40 volumes, which 
were completed in 1779, are called the Old Transactions. 

Denmark, — The Royal Academy of Sciences at Copen- 
hagen owes its institution to the zeal of six individuals, 
whom Christian VI., in 1 742, ordered to arrange his cabinet 
of medals. These persons were John Oram, Joachim Fre- 
deric Ramus, Christian Louis Scheid, Mark Wbldickey, 
Eric Pontopidan, and Bernard Moelman, who, occasionally 
meeting for this purix)se, extended their designs; associated 
with them others who were eminent in several branches of 
science; and fojming a kind of literary society, employed 
themselves in searching into, and explaining the history and 
antiquities of their country. The Count of Holstein, the 
first president, warmly patronised this society, and recom- 
mcuded it so strongly to Christian VI. that, in 1 743, his 
Danish majesty took it under his protection, called it the 
Royal Academy of Sciences, endowed it with a fund, and 
ordered the members to join to their former pursuits 
natural history, physics, and mathematics. In consequence 
of the rpjoU favour the mcuibers engaged with fresh zeal 
in their pursuits; and the academy has published. 15 
volumes in the Danish language, some of which have been 
translated into Latin. 

England. — In 161G a scheme for founding a Royal 
Academy was started by Edmund Bolton, an eminent 
scholar and antiquary. Bolton, in his petition to King 
James, which was supported by Qeoige Villiers, Marquis of 
Buckingham, proposed that the title of the academy should 
be ''King James, his Academe or College of honour." 
In the list of members occurs the name of Sir Kenclm 
Digby, one of the original members of the Royal Society. 
The death of the king proved fatal to the undertaking. 
In 1635 a second attempt was made to found an academy, 
under the patronage of Charles L,, with the title of 
**' Minerva's Musteum," for the instniction of young noble- 
men in the liberal arts and sciences, but the project was 
soon dropped. About 1645 some of the more ardent followers 



ox fjucim used (o meet, some in I^onrlon, some nt Ox/ord, 
for the discussion of subjects connected with experimental 
science. This was the origin of thii Royal Society, which 
received its charter in 1662. See Royal Society. 

Ireland. — The Royal Insk Academy arose out of a 
society established at Dublin about the year 1782, and 
consisting of a number of- gentlemen, most of whom 
belong to the university. They held weekly mrctings, 
and read essa}'s in turn on various subjects. The incmbors 
of this spciety afterwards formed a more extensive plan, 
and, admitting only such names as might add dignity to 
their new institution, became the founders of the Royal 
Irish Academy. They professed to unite the advancement 
of science >*'ith the history of mankind and polite literature 
The first volume of their transactions (for 1787) appeared 
in 1788, and seven volumes were afterwards published. 
A society was formed in Dublin, similar to the Royal 
Society in London, as early as the year 1683; but the 
distracted state of the country proved unpropitipus to the 
cultivation of philosophy and literature. 

Holland. — The Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterda/fi, 
erected by a royal ordinance 1852, succeeded the Royal 
Institute of the Low Countries, founded by Louis Napoleon, 
King of HoUand, 1808. In 1855 it had published 102 
volumes of proceedings, and received an annual subsidy ol 
14,000 florins from the state. 

Spain, — The Academy of Sciences at Mad7id, founded 
1774, after the model of the French Academy. 

Portugal, — The Academy of Sciences at Lisbon is divided 
into three classes — natural history, mathematics, and 
national literature. It consists of 24 ordinary and 36 
extraordinary members. Since 1779 it has published 
Memories de Letter atur a Portvgueta; Memorias £conomiccts; 
Collecfao de Livros ineditos di Histaria Portugueza, 

II. AcADEJUES OF Belles Lbttres. — Italy. — Italy in the 
16th centuiy was remarkable for the number of its literary 
academies. Timboschi, in his Itistory of Italian Literature, 
has given a list of 171 ; and Jarkius, in his Specimen 
Hittorim Academiarum CondUarum, enumerates nearly 
700. Many of these, with a sort of Socratic irony, gave 
themselves names expressive of ignorance or simply ludi- 
crous. Such were the Lunatici of Naples, the Estravaganii, 
the Fulminales, the TrapesMti, the Drowsy, the Sleepers, 
the Anxious, the Conftised, the Unstable, the Fantastic, 
the Transformed, the jEtherial. " The first academics of 
Italy chiefly directed their attention to classical literature ; 
they compared manuscripts ; they suggested new readings, or 
new interpretations; they deciphered inscriptions or coins; 
they sat in judgment on a Latin ode, or debated the pro- 
priety of a phrase. Their own poetry had, perhaps, never 
been neglected ; but it was not till the writings of Bembo 
fiumished a new code of criticism in the Italian language, 
that they began to study it with the same minut^ess as 
modem Latin," "They were encouragers of a numis- 
matic and lapidary erudition, elegant in itself, and throw- 
ing for ever little specks of light on the still ocean of the 
past, but not very favourable to comprehensive observation/ 
and ten^g to bestow on an unprofitable pedantry the 
honours of real learning."^ The Italian nobilityj excluded 
as they mostly were from politics, and living in cities, 
found in literature a consolation and a career. Such^ 
academies were oligarchical in their constitution; they 
encouraged culture, but tended to hamper genius and 
extinguish origmahty. Of their academies, by far the 
most celebrated was the Accademia della Crusca or /Vr- 
furatorum; that is, of Bran, or of the Sifted. The title 
was borrowed from- a previous society at Perugia, the 
Accademia degli Scossi, of the Well-shaken. Its device 

^ HRllam't Int, to Lit qf Europe, vol. L C54, and vol ii. 602. 



74 



ACADEMY 



was a sieve ; its motto, " D ftih bcl fior ne coglie," it 
collects the finest flour of it ; its principal object the posi- 
ficatioQ of the language. Its great work was the Vocabu- 
iario delta Crusca, the first edition of which was published 
1C13. It was composed avowedly on Tuscan principles, 
and regaorded the 14th century as the Augustan period of 
the languaga Bcni assailed it in his Anii-Cnuca^ and 
this exclusive TuBcan spirit has disappeared in subrfeqiient 
editions. The Accademia della Crusca is now incorporated 
with two older societies — ^the Accademia degli Apatici 
(the Impartials) and the Accademia Fiorentina. 

Among the numerous other literary academies of Italy 
we may mention the Academy of Naples, founded about 
1 440 by Alfonso, the king ; the Academy of Florence, founded 
1540, to illustrate and pei^fect the Tuscan tongue, especially 
by a dose study of PetnCrch -, the IntroTuOi of Siena, 1525; 
the Infia^mati of Padua; 1534 ; the Bom of Siena, sup- 
pressed by Cosmo, 1568. 

The Academy of EumouristSf Umoriai, had its origin at 
Borne in the marriage of Lorenzo Mardni, a Roman gentle- 
nan, at which several persons 6f rank were guests. It 
was carnival time, and so to give the ladies some diversion, 
they betook thenuelvcs to the reciting of verses, sonnets, 
speeches, first exUmpore, and afterwards premeditately, 
which gave them t^e denomination of Belli Humeri. 
After some experience, and coming more and more into 
the tasto of these exercises, they resolved to form an 
academy of belles lettres, and chsmged the title of Belli 
Humori for that of ffumoristi. 

In 1690 the Academy or Society of Arcadians was 
established at Rome, for the purpose of reviving the study 
of poetry. The fo^nder Crescimbcni is the author of a 
well-known history of Italian poetry. It numbered among 
its members many princes, cardiaals, and other ecclesias- 
tics; and, to avoid disputes about pre-eminence, all appeared 
masked after thejtnfuiner of Arcadian shepherds. Within 
ten years from its first establishment the number of 
academiciant ajolounted to ^00. 

The Boyal Academy of Savoy dates from 1719, and was 
made a royalf academy by Charles FeUx in 1848. Its 
emblem is a gold orange tree full of flowers and fruit; its 
motto ''Fldres fructusque perennes," being the same as 
those of the famous FlorimerUane Academy, founded at 
Annecy by St Francis de Sales. It has published valuable 
memoirs on Ae history and antiquities of Savoy. 

Gemumy, — Of the German literary academies, the 
most celebrated was Die Fruchtbrirt^ende GeeclUchafi, the 
Ehiitful Society, established at Weimar 1617. Five 
"prince^ enrolled their names among the original members. 
The object was to purify the mother tongue. The German 
academies copied those of Italy in their quaint titles and 
petty ceremonials, and exercised little permanent influence 
on the language or literature of the country. 

France. — The Frenck Academy was established by order 
of the king in the year 1 635, but in its original form it came 
into existence some four or five years earlier. About the 
year 1629 certain literary friends in Paris agreed to meet 
weekly at the house of one of their number. These meet- 
ings were quite informal, but the conversation turned mostly 
on literary topics; and when, as was often the case, one of 
the number had composed some work, he read it to the 
rest, and they gave their opinions upon it. The place of 
meeting was the house of M. Conrard, which was chosen 
as being the most central The fame of these meetings, 
though the members were bound over to secrecy, reached at 
length the ears of Cardinal Richelieu, who conceived so 
high ao opinion of them, that he at once promised them 
his protection, and off'ered to incorporate them by letters 
patent. Nearly all the )nembers would have preferred the 
(hanns of privacy, but, considering the risk they would run in 



incurring the cardinal's displeasure, ^nd that by the letter 
of the law aU meetings of any sort or kind were prohibited^ 
they expressed "their gratitude for the high honour the 
cardinal thought fit to confer on them. They proceeded 
at once to organise their body, settle their laws and oonstitn- 
tion, appoint officers^ and choose their name. Their officers 
consisted of a director and a chancellor, both chosen by 
lot^ and a permanent secretary, chosen by votes. They 
elected besides a publisher, not a memb^ ol the 4iody. 
The director presided at the meetings, being considered( 
as primus inter pares, and performing much the same parti 
as the speaker in the English House of Commons. Tha 
chancellor kept the seals, and sealed all the' offidai domi 
xtients of the academy. The office of the secretary explains 
itsell The cardinal was ex ojfi/no protector. The meet] 
ings were weekly as before. 

• The letters patent were at once granted by the king, bof 
it was 8nly after violent opposition and long delay that tho 
prcsidei^t, whp was jealous of the cardinal's aulJiority, cou* 
sented to grant the verification required by the old con- 
stitution of France. 

The object for which the academy was founded, as set forth 
in its statutes, was tho purification of tho Frendi hmguage. 
'< The principal function of tho academy shall be to labour 
with fill care and diligence to give certain rules to our 
language, and to render it pure, eloquent, and capable of 
treating the arts and sciences" (Art 24). They proposed 
" to cleanse the language from the impurities it has con- 
tracted in the mouths of tho common people, from the 
jargon of the lawyers, from tho misusages of ignorant 
courtiers, and the abuses of the pulpit." — Letter of Academy 
to Cardinal BicheUeu. 

Their numbers were fixed at' forty. The original members 
who formed the nucleus of tho body were eight, and it was 
not till 1639 that the full number was completed. Their 
first undertaking consisted of essays written by all the 
members in* rotation. To judge by the titles and speci< 
mens 'which have come down to us, these possessed no 
special originality or merit, but resembled the lirtSct^ctc ol 
the Greek rhetoricians. ' They next, at the instance o) 
Cardinal Richelieu, undertook a criticism of ComeiUe's 
Cid, the most popular work of the day. It was a rule oi 
the academy that no work could be criticised except at the 
author's request. It was only the fear of incurring the 
cardinal's displeasure which wrung from Comeille an un- 
willing ^consent The critique of the academy was re- 
written several times before it met with tho cardinal's 
approbation. After six months of elaboration, it was pub- 
lished under the title, Sentiments de CAcadhnie Frangoise 
sur le Old, This judgment did not satisfy Comeille, as a 
saying attributed to him on the occasion shows. " Eora^ 
tins," he said, referring to Ids last play, " was condemned 
by the Duumviri, but he was absolved by the people." 
But the crowning labour of the academy, commenced in 
1639, was a dictionary of the French hmguage. By tho 
twenty-sixth article of their statutes, they were pledged to 
compose a dictionary, a grammar, a treatise o^ rhetoric,* 
and one on poetry. M. Chapelain, one of the original 
members and leading spirits of the academy, pointed out 
that the dictionary would naturally be the firat of these 
works to be undertaken, and drew up a phm of the work; 
which was to a great extent carried out. A catalogue was 
to be made of all the most approved authors^ prose ai^ verse : 
these were to be distributed among the members, and all 
wcMrds and phrases of which they approved to be marked 
by them in order to be incorporated in the dictionary. 
For this the/ resolved themselves into two committees, 
which sat on other than the regular days. M. de Va^bgelas ^ 

^ A bov, mot of his 79. worth recovdiog. Wh^ retunuag .jthanks for 



ACADEMY 



75 



was appointed editor m cMril To remonerate Jiim for ids 
hbonrsy he received from tlie cardinal a pension of 2000 
franca. Tho first edition of this dictionary appeared in 
1694; the last OompUmeiU in 1854. 

Instead of following the historyof the French Academy,— 
whichy like its two younger sisters, the Academy of 
Sciences and the Academy of Inscriptions, was suppressed 
ia 1793, and reconstituted in 1795, as a daas pf the Insti- 
tute, — a history which it would be impossible to treat 
adequately in the limit of an article, we will attempt 
briefly to estimate its influence on French literature and 
language, and point out its principal merits and defects. 
To b^^ with its merits, it may justly boast that there is 
hardly a single name of the first rank among French 
Utteratettrs that it has not enrolled among its members. 
Moli6re, it is true, was rejected as a player ; but we can 
hardly blame the academy for a social prqjucQce which it 
shared with the age; and it is well known that it has, as 
far as was in its power, made the amende hmorahU, In 
the SalU dea SSaneea ia placed the bust of .the greatest 
of modem comedians, with tho inscripUon, "lUen ne 
manque k sa gloire ; il manquait k la notre." Descartes 
was excluded from the fact of his residing in Holland. 
Scarron was confined by paralysis to his own house. 
Fiiscal is the only remaining exception, and Pascal was 
better known to his contemporaries as a mathematician 
than a writer. His Lettres Provindales were published 
anonynaously; and just when his fame was rising he 
retir^ lo Port-Boyal, where he lived the life of a recluse. 
On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the fauteuils 
have often been occupied by men of no mark in literature. 
Nor is the academy wholly exonerated by M. Livct's in- 
genious defence, that there are but eight mfirshals in tho 
French army, and yet the number has never appeared too 
restricted ; for its most ardeift admirers will not assert that 
it has, as a rule, chosen the forty most distinguished living 
authors. Court intrigue, rank, and finesse have too often 
prevailed over real merit and honesty. Though lus facts 
are incorrect, there is much truth in Courier's caustic 
aatire : — ^" Dans une companie de gens faisant profession 
d'esprit ou de savoir, nul ne veut pr^ de soi un plus habile 
que soi, mais bicn un plus noble, un plus riche : un due 
et puir honore rAcad<jmie Fran^ise, qui ne veut point de 
Boileau,^ refuse la Bruy^rd, fait attendre Voltaire, mais 
reyoit tout d*abord Chapelain et Conrart" 

We have next to consider the influence of the French 
Academy on the'language and literature, a subject on which 
the most opposite opinions have been advanced. On the 
one hand, it has been asserted that it has corrected the 
judgment, purified the taste, and formed the language of 
French writers, and that to it we owe the most strUdng 
characteristics of French literature, its purity, delicacy, and 
flexibility. Thus Mr Matthew Arnold, in his well-known 
Essay on the Literary Influence of Academies^ has pro- 
nounced a glowing panegyric on the French Academy as a 
high court of letters,and rallying point for educated opinion, 
as asserting tho authority of a master in matters of tone 
and taste. To it he attributes in a great measure that 
thoroughness, that openness of min(^ that absenee of 
vulgarity which he finds everywhere in Freudi literature ; 
and to thd want of a similar institution in England he 
traces that eccentricity, that provincial spirit, that coarse- 
ness, which, as he thinks, is barely compensated by English 
genius. Thus, too, M. Renan, one of its most distinguished 
Uving members, says that it is owing to tlie academy *'qu'on 

his pension, the cardinal remarked, " Well, Monsieur, you "vvill not 
foxget the vord pensum in your dictionary." *' No, Mons<;isneur," 
replied VaageUs, " and etill less the wowi gratitude." 

* BoiUau was doctod to the French Academy 1684, La Bruycrc 
h 1693. 



pent tout dire sans apparcil scholastique avee la langua 
des gens du mondo.** *' Ah ne ditcs," he exclaims, ' qu'ila 
n'ont ricn fait, ces obscures beaux esprits dont k vie sa 
passe k instruire le proc6s des mots, k pescr les syllables. 
Us ont fah un chef-d'ceuvre — la languo fran;aise." Oil th<v 
other band,*it8 inherent defects have been so well summed 
up by M. Lanfrey, that we cannot do better than quota 
fh)m his recent JUistory of Napoleon, " This institution,'' 
he says, speaking of the French Academy, ''had never 
shown itself the enemy of despotism. Founded by tho 
monarchy and for, the monarchy, eminently favourable to 
the spirit of intrigue and favouritism, incapable of any 
sustained or combined hibour, a stranger to those great 
works pursued in common which legitimise and glorify 
the existence of scientific bodies, occupied exclusively with 
learned trifles, fatal to emulation, which it pretends i(t 
stimulate, by the compromises and calculations to which it 
subjects it, directed in everything by petty considerations, 
and wasting all its energy in childish tournaments, in 
which the flatteries that it showers on others arc only tho 
foretaste of the compliments it expects in return for itself, 
the French Academy seems to have received from ita 
founders the special mission to transform genius into bet 
esprit, and it woidd be hard to produce a man of talent 
whom it has not demoralised "^ Drawn in spite of itself ' 
towards politics, it alternately pursues and avoids them v 
but it is specially attracted by the gossip of politics, and 
whenever it has so far emancipated itself as to go into 
opposition, it does so as the champion of ancient prejudices. 
If. we examine its influence ou the national genius, wo 
shall see that it has given it a flcxilMlity, a brilliancy, it 
polish, which it never possessed before.; but it has dona 
so at the expense of its masculine qualities, its originality, 
its spontaneity, its vigour, its natural grace. It has dis* 
ciplincd it, but it has emasculated, impoverished, and 
rigidified it. It sees in taste, not a sense of the beautiful, 
but a certain type of correctness, an elegant form of medio- 
crity. It has substituted pomp for grandeur, scliool 
routine for individual inspiration, elabomtcncss for sim* 
plicity, fadeur and the monotony of literary orthoduxy for- 
variety, the source and spring of intcllcctunl life, and in 
the works produced under its auspices we discover tho 
rhetorician and the writer, never the man. By all it* 
traditions the academy was made to be the natural oma* 
mcnt of a monarchical society. Richelieu conceived and 
created it as a sort of superior centralisation applied to 
intellect, as a high literary court to maintain intellectual 
unity, and protest against innovation. Bonaparte, aware of 
all this, had thought of re-establishing its aticient privileges; 
but it had in his eyes one fatal defect — esprit. Kings of 
France could condone a witticism even against themselves, 
a parvetiu could not." 

In conclusion, we would briefly state our own opinion. 
The influence of the French Academy has been conservative 
rather than creative, \fhile it has raised the general 
standard of writing, it has tended to hamper and crush 
originality. It has done much by its example for stylo, 
but its attempts to impose its laws on language have, from 
the nature of the case, failed For, however perfectly a 
dictionary or a grammar may represent the existing lan- 
guage of a nation, an original genius is certain to arise — a 
Victor Hugo, or an Alfred de Musset, who will set at de* 
fianee all dictionaries and academic rules. 

SflOfin, — ^Tho Jioijal Sj)anish Academy at Madtid held 
its first meeting in July 1713, in the palace ot its founder^ 
the D uke d'Escalona. It consisted at fi rst of 8 academicians, 
including the duke; to which numbci 14 others were 
afterwards added, the founder being chosen president or 
director. In 1714 the king granted them the royal con- 
firmation and protection. Thcii- device is a crucible in 



76 



A C A D E M Y 



the middle of the fire, with this motto, Limpia^ fixOj y 
da esplendor — "It purifies, fixes, and gives brightness." 
The number of its members was limited to 24; the Duke 
d'Escalona was chosen director for life, but his successors 
wcr« elected yearly, and the secretary for life. Their 
object, as marked out by the royal declaration, was to 
cultivate and improve the national language. They were 
to begin with choosing carefully such words and phrases 
as have been used by the best Spanish writers; noting 
the low, barbarous, or. obsolete ones; and composing a 
dictionary wherein these might be distinguished from the 
former. 

Stocden. — ^The Royal Swedish Academy was founded in 
the year 1786, for the purpose of purifying and perfecting 
the Swedish language. A medal is struck by its direction 
ieycry year in honour of some illustrious Swede. . This 
academy does not publish its transactions. 

BelgiurrL — Belgium has always been famous for its 
litc'raiy societies. The little town of Diest boasts that it 
possessed a society of poets in 1302, and the Cathcrinists 
of Alost date from 1107. Whether or not there is any 
foundation for these claims, it is certain that numerous 
Chambers of Rlietoric (so academies were then caUed) 
existed in the first years of the rule of the house of Bur- 
gundy. 

The present Royal Academy of Belgium was founded by 
the Count of Coblenzl at Brussels, 1769. Count Stahrcn- 
bcrg obtained for it in 1772 letters patent from Maria 
Theresa, who also granted pensions to all the members, 
aticV a fu^nd for printing their works;. All academicians 
were ipso facto ennobled. It was reorganised, and a class 
of iiiic arts added in 1845 through the agency of M. Van 
dc Weycr, the learned Belgian ambassador at London. It 
has devoted itself principally to national history and anti- 
^uitics. 

III. Academies op ARCHiEOLOOY and History. — 
Italy. — Under this class the Academy of Hercidaneum'^TO- 
pcrly ranks. It was established at Naples about 1765, at 
\vhich period a museum was formed of the antiquities 
found at Ilerculaneum, Pompeii, and other places, by the 
Marquis Tanucci, who was then minister of state. Its ob- 
ject was to explain the paintings, &c., which were discovered 
at those places; and for this purpose the members met 
every fortnight, and at each meeting three paintings were 
submitted to three academicians, who made their report 
on them at their next sitting. The first volume of their 
labours appeared in 1775, and they have been continued 
under the title of Antichiid di Ercolano, They contain 
cngTa\dngs of the principal paintings, statues, bronzes, 
marble figures, medals, utensils, &c, with explanations. 
In the year 1807, an Academy of History and Antiquities, 
on a new plan, was established at Naples by Joseph Bona- 
parte. The number of members was limited to forty; 
twenty of whom ^ere to be appointed by the king, and 
these twenty were to present to him, for his choice, three 
names for each of those wanted to complete the full num- 
ber. Eight thousand ducats were to be annually allotted 
for the current expenses, and two thousand for prizes to 
the authors of four works which should be deemed by the 
academy most deserving of such a reward. A grand meet- 
ing was to be held every year, whe^ the prizes were to be 
distributed, and analyses of the works read. The first 
meeting took place on the 25th of April 1807; but the 
subsequent changes in the political state of Naples pre- 
vented the full and permanent establishment of this insti- 
tution» In the same year an academy was established at 
Florence for the illustration of Tuscan antiquities, which 
published some volumes of memoirs. 

France. — The old Academy of Inscriptions and Belles 
Lettres was an off-shoot from the Fj^ench Academy, whidi 



then at least oontained the UiU of French learning, Louis 
XIY. was of all French kings the one most occupied with 
his own aggrandisement Literature, and even science, he 
only encouraged 'so far as they redounded to his own gloiy. 
Nor were literary men inclined taassert their independenca 
Boileau well represented the spirit of the age when, in 
dedicating his tragedy of Berenice to Colbert, he wrote — 
"The least things become important if in any degree 
they can sefve the glory and pleasure of the king.'^ Thus 
it was that the Academy of Inscriptions aros& At the 
suggestion of Colbert, a company (a committee we should 
now call it) had been appointed by the king, chosen from 
the French Academy, charged with the office of famishing 
inscriptions, devices, and legends for medals. It consisted 
of four academicians: Chapelain, then considered the poet 
laureate of France, one of the authors of the 'critique on 
the Cid (see above); Tabb^ de Bourzeis; Francis Ca^ 
pentier, an antiquary of high repute , among his contem- 
poraries ; and Tabb^ de Capagnes, who owed his appoint- 
ment more to the fulsome flattery of his odes than his 
really learned translations of Cicero and Sallust. This 
company, used to meet in Colbert's library in the winter, 
at his country-house at Sceaux in the summer, generally 
on Wednesdays, to serve the convenience of the minister, 
who was constantly present Their meetings were princi- 
pally occupied with discussing the inscriptions, statues, 
and pictures intended for the decoration of Versailles; but 
M. Colbert, a really learned man and an enthusiastic col- 
lector of manuscripts, was often pleased to dOnverse with 
them on matters of art, history, and antiquities. Their 
first published work was a collection of engravings, accom- 
panied by descriptions, designed for some of the tapestries 
at Versailles. Louvois, who succeeded Colbert as a supe^ 
intendent of btfildings, revived .the company, which had 
begun to relax its labours. Fdlibien, the learned architect, 
and the two great poets Racine and Boileau, were added 
to their number. A series of medals was commenced, 
entitled Medailles de la Grande IlisUnre^ or, UD other words, 
the histoiy of le Grand Monarque. 

But it was to M. de Portchartrain, comptroller-general 
of finance and secretary of state, that the academy owed 
its institution. Ho added to the company Kenaudot aad 
Tourreil, both men of vadt learning, the latter tutor to his 
son, and put at its head his nephew, l'abb6 Bignon, librarian 
lo the king. By a new regulation, dated the 16th July 
1701, the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Medals 
was instituted, being composed of ten honorary members, 
ten pensioners, ten associates, and ten pupils. On its 
constitution we need not dwell, as it was an almost exact 
copy of that of the Academy of Science. Among the 
regulations we find the following, which indicates clearly 
the transition from a staff of learned officials to a learned 
body: — " The academy shall concern itself with all that can 
contribute to the perfection of inscriptions and legends, of 
designs for such monuments and decorations as may be 
submitted to its judgment; also with the description of all 
artistic works, present and future, and the historical ex- 
planation of the subject of such works; and as the know- 
ledge of Greek and Latin antiquities, and of these two 
languages, is the best guarantee for success in labours of 
this class, the academicians shall apply themselves to all 
that this-division of learning includes, as one of the most 
worthy objects of their pursuit* 

Among the first honorary members we find the Indefa- ' 
tigable Mabillon f excluded from the pensioners by reason 
of his orders), Pore La Chaise, the king^s confessor, and 
Cardinal Eohan ; among the associates Fontenelle^ jfind 
BoUin, whose Ancient History was submitted to the 
academy for revision. In 1711 they completed LHistcirt 
MStallujz/^ du Roi, of which »Saint-Simo9 <waa- asked to 



ACADEMY 



77 



write the preiace. In 1716 the regent changed its title 
to that of the Academij of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres^ 
a title which bcttei suited its new character. 

In the great battle between the Ancients and the Modems 
which divided the learned world in the first half of the 
18th century, the Academy of Inscriptions naturally 
espoused the cause of the Ancients, as the Academy of 
Sciences did that of the Modems.^ During the earlier 
years of the French Revolution the academy continued 
its labours iminterruptedly; and on the 22d of January 
1793, the -day after the death of Louis XVI., we find in 
the Proceedings that M. Br^uigny read a paper on the 
projects of marriage between Queen Elizabeth and the 
Dukes of Anjou and Alen9on. In the same year were 
pubhshed the 45th And 46th vols, of the Ulmoires de 
ilccuUnue. On the 2d of August of the same year the 
last ihnce of the old academy was held. More fortunate 
than its sister Academy of Sciences, it lost only three of its 
members by the guillotine. One of these was the astro- 
nomer Sylvain Bailly. Three others sat as members of 
the Convention , but for the honour of the academy, we 
must add that all three were distin^niished by their mode- 
ration. 

In the first d^^ught of the new Institute, October 25, 
1795, no class corresponded exactly to the old Academy 
of Inscriptions ; but most of the members who survived 
found themselves re-elected either in the 2d class of moral 
and political science, under which history and geography 
were mcluded as sections, or more generally under the 3d 
class of literature and fine arts, which embraced ancient 
languages, antiqmties, and monuments. ' 

In 1816 the academy received again its old namel 
The Proceedings of the Society embrace a vast field, and 
are of very various merits. Perhaps the subjects on which 
it has shown most originality are comparative mythology, 
the history of science among the ancients, and the geo- 
graphy and antiquities of France. The old academy has 
reckoned among its members De Sacy the Orientalist, 
Dansse de Villoison the philologist, Du Perron the traveller, 
Sainte-Oroix and Du Theil the antiquarians,, and Le Beau, 
who has been named the last of the Romans. The new 
academy has ahready inscribed on its lists the well-known 
names of .Champollion, A. Edmusat, Raynooard, Bomouf, 
and Augustin Thieny. 

CeUic Academy, — In consequence of the attention of 
several literary men in Paris having been directed to Celtic 
antiquities, a Celtic Academy was established in that city in 
&e year 1800. Its objects were, first, the elucidation of the 
history, customs, antiquities, manners, and monuments of 
the Celts,. particularly in France; secondly, the etymology 
of all the European languages, by the aid of the Celto- 
British, Welsh, and Erse ; and, thirdly, researches relating to 
Druidism. The attention of the members was also parti- 
cularly called to the history and settlements of th^ Galats 
in Asia. Lenoir, the keeper of the museum of French 
monuments, was appointed president. The academy still 
exists as Let SociSte RoyaU des Antiquaires de Frandt 

IV. AcAjyEMOSB OF Medionb and Sueokry. — Germany. 
— ^The Academy of Natures Curiosiy called also the Le> 
poldine Academy, was founded in 1662, by J.L. Bausch, 
a physician of Leipsic, who, imitating the example of the 
English, published a general invitation to mediod men to 
communicate ail extraordinary cases that occurred in the 
course of their practice. The works of the Natures Curiosi 
were at first published separately ; but this being attended 
with considerable inconvenience; a new arrangement was 
foimed,(iin 1770, for publishing a volume of observations 
annually. From some cause, however, the first volume 
did not make its appearance nntil 1784, when it came 
forth underthe title of J^A«i7imc20iL In 1687, the Emperor 



Leopold took the society under his protection, and estab- 
lished it at Vienna; hence the title of Leopotdine which it 
in consequence assumed. But though it thus acquired a 
name, it had no fixed place of meeting, and no regular 
assemblies ; instead of which there was a kmd of bureau 
or office, first established at Breslau, and aftenvards re- 
moved to Nuremjoerg, where communications from corre- 
spondents were received, and persons properly qualified . 
admitted as membera By its constitution the Leopoldine 
Academy consists of a president^ two adjuncts or secretaries* 
and colleagues or members, without any linutatiou as to 
numbers. At Iheir admission the last come under a two- 
fold obligation — first, to choose some subject for discussion 
out of the animal, vegetable, or nuneral kingdom, provided 
it has not, been previously treated of by any colleague of 
the academy; and, secondly, to apply themselves to furnish 
materials for the annual Epfiemerides. Each member also 
bears about with him the symbol of the academy, consist- 
ing of a gold ring, whereon is represented a book open, 
with an eye on one side, and on the other the acadcnucai 
motto of Nunquam otiosus. 

The Academy of Surgery at Vienna was instituted by 
the present emperor, under the direction of the celebrated 
Brambella. In it there were at first only two profcssura ; 
and to their charge the instruction of a hundred and thirty 
young men was committed, thirty of whom had fonucrly 
been suxgeons in the army. But latterly the number both 
of teachers and pupils was considerably mcreased. Gab- 
helli was appointed to teach pathology and practice , 
Boecking, anatomy, phykiology, and physics; Streit, medical 
and pharmaceuttcal suigeiy; Hunczowsky, surgical ope- 
ration^ midwifery, and ckirurgia forensts , and Plenk» 
cheimstry and botany. To these was also added Beindel. 
as prosecutor and extraordinary professor of surgery and 
anatomy. Besides this, the emperor provided a Large and 
splendid edifice in Vienna, which affonds accommodatioh 
both for the teachers, the students, pregnant. women, 
patients for clinical lectures, and servants. For the use 
of this academy the emperor also purchased a medical 
library, which is open every day ; a complete set of chinir- 
gical instruments; an apparatus for experiments in natural 
philosophy ; a collection of natural history ; a number of 
anatomical and pathological preparations ; a collection of 
preparations in wax, brought from Florence; and a variety 
of other useful articles. Adjoining the building there 
is also a good botiwical garden. With a view to encourage 
emulation among the students of this institution, three 
prize medals, each of the value of 40 fiorins, are annually 
bestowed on those who return the best answers to questions 
proposed the year before. These prizes, however, are not 
entirely founded by the emperor, but are in part owing to 
the liberality of Brendellius, formerly protochirurgus at 
Vienna. 

France. — Royal Academy of Medicine, — ^Medicine is a 
science which has always engaged the attention of the 
kings of France. Charlemagne established a school of 
medicine in the Louvre, and various -societies have been 
founded, and privileges granted to the faculty by his suc- 
cessors. The Royal Academy of Medicine succeeded to tho 
old Boyal Society of Medicine and the Acidemy of Sur- 
gery. It was erected by a royal ordinance, dated December 
20, 1820. It was divided into three sections — medicine, 
surgery, and pharmacy. In its constitution it closely 
resembled the Academy of Sciences {vid. sup.) Its fimction 
was to preserve or propagate vaccine matter,- and a&wer 
inquiries addressed to it by the Government on the subject 
of epidemics, sanitary reform, and public health goner^y. 
It has maintained an enormouaf correspondence in all 
quarters of the globe, and published extensive minutes. 

V. AcADSHixa o» TH« Fine Arts.— iiuwa. — The 



78 



ACADEMY 



academy at St fetersbarg was established by the Empress 
Elizabeth, at the suggestion of Count Shuva]off, and 
annexed to th^ Academy ot Sciences. The fund for its 
support was X4000' per annunf, and the foundation 
admitted forty scholars. Catharine II. formed it into a 
separate institution,, augmented the annual revenue to 
£12,000, and increased the number of scholars to three 
hundred ; she also constructed, for the use and accommo- 
' dation of the members, a large circular building, which 
fronts the Neva. The scholars are admitted at the age of 
six, and continue until they have attained that of eighteen. 
They are clothed, fed, and lodged at the expense of the 
vown; and are all instructed in "reading and writing, 
arithmetic, the French and German languages, and draw- 
ing. At the age of fourteen they, are at liberty to choose 
any of the following arts, divided into four classes, viz., 
firsts painting in all its branches of history portraits, war- 
pieces, and landscapes, architecture, mosaic, enamelling, 
&C. ; secondly, engraving on copperplates, seal-cutting, &c. ; 
thirdly, carving on wood, ivory, and amber; fourthly, watch- 
making, turning, instrument making, casting statues in 
bronze and other metals, imitating gems and medals in 
paste and other compositions,' gilding, and varnishing. 
Prizes are annually distributed to those who excel in any 
particular art ; and, from those who have obtained four 
prizes, twelve are selected, who are sent abroad aV^the 
charge of the crown. A certain sum is paid to defray 
their travelling expenses ; and when they are settled in 
any town, they receive an annual salary of £60, which, is 
continued during four years. There is a small assortment 
of paintings for the use of the scholars ; and those who 
have made great progress are permitted to copy the pictures 
in the imperial collection. For the purpose of design, 
there are models in plaster, all done at Roq[io, of the best 
antique statues in Italy, and of the sa^e size with the 
originals, which the artists of the, academy were employed 
to cast in bronze. 

France: — ^The Academy of PairUinff and Sculpture at 
Paris was founded by Louis XIV. in 1 648, Under the title of 
Acadcmie Royale des Beaux Arts, to which was afterwards 
united the Academy of Architecture, erected 1671. ' The 
academy is composed of painters, sculptors, architects, 
engravers, and musical composers. From among the 
members of the society, who arc painters, is chosen the 
director of the French Academie des Beaux Arts at Berne, 
also instituted by Louis XIV. in 1677. The director's pro- 
vince is to superintend the studies of the painters, sculptors, 
&c., who, having been jhosen by competition, a^e sent to 
Italy at the expense of the Qovernment, to complete their 
studies in that countiy. Most of the celebrated French 
painters have begim their career in this way. 

The Jioyal Academy of Music is the name which, by a 
strange perversion of language, is given in France to the 
grand opera. In 1571 the poet Baif established in his 
house an academy or school of music, at which ballets and 
tnasquerades were given. In 1645 Mazarin brought from 
lUily a troupe of actors, and established them in the Hue 
du Petit Bourbon, where they executed Jules Strozzi's 
" Achille in Scire," the first opera performed in France. 
After Molifcrc's death in 1673, his theatre in the Palais 
Royal was given to Sulli, and there were performed all 
Gluck's great operas ; there Vestris danced, and there was 
produced Jean Jacques Jlousseau's " Devin du Village." ' 

Italy. — In 1778 an Academy of Painting aUd Sculp- 
ture was established at Turin. The meetings were held 
in the palace of the king, who distributed prizes among 
the most successful members. In Milan an Acadcm/ of 
Architecture was established so early as the year 1380, by 
Galcas Visconti. About the middle of the last century an 
Academy of the Arts Was established, there^ after the 



example of those at Paris and Rome. The pupils wen. 
furnished with originals and models, and prizes were dis- 
tributed annually. The prize for painting was a gold 
medal, and no prize was bestowed Ull all the competing 
pieces had been subjected to the examination and criticism 
of competent judges. Before tl^e effects of the French 
Reyolution reached Italy this was one of the best establish- 
ments of the kind in that kingdom. In the hall of the 
academy were some admirable pieces of Correggio, as well 
as several ancient paintings and statues of great merits — 
particularly a small bust of Vitellius, and a statue of 
Agrippin% of most exquisite beauty, though it wants the 
head and anns^ The Academy of the Arts, -which had 
been long established at Florence, fell into decay, but was 
restored in the end of last centuiy. . In it there are halls 
for nude and plaster figures, for tlie use of the sculptor and 
the painter. The hall for plaster figures had models of all 
the finest statues in Italy, arranged in two lines; but the 
treasures of this and the other institutions for the fine arts 
were greatly diminished during the occupancy of Italy by 
the French. In the saloon of the Academy of the Arts at 
Modena there are many casts of antique statues ; but after 
being plundered by the French it dwindled into a, i>ctty 
school for draivings from living models; it contains the 
skull of Correggio. There is also an Academy of the Fine 
Arts in Mantua, and another at Venice. 

Spain. — In Madrid, an Academy for Painting, Sculp- 
ture, and Architecture, was founded by Philip V. The 
minister for foreign affairs is president. Prizes aro dis* 
tributed every three years. In Cadiz a few students 
are supplied by Government with the means of drawing 
and modelling from figures; and such as are not ajble 
to purchase the requisite instruments are provided with 
them. 

Swedem — An Academy of the Fine Arts was founded at 
Stockholm in*the year 1733 by Count Tessin. In its hall 
are the ancient figures of plaster presented by Louis XIV. 
to Charles XI. The works of ths students are publicly 
exhibited, and prizes are distributed annually. Such of 
them as display distinguished ability obtain pensions from 
Government, to enable them to i reside in Italy for some 
years, for the purposes of investigation and improvement. 
In this academy there are nine professors, and generally 
about four hundred students. In the year 1705 an 
Academy. of Painting, Scidptitre, and Architecture was 
established at Vienna, with the view of encouraging -and 
promoting the fine arts. 

England. — The Royal Academy of Arts in London -was 
instituted for the encouragement of designing, painting, 
soulpture, &c., in the year 1768, with Sir J. Reynolds 
for its president. This academy is under the immediate 
patronage of the queen, and under the direction of forty 
artists of the first rank in their severSil professions. It 
furnishes,' in «winter, living models of different characters 
to draw after ; and in summer, models of the same kind 
to paint after. Nine of the ablest academicians are 
annually elected out of the forty, whose b^usinesa it is to 
attend by rotation, to set the figures, to examine the 
performance of the students, and to give them necessary 
instructions. There are likewise professors of painting, 
sculpture, architecture, anatomy, and chemistiy, who 
annually read public lectures on the subjects of their 
several departments ; besides a president, a council, and 
other officers. The admission to this academy is free to 
all students properly qualified to reap advantage from the 
studies cultivated in it ; and there is an annual exhibition 
at Burlington 3otise of paintings, sculptures, and designsi 
open to all artbts of distinguished ment. 

The Academy of Ancient Music was established in Lon- 
don in 1710, by several persons of distinction^ and other 



AC A — A.CC 



79 



amatcurB, in conjunction with the most eminent masters of 
ithe time, with the view of promoting the study and practice 
iof vocal and instrumental harmony. ^ This institution, 
which had the advantage of a library, consisting of the most 
celebrated compositions, both foreign and domestic, in 
manuscript and in print, and which was aided by the per- 
formances of the gentlemen of the chapel royal, and the 
choir of St Paul's, with the boys belonging to each, con- 
tinued to flourish for many years. In 1731 a charge of 
plagi^urism brought against Bononcini, a member of the 
academy, for claiming a madrigal of Lotti of Venice as 
his own, threatened Uie existence of the institution. Dr 
jGreeno, who had introduced the madrigal into the aca- 
demy, took part with Bononcini,. and* withdrew from the 
iociety, taking with him the i)oys of St Paul's. In 1734 
iMr Gates, another member of the society, and. master of 
it\p children of the royal chape), abo retired in disgust; 
so that the institution was thus deprived of the assistance 
which the boys afforded it in singing the soprano parts. 
From this time the academy became a seminary for the 
instruction of youth in the principles of music and the 
laws of harmony. Dr Pepuscb, who was on^ of its foun- 
ders, was active in accomplishing this measure; and by 
the expedient of educating boys for. their purpose, and 
admitting auditor members, the subsistence of the aca- 
demy was continued.^ The Xayal Academy of Music 



was formed by the prmcipal nobility and gentry of the 
kingdom, for the performance of operas, composed fc^r 
Handel, and conducted by him at the theatre in the Hay<- 
market The subscription amounted to £50,000, and the 
king, besides subscribmg XIOOO, allowed the society to 
assume the title of Royal Academy. It consisted of a 
governor, deputy-governor, and twenty directors. A con- 
test between Handel and Senesino, one of the performers^ 
in which the directors took the part of the latter, oca^ 
sioncd the dissolution of the academy, after it hod subsisted 
with reputation for more than nine years. The present 
Royal Academy of Music dates from 1822, and was incor- 
porated in 1830 under the patronage of the queen. It 
instructs pupils of both sexes in music, charging 33 guineas 
per annum; but many receive instruction free. It also 
gives public concerts. In this institution the leading 
instrumentalists and vocalists of England have received 
their education. (See Muiieal Directory published by 
Rudall, Carte, and Co.) 

Academy is a term also applied to those royal collegiate 
seminaries in which young men- are educated fbr the navy 
and army. In our country there are three colleges of 
this description — the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth, 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, and the Royal 
tfilitary College, Sandhurst^ v 

(F,8.) 



ACADIE, or Acadia, the name borne by Nova Scotia 
while it remained a f rench settlement 

ACALEPHiE (from dxaX^^i;, a nettle), a name given to 
the animals commonly known as jdly-fi$h, tec^lubber, 
Medusae, ieor^utlUi, &c. 

ACANTHOCEPHALA (from i^cav^a, a thorn, and 
«c^aX^, the head), a group of parasitic worms, having the 
heads armed with spines or hooks. 

ACANTHOPTERYGIK(from SKwOa, a thorn, and 
rr{pv(, a wing), an order of fishes, h&ving bony sk^etons 
with prickly spinous processes in the dorsal fins. 

ACANTHUS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural 
order Acanthacese. The species are natives of the southern 
parts of Europe. The most common species is* the Acat^ 
ihuM mollis or Srankursine. It has large, deeply-cut, hairy, 
shining leaves, which are supposed to have suggested the 
decoration of the Corinthian column. Another species, 
AcoTUhue spinosuSf is sd called from its spiny leaves. 

ACAPULCO, a town and port in Mexico, on a bay of 
the Pacific Ocean, about 190 miles S.S.W. of Mexico, in 
N. lit. 16* 50', W. long. 99" 46'. The harbour, which is 
the best on the Pacific coast, is almost completely land- 
locked. It is easy of access, and the anchorage is so 
M^ure that heavily-laden ships can lie clo^ to the rocks 
which surround it. The to^Ti lies N.W. of the harbour, 
^d is diBf ended by the castle of San Biego, "^hich stands 
on an eminence. During a part of the dry season the air 
is infected with the putrid effluvia of a morass eastward of 
the town. This,, together with the heat of the cli^nate, 
^aggravated by the reflection of tbe jsun's rajrs from the 
granite rocks that environ the town, renders it very un- 
healthy, especially to Europeans, tboHgb a passage cut 
through the rocks, to let in the sea breeze, has tended to 
improTe its salubrity. AcapuJco was in former tiroes the 
great depOt of the trade of Spain with the East Indies. 
A galleon sailed from this port to Manilla in the Philippine 
Islan4j^ and another returned once a year laden with the 
treasures and luxuries of the EaSl On tbe arrival of this 
galleon. a great fair was held, to which merchants resorted 
from ail parts of Mexico. The trade between Acapulco 



and Manilla was annihilated when Mexico became Inde- 
pendent; and, from this cause, and also on account of the 
frequent earthquakes by which the town has been visited, 
it had sunk to comparative insignificance, when the dis* 
covery of gold in Calif ornia^gave its trade a fresh impetus. 
It if now the most important seaport in Mexico, and is 
regularly touched at by the Pacific mail steamers. Besides 
having a large transit trade^ it exports wool, skins, cocoa, 
cochineal, and .indigo; and the imports 'include cottons, 
silks, and hardwara Population about 5000. 

ACARNANIA, a province of ancient Greece, now called 
Camia. It was bounded on the N. by the Ambracian 
gulf, on the N.E. by Amphilochia, on the W. and S.W. 
by the Ionian Sea, and on the £. by iEtolia. It was 
a hilly countiy, with numerous lakes and tracts of rich 
pasture, and its hills are to the present day crowned with 
thick wood. It was celebrated for its exceUent breed of 
horses. The Acamanians, according to Mr Qrotc, though 
admitted as Greeks to the Pan-HeUenic games, were more 
akin in character and manners to their barbarian neighbours 
of Epirus. Up to the time of the Pefoponnesian war, they 
are mentioned only as a race of rude shepherds, divided 
into numerous petty tribes, and engaged in continual strife 
and rapina They were, however, favourably ^distinguished 
from theis .£tolian neighbours by the fidelity and stead- 
fastness of their character. They were good soldiers, and 
excelled as slingers. At the date above mentioned they 
begin, as the allies of- the Athenians, to make a more pro- 
minent figure in the history of Greece. The chief tovm 
was Stratos, and subsequently Leucas. 

ACARUS (from axapi, armite), a genus of Arachnides, 
represented by the cheese mite and other forms. 

ACCELERATION is a term employed to denote gene- 
rally the rate at which the velocity of a body, whose 
motion is not uniform, either increases or decreases. As 
the velocity is continually changing, and cannot therefore 
be esumated, as in uniform motion, by ^e space actually 
passed over an a certain time, its value at any instant has 
to be measured, by the space tlie body would describe in 
the tmit of time^ supposing that at and from the -instant in 



80 



A C-C — A C C 



question the motion became and continued uniform. If 
the motion is such that the velocity, thus measured, in- 
creases or decreases by equal amounts in equal intervals of 
time, it is said to be uniformly accelerated or retarded. 
In that case, if / denote the amount of increase or decrease 
of velocity corresponding to the unit of time, the whole of 
such increase or decrease in t units of time will evidently 
be ftf and therefore if u be the initial and-v the final 
velocity for that interval, v^u^ft, — the upper sign apply- 
ing to accelerated, the lower to retarded, motion. To find 
the distance or space, 5, gone over in i units of time, let^ 
be divided into n equal intervals. The velocities at the 

( 2t 

end of the successive intervals will beu*/-, w*/ — ,* 

n fi 

u i/ — , -Ac. Let it now be supposed that during each 

of these small intervals the body has mojed uniformly 
with its velocity at the end of the interval, then (smce a 
body moving uniformly for x seconds with a velocity of y 
feet per second will move through xy feet) the spaces 
described in the successive intervals would be the product 

of the velocities given above by - , and the whole space in 

the time t would be the sum of these spaces; t.f., 

t <* 
f»t*-(l+l... repeated Ji times)*/ -^(1 + 2 -I- 3 +n) 






: V.t ± 



>{'*'0 



2 2 

It is evident, however, that as the increase or decrease of 
velocity .takes place continuously, this sum will bo too 
large; but the greater n is taken, or (which is the same 
thing) the smaller the intervals arc during .which the 
velocity ds supposed to be uniform, the nearer will the 
result be to the trutL Hence making n as large as pos- 
sible, or - as small as possible, t.^, » 0, we obtain as^e 

correct expression g^tu ± - fl^. In the case of motion 

from rest, «sO, and the above formulae become v->A 

1 ^ 
•- 2^ 

We have a familiar instance of uniformly accelerated 
and uniformly retarded motion in the case of bodies fall- 
ing and rising vertically near the earth's surface, where, if 
the resistance of the air be neglected, 'the velocity of the 
body is increased or diminished, in consequence of the 
earth's attraction, by a uniform amqunt in each second of 
tima To this amount is given the name of the accelera- 
tion of gravity (usually denoted by the letter y), the value 
of which, in our latitudes and at the surface o( the sea, is 
very nearly 32^ feet per second. Hence the space a body 
falls from rest m any number of seconds is readily found 
by multiplying 16^ feet by the square of the number of 
seconds. For a fuller account of accelerating force,— ex- 
pressed in the notation of the Differential Calculus by 

fm,±^ or/« *■ T-j, — the reader is referred to the article 

Dynamics. 

ACCENT, in reading or speaking, is the stress or 
pressure of the voice upon a syUahle of a word. The deriva- 
tion of the tenn (Lat occenlut^ quasi adcantus) clearly shows 
that it was employed by Uie classical grammarians to 
express the production of a musical effect. Its origin is 
therefore to be sought in the natural desire of man to 
gratify the ear by modulated sound, and probably no 
language exists in which it does not play a more or less 
important part " Only a machine," says Professor Blackie 
U'lace and Power of Accent in Languagey in the Transac- 
Uons 0/ the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1871), "could 



produce a continuous series of sounds in undistinguished 
monotonous repetitions like the turn, tum^ iHm, of a drum; 
a rational being, using words for a rational purpose to 
manifest his thoughts and feelings, necessarily accents both 
words and sentences in some way or other." That the 
accentuation of some languages is more distinct, various, 
and effective thati that of others is beyond question, but 
there are none, so far as wo kn'iW, m jvhich its power is 
not felt The statement sometimes made, that the French 
have no accent in their words, can only mean that their 
accent is less emphatic or less variously so- than that 
of certain other nationa U it means more, it is , not 
merely an error, bu( an absurdity. From this conception 
of the subject, it is- obvious that accent must be funda- 
mentally the same thing in all languages, and must aim 
more or less successfully at the Same results, however 
diverse the rules by which it is governed But there are, 
nevertheless, important differences between the conditions 
under which accent operated in the classical, and those in 
which it operates in modem tongues. It did not wholly 
determine the rhythm, nor in the least affect the metre of 
classical verse , it did not fijc the quantity or length of 
classical syllables. It was a musical element superadded 
to the measured structure of prose and verse. 

Passmg over the consideration of the accentual system of 
the Hebrews with the single remark, that it exhibits, though 
with more elaborate and complicated expression, most of 
the characteristics both of Greek and English accent, we 
find that the Greeks employed three grammatical accents, 
viz., the acute accent ('), which shows when the tone of the 
voice is to be raised ; the grave accent (*), when it is to bo 
depressed ; and the circumflex accent C), composed of both 
the acute and the gmvc, and pointing out a kind of undula- 
tion of the voice. The LatioL' have made the same use as the 
Greeks of these three accents, and various modern nations, 
French, English, <S:a, have also adopted them. As to the 
Greek accents, now seen both in manuscripts and printed 
books, there has been gieat dispute about their antiquity 
and US& But the foUo^-ing things seem to be undoubtedly 
taught by the ancient grammarians and rhetoricians: — (1.) 
That by accent (Trpoo-iD^ia, t6v(k) the Greeks understood the 
elevation or falling of the voice on a particular syllable 
of a word, either absolutely, or in relation to its position 
in a sentence, accompanied with an intension or remission 
of the vocal utterance on that syllable {tTriToxnq^ 5v€<ns), 
occasioning a marked predominance of that Syllable over 
the other syUables of the word. The predominance thus 
given, however, had no effect whatever on the quantity 
— long or short — of the accented syllabla The accented 
syllable in Greek as in English, might be bng or it might 
be «hort ; elevation and emphasis of utterance being one 
thing, and prolongation of the vocal sound quite another 
thing, as any one acquainted with the first elements of 
music will at once perceive. The difficulty which many 
modem scholars have experienced in conceiving how a 
syllable could be accented and not lengthened, has arisen 
partly from a complete want of distinct ideas on the nature 
of the elements of which human speech is composed, and 
partly also from a vicious practice which has long pre- 
vailed in the English schools, of reading Greek, not accord- 
ing to the laws of its own accentuation, but according to 
the accent of Latin handed down to us through the Roman 
Catholic Cnurch. For the rules of Latin accentuation are, 
as Quintilian and Cicero and the grammarians expressly 
mention, very different from the Gl-eek ; and the long syllable 
of a word has the accent in Latin in a hundred cases, where 
the musical habit of the Greek ear pUiced it upon the short 
There is, besides, a vast number of words in Greek accented 
on the last syUablc (like voluntee*r,amlnisca'de,\u English )» 
of which not a single instance occurs in. the Latin lan-^ 



ACCENT 



81 



' Fartlj, however, from igooiaace, partly from care- 
ness, and partly perhaps from stupidity, our scholars 
tnnsf erred- the pronunciation of the more popular learned 
iangoage to that<whiclv was less Jmown; and with the 
help of time and constant usage, so habituated themselves 
U) ideotify Uie accented with the long syllable, accotding 
to the 'analogy of the Latin, that uey began seriously 
to doubt the possibility of pronouncing otherwise Eng- 
lish scholars have long ceased to recognise its existence, 
and persist in reading Greek as if the accentual marks 
meant nothing at all £ven those who allow (life Mr 
W. Q. dark and Professor Mnnro^ that ancient Qreek 
accent denoted an elevation of voice or tone, are still of 
opinion thtft it is impossible to reproduce it in modem 
times. "Here and diere," says the former {Cambridge 
Jwrnal of Philology, voL i 1868); "a person may be 
found with such an exquisite ear, and such plastic oigans 
of speech, as to be able to reproduce the ancient distinction 
between the length and tone of syllables accented and 
anacoeiited, and many not so gifted may fancy that they 
reproduce it when they do nothing of the kind. For the 
mass of boys and men, pupils as well as teachen, the dis- 
tinction is practically iiqpossible." But, in spite of such 
pessimist views, it may, on the whole, be safely asserted 
that since the appearance of -a more philosophical sfurit in 
philology, under the guidance of Hermann, Boeckh, and 
other master-minds among the Germans, the best gram- 
mariana have come to recognise the importance of this 
element "of ancient Hellenic enunciation, while not a few 
carry out their principles into a consistent practice. The 
only circumstance, ^indeed, that prevents our English 
scholars from practically riscognising the element of accent 
in classical teaching, is the apprehension that this would 
interfere seriously with the practical inculcation of quantity ; 
an apprehension in which they are certainly justified by 
the practice of the modem Greeks, who h^ve given such a 
predominance to accent, as altogether to subordinate, and 
in many cases completely overwhelm quantity , and who 
also, in public token of this departure from the classical 
habit of pronunciation, r^ularly compoee their verses with 
a reference to the spokeu accent only, leaving the quantity 
—as in modem language generally-— altogether to th^ dis- 
cretion of the poet But, as experiment will teach any 
one that there is no necessity whatever in the nature of 
the human voice for this confusion of two essentially 
different elements, it is not unlikely that English scholars 
will soon follow the example of the Germans, an4 read 
Greek prose at least, systematically according to the laws 
of classical speech, as handed down to us by the gram- 
marians of Alexandria and Byzantium. In the recitation 
of classical- verse, of oourse, as it was not constracted on 
accentual prin^ples, the skilful reader will naturally allow 
the musical accent, or the emphasis of the rhythm to over- 
bear, to a grc^t extent, or altogether to overwhelm, the 
accent of the individual word; uiou^.with regard to the 
recitation of verse, it will always remain a problem how far 
the andenta themselves did sot achieve an **aocavtuum 
€tm ^uantiUUe apta concUiatio" such as that which Her- 
mann {De emmdcmda ratioM, <£^) describes' as the p^- 
fection of a polished classical enunciation.- A historic 
survey of the course of learned opinion on the subject of 
accent, from the age of Erasmus down to the present day^ 
forms an interesting and important part of Professor 
Bladde's essay quoted above. See Pennington's work on 
Greek Pronunciation, Cambridge, 1844 ; the German work 
on Greek Accent by Gottling'(]&]glish), London, 1831 ; and 
Blackie's essay on the Place and Power of Aecent, in the 
TransacHoM of the Royal, Society of ^dirivrgh, 1870-71. 
If there is any perplexity regarding the nature or influ- 
i of classical aecent» there is none about EngUsb. It 



does not conflict or combme with the modulations of qnan* 
tity. It is the sole detenninlnf element in our metrical 
system. Almost the very earUest of our authors, tha 
Venerable Bede, notices this. In H«finjng rhythm he 
says — "It is a modulated composition ol words, not 
according to the laws of metre, but adapted in the number 
of its syllables to the judgment of the ear, a$ are the kfcrsn 
of our vulgar poeU" {Bade, Op. voL t p. 57, ed. 1553). 
We have^ of cqurae, long vowels and shorty like the Greelui 
and the Romans, but we do not r^ulate our verse by 
them; and o^r mode of accentuation is sufficiently despotio 
to occasionally almost change their cfaancter, so that a 
long vowel shall seem short, and tiee vena^ In reality 
this is not to. The long vowel remains long, but tlien its 
leugth gives it no privilege of place in a verse. It may 
modify the enunciation, it may increase the roll of, sounds 
but a short vowel could take its place without a violation 
of metre. Take the word far, for examjple; there the 
vowel a is Ioe^, yet in the line 

"0 Moon, br-spooming Ocean bowi to tha^" 

i^ is not necessary that the a in far should be long; a 
short vowel would do as well for metrical purposes, and 
would even bring out more distinctly the accentuation of 
the syllable tpoom, 

OriginaUy English accent was upon the root, and not 
upon inflectional syllaUea Gottling finds the same prin- 
ciple operating in Gredc, but in that language it certainly 
never exercised the universal sway it does In the earlier 
forms of English. In the following passage from Beowutf^ 
the oldest monument of English literature, belonging, in its 
first form, to' a period even anterior to the invasion of 
Britain by the Anglee and Saxons, we shall put the 
accented or emphatic syllables in italics:— 



5Knf0fwaetiMi»-ikh . 
aUg wisodB . . 
gumam me^-gakbin 
ffiSd-byme 8c4n . ... 
heard, hond^laom . '• 
Arin^-lren icfr . . \ 
WMT in fMfwnm • • 
pA hie t6 «ete ftudnm 
in hyra gryr^'gtatwxotk 
gctngan cwomon • • 



The itnet was of Tsrit^jpited 
the path directed 
the men together; 
the war-coraelet thoae 
hard, hand-locked ; 
the ring-iron bright 
•aag in their traiipings, 
whok they to the Laliforwaiil 
in their terrible armour 
came to go. 



It will be observed that in these venea the oocent (not to 
be confounded with the mark which is used in Anglo^axon 
to show that the vowel over which it is placed is long) is 
invariably on a monosyllable, or on the root par( of a 
word of more than one pliable. The passage is also a 
good illustration of what has previously been stated, that 
the metro or rhythm in English is determined not by the 
vowel-quantity of a svUable, but by the stress of the voice 
on parti<j[ular syllables, whether the vowels are long or 
short In the older forms of English ^erse the accent is 
somewhat irregular; or, to put it more accurately, the 
number of syUables intervening between the recurrent 
accents is not definitely fixed. Sometimes two or more 
intervene, sometimes none at all Take, for example, the 
opening lines of Langland's poem^ entitled the Viiion of 
PierM the Plowman>^ 



" In a 8cmec anon 

VHian soft was the «mae, 

I shope me in shroudeB, 

As 1 a ihepe were. 

In hdbii as an Aeremite 

UnA^^ly of workea, 

Went wide in thia world 

tFondcn to here. 

Ac on a May, in^mynge 

On MalvLBTM holier 



Meby/e^a/erly, 
Of /any, me thonghte ; 
I was wsry (onoandnd. 
And went me to rests 
Under a brode banke 
By a bomea aide. 
And as Ilay and 2mrd, 
And loked in the wat«T^ 
I a2ombred in a $lepyug. 
It nocyued so meiye." 



But no matter how irregular the time elapsing between the 



82 



ACCENT 



recorrenee of tl^e acccnta, they are dlwtsp on ChA root- 
syllables. 

The Noiman Conquest, however, Introdaoed a different 
system, which gradually modified the rigid uniformity of 
the native English accentuation. The change iift visible as 
early as the end of the 12th century. By the middle of 
the 14th, that is to say, in the age of Chaucer, it is in full 
operation. Its origin is thus explained by Mr Marsh, in 
his Oriffin and Hittory of the English Loingwige (Lond., 
1862) : — *' The vocabulaiy of the iVench language is de- 
rived, to a^great extent, from Latin words deprived of their 
terminal inflections. The French adjectives TMjrtal and 
falal are fonn<^ from the Latin TnortalU tjid /aUdU, by 
dropping the inflected syllable; the French nouns nation 
and condition from the Latin accusatives nationemf condi' 
tumemy by rejecting the em final In most cases, the last 
syllable retained in the French derivatives was prosodically 
long in the Latin original ; and either because it was also 
accented, or because the slight accent which is perceivable 
in the French articulation represents temporal length, the 
stress of the voice was laid on the final syOable of dl these 
words. When we borrowed such words from the French 
we took them with their native accentuation ; and as ac- 
cent is much stronger in English than in French, the final 
syllable was doubtless more forcibly enunciated fa the 
former than in the latter language." The new mode oL ac- 
centuation soon began to affect even words of pure English 
origin — e,g., in Iiober$ of Gloucester we find falsW^ instead 
of /o^ede, Udinge instead of tufinge, trewehede instead 
of tr«t£whede, ghddore instead of gladdore^- mBUehe instead 
of tmiiche, begynn^n^ instead of begj^iiyng, end^Tt^ in* 
stead of enofyng. In the Proverbs of Hendyng we have nc^ 
ihTfng for nciAing, habden for Ao^ben, {omon iotfomxm ; in 
.Robert of Srwine, hslfdom for Aa/ydom, cloth^n^ for clothr 
^Qg) ffreiand for gretaxid. Chaucer furnishes numerous in- 
.atances of the same foreign influence revolutionising the 
native accent; freciooi foryinedom, hetheneue for Ae^nesse, 
worthinecM for woriAinesse^ low/y for lowly i wynnynge for 
vfynnynge^ weddyn^e for teeddyngd^ comynge for oomynge ; 
und it is traceable even in Spenser. On the other hand, 
;a ^ntrary tendency must not be overlooked We see an 
^effort, probably unconscious, to compel words of French 
•origin to submit to the rule of Englidi accentuatioa It is 
noticeable in the century before Chaucer : in Chaucer him- 
self it b^ns to work strongly ; mortal beoomes mortal ; 
temjDort, tempest; sahstanee, «ii^tance ; amya&^, amyable; 
morsel, morsel ; service, Mrvise ; ducheM^, duchene ; cos^, 
co«yn, &c ; while a multitude of words oscillate between 
the rival modes of accentuation, now following the French 
and now the English. Before and during the Elizabethan 
period, the latter began to prove the stronger, and for the 
last 300 years it may be said to have, for the most part, 
Anglidsod the accent and the nature of the foreign additions 
to our vocabulary. Nevertheless, many French words still 
retain their own accent Morris {Historical Outlines of 
English Aecidenee^ p. 75) thus classifies these r — 

"(1.) NouTO to -ads, -ieri-ssr), ••, •«, or -^bn, 'ins, (•*»), as oas' 
sad^. crusnd/, ke, ; ea/oalisr', chandeUs/, kc ; gaieties/, pionee/, 
&.c'(in ooDformity with these we eay harpwmes/, mewUakiMSr',) ; 
leffote^, paye^, &Q. ; haUoon\ oaarioon\ &a ; chagrin*, niolin\ &e. ; 
routing, maH$i/, &o. 

** Also the followinfl trords s-AuZeT, bruntttf, gnetUf. enuat, 
canaJt, eontrot, gaaells, amatsw', faiigu^, cbsH^, poliai, &o. 

*' (2.) Ac]jectiroi (a) firom Lst t4j. in ttf, os ougust, benign*, ro- 
hust, Ac ; (ft) is -OM. as nurcs^, vtrbes^, &a ; (c) ^^qvs, as butr- 
Usijue , grotesqu/, ke, 

** (3.) Some Verba, as haptitt, ei^oU, cares/, earous^t duutis^t 
taeofpe, estesnC, &c ' 

To these may be added the Greek and Latin words 
which have been introduced into English for scientific and 
other learned purposes, and which, not having been altered 
in form, retain their original accentuation — as OMrora^ 



coro'na, eoh^snSj id/a^hypoth'esis, cassura^ dlo/resU, Hag 
no' sis, dilu'vivm, diplo'ma, efflu^vittm, dys^ium, Ac, ; besides 
the stillr larger number timt have suffered a slight modifi* 
cation of form, but no change of accent» as dialee'tic, diag^ 
noetic, efflores'oent, ellip'tic, eme/sion, emotlipU, Ac The 
Italian contributions to our tongue retain their orig^i] 
accent when the form |s untouched, as vwlat'to, sona'ta, vol 
ca'no, but lose it when the form is shortened, as ban'dU 
(It. bandtto). 

A change in the position of the accent serves a variety 
of purposes in EnglisL It distinguishes (L) a noun from 
a verb, as ac'cent, accent'; aug'ment, augment'; tor'mcnt, 
torment'; com'ment, comment'; con'sort, consort'; con'tcst, 
contest'; con'trast, contrast'; di'gest, digest'; dis'count, dis- 
count'; in'sult^ insult', &C.; (2.) an eu^edive from a verb, 
as ab'sent, absent'; fre'quent, frequent'; pre'sent, present'; 
com'pound, compound',, &a ; (3.) Ui^ad^ective from a noun, 
as ex'pert^ expert'; com'pact, compact'. It also denotes a 
difference of meaning, e.g., con'jure^ coi^jure'; in'ceose, 
incense'; au'gust, august'; su'pine, supine'. 

Accent has exercised a powerful influence in changing 
the forms of words. The unaccented syllables in tho 
course of time frequently dropped offl This process was 
necessarily more rapid and thorough in English than in 
many other languages whic^ were not subje^ed to equnl 
strain. The Norman Conquest made havoc of the English 
tongue for a time. It was expelled from the court, the 
schools, tiie church, and the tribunals of justice ; it ceued 
to be spoken by priests, lawyers, and nobles; its only 
guardians were churlB, ignorant, illiterate, indifferent to 
grammar, and cardess of diction. Who can wonder if, 
in cireumstances like these, it suffered disastroni^ eclipse 1 
The latter part of tiie Anglo-Saxon Chr<micle furnishes 
melancholy evidence of the chaos into whidi it had fallen, 
yet out of thn chaos it rose again into newness of life, 
reforming and re-acoenting its half-ruiiled vocabulary, and 
drawing from the very agent of its destruction the elements 
of a ridier and more plfutie expression. For it cannot bo 
doubted that the irregularities now existing in English 
accent, though perplexing to a foreigner, copiously vary 
the modulation, and so increase -the flexil>ility and powei 
of the language. The older forms of English, those in use 
before the Conquest, and down to the period of Chaucer, 
are stiff, monotonous, and unmusical A hard strength ia 
in the verso, but no liquid sweetness or nimble grace. 
Now, it is possible, in spite of our deficienigr in vowel 
endinge, to produce the noblest mdody in accent words 
known to the modem world. Almost every kind of metro, 
swift or slow, aiiy or majestic, has been successfully 
attempted since the age of the Canterbury Tales. Wher. 
we compare the drone of Caedmon with the aerial melody 
of the SkyUxrk^ the CUmd, and the Aretkusa of Shelley, 
we see what an infinite progress has been made by 
the development of accent in the rhythm of our native 
tongue. 

' See Leaures on the English Laas^uage, by 0. P. Marsh 
riiond. 1861); the Origin 6nd History of the English 
Language, ko,^ by G. P. Marsh TLond. 1862); Eidcrisehe 
CframauOik der Engtisehe SprackSf voa C. FViedrich Koch 
(1863-69); The EngVsk Language, hy B. 0. Latham 
(1855) ; Philolcgical Essays, by the Rev. Ridiard Gamett 
(Lond ^185d); On Early EngUsh FrommckOum, with 
especial reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, by A. J. EUi^ 
(Lond 1867-71); Historical Outlines of English Accidence, 
by Dr R. Morris (Lond 1872). (j. ic e.) 

ACCEPTANCE is the act by which ft person binds 
himself to comply with the request contained in a hill ol 
exchange addressed to him by the drawer. In all cases it 
id understood to be a promise to pay the bill m money, the 
law not recognising an acoej>tance in which the promise ii 



A C C - A ^^ C 



83 



Id pay in iome other way, as, for example, partly in money 
and partly by another bilL Aeoeptance may be absolute, 
conditional, or partial AhsoltOe aeoeptance tt an engage- 
ment to pay the bill strictly according to its tenor, and is 
made by the drawee subscnbmg his name, with or withoat 
the word '* oooepted.*' at the botton) of the bdl, or across 
the face of it CarulUumal acceptance is a promise to pay 
on a contingency occurring, as, for example, on the sale of 
oertam goods consigned by the drawer to the acceptor. No 
contingency is allowed to be mentioned m the body of the 
bill, but a contingent acceptance is quite legal, and equally 
binding with an absolute acceptance ^upon the acceptor 
when the contingency has occurred. Partial acceptance is 
where the promise » to pay only part of the sum mentioned 
m the bill, or to pay at a different Ume or place from 
those s|ie(afied. In all coses acceptance* involyes the 
ugnatnre of the acceptor either by himself or by some 
person duly authorwed on his behall A bill can be 
accepted in the first instance only by the person or persons 
to whom It IS addressed . but tf he or they fail to do so, it 
may, after being protested for non-acceptance, be accepted 
by another ** gupra protest," for the sake of the honour of 
one or more of the parties concerned m it 

ACCESSION IS Applied, tn a histoncal or constitutional 
sense, to the commg u> the throne of a dynasty or lue of 
lovereigns, ss the accession of the House of Hanover The 
cofFespunding term, when a smgle sovereign ts spoken of, 
18 *" succossioa " In law, accession is a method of acquinng 
property, by which,in thmgs that have a close connection with 
or dependence on one another, the property of the principal 
draws after it the property of the accessory, according to the 
pnnaple, doeenno eedet prtnevpatt^ or acoegtomvm tequUw 
jfrmetpaU Thus, the owner of a cow becomes likewise the 
owner of the c&lf . and a landowner becomes proprietor of 
what IS added to his estAte by alluvion. Accession pBoduced 
by the art or mdustry of man has been called mdustnal 
accession, and may be by cipeciflcation, as when wme is made 
out of grapes, or by confusion or commixture. Acoeesiou 
sometimes likewise signifies consent or acqiuescenca Thus, 
in the bankrupt law of Scotland, when there is a settlement 
by a tnist4leed, it is accepted 09 the part of each creditor 
by a deed of accession. 

ACCESSORY, a person guilty of a felonious offence, 
not as pnncipal, but by participation , as by advice, command, 
aid, or concealment In treason, accessones are excluded, 
every individual concerned beinff considered as a prmcipoL 
In crimes under the degree of felony, also, all persons 
concerned, if guilty at all, are regarded as prmcipala (See 
24 and 25 VicL c 94. a 8.) There are two kmds of 
accessones t^/bnr thr fact, and after it The first is he 
who commands or procures another to commit felony, and 
» not present himself ler if he be present, he is a pnncipaL 
The second is he who receives, assists, or comforts any 
man that has done murder or felony, whereof he hus 
knowledge An accessory before the 'fact is liable to the 
same punishment as the principal , and there is now mdeed 
no practical difference between such an accessory and a 
prucipal m regard either to indictment, trial, or punishment 
(24 and 25 Vict c 94) Accessones after the fact are ui 
general punishable with imprisonment for a penod not 
exceeding two years {c6 s. 4) The law of Scotland makes 
no distiMtion between the accessory to any cnme (called 
art and part) and the pnneipai Except in the case of 
treason, aoceaicon after the fact is 001 noticed by the 
law of Scotland, unless as an element ol evidence to prove 
previoiis sooessioa 

ACCIAJUOLI, DoNATo, was bom at Florence m 1428. 
He was famous for his learning, especially m Greek and 
BtithfmatK-St an4 for his services to his oauve ^vrxjc 
Having pievioualy been intrusted with several impoitant 



embassies, he became Oonfalomer of Florence in 1 473^ He 
died at Milan in 1478, when on his way to Pans to ask tha 
aid of Louis XL on behalf of the FlorenUnes against Popa 
Sixtus IV His body was taken back to Florence, and 
buned m the church of the Carthusians at the public 
expense, and his daughters were portioned by his fellow- 
citi2ens, the fortune he left heme, owing to his probity and 
dismterestedness. very small He wrote a Latm translik 
tion of some of Plutarch's Ltv^ (Florence, 1 478) , Com* 
mentanes on Aristotle's EthxcM and Poluiea . and the hves 
of Hannibal. Scipio, and Charlemagne In the work on 
Aristotle he had the cooperation of his master Argyropylus 

ACCIDENT An attnbute of a thmg or class of thmgs, 
which neither belongs to, nor is in any way deducible from, 
the essence of that thmg or class, is termed lU aeeuUTU, 
An acadent may be either inseparable or separable the 
former, when we can conceive it to »be absent from that 
with which It IS found, although it is always, as far as we 
know, present. (.«.. when it is not necessarily but is uni- 
versally present . the latter, when it la neither neoessanly 
nor umversally present It n often difllcult to determine 
whether a particular attnbute is essential or acadenMil to the 
object we are investigating, subsequent research frequently 
proving that what we have descnbed as accidental ought to 
be classed as essential, and tnoe vem. Practically, and 
for the time bemg, an attnbute, which neither directly nor 
indirectly forms part of the signification al the term used 
to designate the object, may 5(6 considered an accident , 
and many philosophers look upon this as the only mteUigible 
ground for the cbscinctioa Propositions expressing the 
relation between a thmg or class and an accident, and also* 
between a thing or class and its property (i.«.. something 
deducible from, but not strictly fonmng part of. its essence), 
are vanonsly styled *' accidental," "synthetical," "real," 
** ampliauve," m contradistmction to " essential," " analy* 
tical," "verbal," and " exphcative" propositions The 
former give us information that we could not have dis- 
covered from an analysis of the subject notion — «.^., " man 
IS found m New Zealand ," the latter merely state what we 
already know, if we understand the mcanmg of the language 
employed, t.g.^ " man is rational" 

ACCIUS, a poet of the 16th century, to whom it 
attnbuted A ParaphroMt of jEaof/9 Fables, of which Julius 
Scaliger speaka with great praisa 

ACCnUS (or Arrius), Lucius, a ^Latin tragic poet, was 
the son of a freedman, bom, according to St Jerome, in 
the year of Rome 583, though this appears somewhat 
uncertain. He made himself known before the death of 
Pacuvius by a dramatic piece, which he exhibited the same 
year that F^vius brought one on tfie stage, the latter bemg 
then eighty years of age, and Accius only thirty. We do 
not know the name of this piece of Aocius's, but the titles 
of several of his tragedies are mentioned by vanous autboni 
He wrote on the most celebrated stones which had been 
represented on the Athenian stage , but he did not always 
take his subject from Grecian story , for he composed at 
least one dramauc piece wholly Roman, entitled i^naiit, 
and refemng to the expulsion of the TarquinSi Only 
fragments of his tragedies remain. He did not confine 
hiiuseU to dramauc wnting, having left other productions, 
particularly his AnmaU. mentioned by Macrobius, Pnscian, 
Festus, and Nonnius Marcellua He has been censured 
for the harshness of his style, but in other respecu he hs* 
been esteemed a great poet He died at an advanced age , 
and Cicero, wbo evidently attachea considerable weight to 
his opinions, speaks of havmg conversed with him m his 
youth. 

ACCLAMATION, the expression of tbo «)f union, favou^ 
able or uniavourable, ol any assembly by moHn^ of the 
voice. Applause denotes stncfly a similar expression by 



84 



A C C— A C C 



ckppiiig of hands, but this distincUoD lo the usage of the 
words is by nu jmeans uqiI onnly maintained Among, the 
IRomaas acclamation was varied bot& m form and' purpose. 
lA.t marriages i^ was usual for the spectators to shout io 
yijpnm,' Ilynuncee. or Talassio , a victonous army or general 
yas greeted with Io tnumphe m the theatre acclamation 
pras called for at the close of the play by the la^ actor, 
wrho said, Piatuliie . m the senate opinions ware expressed 
And TOtes passed by acclamation m such forms as Omnes, 
omneSf JSquum eti, Justum est, &c and the praises of the 
emperor V(eie celebrated in certain pre-arranged sentences, 
which seem to have been chanted by the whole body of 
scnatora The acclamations which authors and poets who 
recited their works in public received were at first spon- 
taneous and genuine, but in time became very largely 
mercenary, it bomg customary for men of fortune who 
affected literary tastfs to keep applauders in their service 
and lend them to their friends When Nero performed in 
the theatre his praogps were chanted, at a given signaL by 
five thousand soldiers, who were called AugustaU The 
whole was conducted b; a music-master. meaocAorw or 
pamanus- It wns this case of Nero which, occumngto 
the recoUectioD of the French poet Dorat, may be said to 
have onginatod the well-known Pans dcujue Buying up 
a number of the tickets for a performance of one of his 
plays, he distributed them gratuitously to those who pro- 
mised to express approbation Prom that time the cUigiie, 
or organised body of professional applauders, has been a 
recognised institutiofi in connection with the theatres of 
Paris In the early ages of the Chnstian church it was by 
* no means uncommon for an audience to express their appro- 
bation of a favourite preacher during the course of his 
sermon Chrysostom especially was very frequently inter- 
rupted both by applause and by acclamations In eccle- 
siastical councils vote by acclamation is very common, the. 
question bcmg usually put in the form, pUzcet or non pldca.. 
This differs from the acclamation with which ui other 
assemblies a motion is said to be earned, when, no amend- 
ment being proposed, approval is expressed by shoutmg 
such words ^ Aye pi Agreed. 

ACCLIMATISATION is the process of adaptation by 
which animals and plants are gradually rendered capable 
of surviving and floiinshing in ouuntnes remote from their 
original habitats, or under meteorologii^l conditions dif- 
ferent from thoso which they have usually to endure, and 
which are at first injurious to them 

The subject of acchmatisation is very little understood, 
and some writers have even denied that it can ever take 
place It 19 often confounded with domesticatum or with 
naturalisaftnn . but these are both very different pheno- 
mena A domesticated animal or a cultivated plant need not 
necessarily be acclimatised . that is, it need not be capable 
of enduring the severity of tl^e seasons without protection. 
The canary bird is domesticated but not acclimatised^ and 
many of our most extensively cultivated plants are m the 
same category. A naturalised animal or plant, on the 
other hand, must be able to withstand aU the vicissitudes 
of the seasons in its new home, and it may therefore be 
thought that it must have become acclimatised. But m 
many, perhaps most cases of naturalisation, there is no 
evidence of a gradual adaptation to new conditions which 
were at first injurious, and this is essential to the idea of 
acclimatisation. On thi contrary, many speaes, m a neW 
countiy and under somewhat different climatic conditions, 
seem to find a more congenial abode than in their native land, 
and at once flourish and increase in it to such an extent as 
jcrften to exterminate the indigenous inhabitants. Thus Agassiz 
(in. his work on Lake Superior) tells us that the road-side 
weeds of the north-eastern United States, to the number of 
130 species, arc aU European, the native weeds having dis- 



dppeaM westwards, while in New Zealand there 4re, 
afccording to Ml T Kirk {Transactvms of ilui ife^ Zealaiui 
InstUuie, voL^ il p. 131). no less than 250 tpeaes nf 
naturalised plants, more than 100 of which jsproad widely 
over the country, and often displace the native vegetatioa 
Among animals, the European rat. goat, and pig, ere 
naturalised m New Zealand, vbere they multiply to such 
an extent as to injure ar(d probably exterminate many 
native productions In neither of these cases is thcte 
einy indication that acclimatCmUion was necessary or ever 
took place 

On the. other hand, the fact that an animal o^ plant 
cannot be naturalised is no proof that it is^noi aecUmatued, 
It has been shown by Mr Darwm that, in tho case of most 
animals and plants in a state of nature, the competition o£ 
other organisms is a far more efficient agency in hnutiog 
their distribution than the mere mtiuence of ciimato We 
have a proof of this m the fact that so few. oomparatavely, 
of our perfectly hardy garden plants ever run wild, and 
even the most persevering attempts to naturalise them 
usually fail Alphnnso do Candolle {Gcograpitxe Bottmique^ 
p 708) inlorms us that several botanists of Pans. Geneva, 
and especuilly pf Montpcllier. have sown the seeds of many 
hundreds of species of exotic hai-dy plants, in what appeared 
to be the most favourable situations, but that in hardly 
a smgle case- has any one of them become naturalised. 
Attempts have also been made to « naturalise continental 
insect^ m this coufltry. in places where the proper food- 
plants abound and the conditions seem generally tavour- 
able, bur in no ca.se do they mem to have succeeded 
Even a plant like the f>or^to. m> largely cultivated and so 
perfectly hardy, bsis not established itself m a wild state 
in any part, of Europe 

Differtnit Deqrfies of Cbmatal Adaptation «« Ammalita'nii 
Planrjt — Plan t,«« differ greatly tn»m animals in the closenejs 
of their adaptation to meteorological conditions Not only 
will most tropical plants retUMC to bve in s temperate 
climate, but many species are Kcnously injured by removal 
I a tew degrees of latitude beyond their natural limita This 
IS probably due to the tact, cstabbshed by the expennients 
of M Becquerel. t^at plants posse.ss no proper temperature, 
but are wholly dependent on that of the surrounding 
medium 

Animals, especially the higher forms, are much less 
sensitive to change of temperature, as shown by the exten- 
sive range from north to south of many species Thus, 
the tiger ranges from the equator to northern Asia as far 
as the nver Amour, and to the isothermal of 32^ Pahr The 
mountain sparrow {Passer montana) is abundant in Javs 
and Smgapore in a uniform equatorial cbmate, and aLso 
inhabits this country and a corsiderable portion of northern 
Europe It IS true that ciost terrestnal animals are 
restncted to countries not possessing a great range of 
temperature or very diversified chmates. but there is reasoo 
to beheve that this is due to quite a different set of causes, 
such as the presence of enemies or deficiency of appropnate 
food When supphed with food and partially protected 
from enemies, they often show a wonderful capacity of 
endunng climates very different from that in which they 
originally flourished Thus, the horse and the domestsc 
fowl, both natives of very warm countnes, flourish v^ithout 
special protection m almost every inhabited portion of the 
globe The parrot tribe torm one of the most pre-emiuently 
tropical groups of birds, only a few species extending inu> 
the warmer temperate regions , yet even the most exclu- 
sively tropical genera are by no means dehcate birds us 
regards climate In the Annals and Magazine oj Natiut-ai 
History toT 18GS (p. 381) is a most mterestmg account, by 
Mr Charles Buxton, M.r.. of the naturaiisatioo of purroti* 
at Northreps Hall, Norfolk A considerable number oi 



ACCLIMATISATION 



85 



African and Amazonian parrots, Bengal parroqucts, four 
ipccies of whjte and rose crested cockatoos, and two 8i)ccies 
of crimson lories, have been at large for many years. 
Several of the^ birds have bocd, and they almost all live 
b the woods the whole year through, refusing to take 
•belter in a house constructed for their use. Even when 
the thermometer fell 6^ below zero, all apiiearcd in good 
spirits and vigorous health. Some of these birds have 
hved thus exposed for nearly twenty years, enduring our 
cold -easterly winds, rain, hail, and snow, all through the 
winter, — a marvellous contrast to the equable equatorial 
temperature (hardly ever less than 70*^) which many of them 
had been accustomed to for the first year or years of their 
faratence. 

Mr Jenner Weir records somewhat similar facts in the 
ZoologiM for 1865 (p. 9411). He keeps many small birds 
in an open aviaiy in his garden at Blackhcath, and among 
these are the Java rice bird {FadcUi oryzivora), two West 
African weaver birds {HyjAaniomU Uxtar and EvpUeUs 
unguiniroilrii), and the blue bird of the southern United 
States (Spiia cpanea). These denizens of the tropics prove 
quite as hardy as our native birds, having lived during 
the severest winters without the slightest protection 
against the cold, even when their drinking water had to be 
repeatedly melted. 

Hardly any group of Mammalia b more exclusively 
tropical than the Quadrumana, yet there is reason to believe 
that, II other conUitions are favourable, some of them can 
withstand a considerable degree of cold. The Semnopitkecus 
ickistaeeiu was found by Captain Button at an elevation of 
11,000 feet in the Himalayas, leaping actively among fir- 
trees whose branches were laden with snow-wreaths. In 
Abyssinia a troop of dog-faced baboons were observed by 
Mr Blandford at 9000 feet above the sex We may there- 
fore conclude that the restriction of the monkey tribe to 
warm latitudes is probably determmed by other causes than 
temperature alona 

Similar indications are given by the ' act of closely allied 
species inhabiting very extreme climates. The recently 
extinct Siberian mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were 
closely allied to species now inhabiting tropical regions 
exclusively. Wolves and foxes are fuund alike in the 
coldest and hottest parts of the earth, as are closely allied 
species of falcons, owls, sparrows, and numerous genera of 
Vr-ader^ and aquatic birds. 

A consideration of these and many analogous facts might 
induce us to suppose that, among the higher animali at 
least, there is Uttle constitutional adaptation to cliinite, 

tnd that in their case acclimatisation is not required. But 
here are numerous examples of domestic animals which 
show that such adaptation does exist m other cases. The 
yak of Thibet cannot long survive in the plains of India, 
or even on the hills below a certain altitude ; and that this 
is due to climate, and not to the uicrcascd density of the 
atmosphere, b shown by the fact that the same animal 
appears to thrive well in Europe, and even breeds there 
readily. The Newfoundland dog vhil not hve m India, and 
the S|)anibh breed of fowls in this country aulTcr more- 
from frost than most others. When we get lower ui the 
scale the adaptation b often more marked. Snakes, which 
are so abimdant in warm countries, diminish rapidly as 
we go north, and wholly cease at lat C2° Most insects arc 
abo veiy susceptible to cold, and seem to be adapted to 
very narrow limits of temperature. 

From the foregoing facts and observations ^ts may con- 
clude, firstly, that some pbnts and many animab arc not 
constitutionally adapted to the cbmate of their native 
country only, but are capable of enduring and flourishing 
under a more or less extensive range of temperature and 
other climatic conditions; and, secondly, that most plants 



and some animals are, more or less closely, adapted to* 
climates simibr to those of their native habitats. In order 
to domesticate or naturalise the former cLus in countries 
not extremely differing from that from which the species 
was brought, it will not be necessary to acelimatue^ in 
the strict sense of the word. In the case of the btter 
class, however, acclimatisation is a necessary preliminary 
to naturalisation, and in many cases to useful domestical 
tion, and we have therefore to inquire whether it is 
possible. 

AcclimaJLifotion by Individual AdaptcUion^-^lX b evi- 
dent that acclimatisation may occur (if it occurs at all) in 
two ways, either by modifying the constitution of the 
individual submitted to the new conditions, or by tho 
production of offspring which may be better adapted to 
those conditions than their parents. The alteration of the 
constitution of mdividuab in thb direction b not easy to 
detect, and its possibility has been demed by many writers.. 
, Mr IX&rwin believes, however, that there are indications 
that it occasionally occurs in plants, where it can be best 
observed, owing to the circumstance that so many pbnts 
are propagated by ci\^tings or buds, which really continue 
the exbtence of the same individual almost indefinitely. 
He adduces the example of vines taken to the West Indies 
from Madeira, which have been found to succeed better 
than those taken directly from France. But in most cases 
habit, however prolonged, appears to have httle effect on 
the constitution of the indiWdual, and the fact has no 
doubt led to the opinion that acclimatisation is im possible. 
There b indeed httle or no evidence to show that any 
animal to which a new climate b at first prejudicial can 
be so acclimatbcd by habit that, after subjection to it for a 
few or many seasons, it may live as healthily and with as 
little care as in its native country ; yet we may. on general 
principles, beUeve that under proper conditious such accli- 
matisation would take pbce. In hb Principles of Biology 
(chap. v.). Mr Herbert Spencer has shown that every organ 
and every function of Kviiig beings undergoes modification 
to a bmitcd extent under the stimulus of any new con- 
ditions, and that the modification b almost always such as 
to produce an adaptation to those conditions We may feel 
pretty sure, therefore, that if Tobubt and healthy iudmduab 
are cho.scn for the experiment, and if the change they are 
subjected to b not too great, a jcal individual adaptation 
to tho new conditions — that is, a more or less complete 
acclimatisation — uill be brought about If now animab 
thii.-i modified are bred from, we know th.il their descendants 
uiU inherit the modification They uiU thus stait more 
favourably, and being subject to the influence of the same 
or a slightly more extreme climate during their whole lives, 
the acchniatu&ation will be carried a step further ; and 
there seems no reason to doubt that, by this process .iKmc, 
if cautiously and patiently carried out, most animals wliicli 
breed freely in coiifineincnt could in time be acclimatised 
iu almost any uihabited country. There is, however, a 
much more potent agent, which renders the process of 
adaptation almost a certainty. 

AcclimatiMtioupg Variation. — A mass of evidence exbts 
showing that variations of every conceivable kind occur 
among the offspring of all plants and animab, and that, in 
particular, constitutional variations are by no means un* 
common. Among cultivated plants, for example, hardier 
and more tender varieties often arise. The following cases 
are given by Mr Darwin : — Among the numerous fruit^rces 
raised ill North America, some arc well adapted to the 
climate of the Noi-thcrn Stat&s and Canada, while others 
only succeed well in the S»uithern States. Adaptation of 
this kind is sometimes very close, so that, for cx.implc, few 
English varieties of wheat will thrive in Scotland Sced- 
jvhcai from India produced a miserable crop when planted 



66 



ACCLIMATISATION 



by ihe lies. IL X. Berkeley on land trhicli would Imvo 
produc6d«A good crop of Engllsli . wheat Conrersely, 
French t^heat ^aikcn to the West Indies produced only 
barren -epikeo, wlule .native wheat by its side yielded an 
6normou8»harvest Tobacco in. Sweden^, raised from hom^ 
grown- seed* rtpens its seeds a <month earlier than plants 
fflown Irom foreign seed. In Italy^ as long as orange 



mes wer& propagated by grafts, they were tender; but The same uuthor tells us that, 'according to Garciloso, 



Pjmaluyan conifers and 'rhododendicus, raised In this 
country from seed gathered at difiepent altctudea. 
* Among animals exactly-analogous facts occur. M. Koulin 
states -that when geese were first introduced into Bogota 
thcy^aid few eggs at ioiig intervals, and few of the young 
survived. By degrees the fecundity unproved, and in 
about twenty yeai-s became equal^o what it is in Europe. 



^ftermany^of the-trees were destroyed- by-the «evere irosts 
of &iD9 «nd 1763, {dants were^raised from seed; andHiese 
wcr»€6und to be hardier and more productive than, the 
former kinds. Where plants are rau^ed^irom seed ixt <brgc 
quantities, vanetics always* occur dlffbnng/ in consCitiitioi^ 
^is^WtelHs'Otfaers differing ini-f orm x>p colour , but^he^ormer 
esnnot be percer^od by us unless marked out by tbciv 
tehaviouirunder ezeeptionalsionditions^as m <he ff!^owing 
cases. ' After the severe winter of 1:860^61, itwasobser-sed 
Aflt-ixr^-iarge bed of araucarias some {^ants stood quite 
Qflhurtamong^numbers killed around them. In^MrOarwin's 
fiar^eo'two rowsof scarlet runners were entirely killed by 
frosty except three -plants, whidi had not even the tipsrof' 
their leaves te)wned. A^very-excell^t example is to be 
foand in Chinese history, according to M. Hue, who, in 
his L' Empire 'Chinois^touL ^ p. S59), gives-thefoUowing 
extract from the .Memoirs of the Emperor Khang • — *^n 
the let day of the 6th moon I was walking m «ome €elds 
where rice had been sown to be ready for the harvest in 



wben> fowls were ^rst introduced- into Peru they were not 
fertale» whereas oiow they are as much so as in Europe. 
Kir Danvm adduces <he following examples. Mermo sheep 
l>ped at the Cape of Good Hope have -been found far bettei 
adapted for Indian than those imported'from England ; and 
tvhile the Climese ^raciety of the Ailanthus- -sUk-moth is 
<iufte hardy, the 'vanetyiound^n -Bengai^wiU^^only flouruh 
9Sk ^varm latitudes. Mc Darwin.^LsO'eaUs attention to the 
circumstance-that writers of agricultuis^ works generally 
recommend that animals should be removed from one 
district to another ^s little as possible. This advice occurs 
even tn classic and Chinese agricultural books as well 
as in those of our own day, and proves that the cloae 
adaptation o^ each variety or breed to the<;ountiy in- which 
it-origmated has -always h&aa recognised 

Canstitutioiial Adaptation of ten-accompamed by ExUmal 
Modiflcatioil, — Although in someoasesiio perceptible altera- 
tion-of f ormor 8tructupe<occurs when constitutional adapta- 
tion «ta<;limate has.-tftken -place, in-others jtis-very marked 



the 9th moon. I observed by chance a stalk of nee Mr^arwiniiascolkctedalargoj)i^nber of cases inhisilfitma/» 



which was already in- ear. It was higher than<all'the^esty , 
and was ripe enouglrto be gathered I ordered- it to-te 
brought to me. The gram was very fine and well grown,, 
which gave me the idea to keep it for a trial, and seo4Mhe 
following year it would preserve its precocity. It did so. 
All the stalks ^rhich came from it showed enr' before 
the usual time, and were tipe in the 6th moon. Each-year 
has multiplied the produce of the preceding, and for thirty 
years it is this nee which has been served at'm3rtatfle. The 
gram is elongate, and of a reddish colour, but ithas a sweet 



Ticejbecause it was first cultivated in my gardens. It^ 
the only sort which can npen north (^ the great wodj^ 
where the winter ends late and 4)egms-very eany; httt ixt 
the southern provinces, where the climate is^onilderand'^he^i 
3and more fertile, two harvests 4t year <may be easij^b- 
tamed, and it is for me a sweet reflection -to^have^fTOcnied 
this advantage for my people." M. Hue adds^his'testimoiiy 
that this kind of rice flourishes in Mandtchuna, where no 
other will grow. We have here, therefore, a perfect, 
example of acclimatisation by 'means of >8^pontaneou»4X>n* 
Stitutional variation 

That this^kind'of adaptation may be carried on step by 
Step to more and more extreme climates is illustrated 1t>y 
the following examples. - Sweet-peas raised m Calcutta 
from seed imported from England rarely blossom, and never 
yield seed ; jpilants^from French seed fiower better, but are 
still sterile; butthose^raised'from Daijeeling seed (originally 
importedf rom £ngland)'both flower and seed profusely. The 
peach is beheved 'to have been tender, and to have ripened 
its fruit with difficulty, when first introduced intoOreece ; so 
that (as Darwm observes) -in travelling northward during 
two thousand years it must have become much hardier. 
Dr Hooker ascertained the average vertical range of 
fiowermg plants in the EQmalayas to be 40OOteet, whikvin 
eomc cases it extended to 8000 feet The-same^pecies^can 
thus endure a great diflerence of temperature ; but the 
important fact is, that the individuals have become accli- 
matised to the altitude at which they grow, so that seed? 
(gathered near-the-nipper 'limit of the range of a epecies will 
hB more^iardy4han> th^e gathered near the lower iimit. 
ZThis WBs^ proved by So* iJoc^er to be the case with 



<xncNPlants^7iderDom^ication^ {vol ii. p. 27T), of which the 
following are «4ew<of the most remarkable. Dr Falconer 
observed that several trees, natives of cooler elimates, 
assumedr^^pyramidal-or'fastigiatc fonn when grown in the 
plains of India; cabbages rarely produce heads in hot 
•dimates; the quality-ofthe-Tvood, the medicinal products, 
the^ourand colour of the dowers, all change in many 
cases -wheo^ plants of one country are grown m another. 
OnO'Of the cnost'Ciuious observations is that of Mr Meehan, 
who "compared tn-entyHiine kinds of American trees 



smell and very^leasant taste. It is called Tu-mi, Imperial^ " belonging to venous orders, with Choir nearest European 



alMes, ail growatn close proximity in^he same garden, and 
under aS' nearly as possible the same conditions. In the 
American>«pecies Mr Meehan finds, iftith the rarest excep- 
tions, that=the 4caives«£all earlierin the^eeason, and assume 
before f&Uing a brighter tint ; that they are less deeply 
toothed or serrated;, that the buds are smaller; that the 
treestarevmore-diffuse in growth, and have fewer branchlets ; 
and, lastly, thattho'seeds are smaller; — all in companscn 
wit^the European species." Mr Darwm -concludes that 
there ts^no way ^ accounting for these uniform <iifferenoe3 
in <tiie two senes' of trees than by the long-contmued action 
of the-different*climates of the two ^continents. 

In animals equally remarkable changes occur. In 
Angora, not only goats, but shepherd-dogs and eats, have 
fine fleecy hair; the wool -of sheep ohanges its-^character in 
the West Indies in three generations; M. Costa states 
that young oysters, taken from the coast of England, 
and placed m the Mediterranean, at once altered their 
manner of growth and fovmed pronunent divergmg raj^s, 
like those on the shells of the proper Mediterranean 
oyster. 

In. his Contributions to tlu Theory of Natural Selection 
(p. 167), Mr Wallace has recorded eases of ^simultaneous 
variation among insects, apparently ^ue-to'olimate brother 
strictly local causes. He finds that the butterflies of the 
family PapUionidae^ and some others, become similarly 
modified in different islands and groups of islands. Thu^ 
the specios mhabitmg Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, are 
ahnost always much smaller than the closely aUied species 
of Celebes and the Moluccas; the ^)ecie8 or vaneties ol 
Che email island of Amboyna are laiger €hao the eaoa 



ACCLIMATISATION 



87. 



species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding 
islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar 
form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or 
closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, 
numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the 
western islands of the Archipelago, graduaUy lose the tail 
as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific. 

Many of these curious modifications may, it is true, be 
due to other causes than climate only, but they serve to 
show how powerfully and mysteriously local conditions 
affect the form and structure of 'both plants and animals ; 
and they render it probable that chajiges of constitution 
are also continually produced, although we have, in the 
majority of cases, no means of detecting them. It 19 also 
impossible to' determine how far the effects described are 
produced by spontaneous favoilrable variations or by the 
direct action of local conditions; but it is probable that in 
every case both causes are concerned, although in constantly 
varying proportions. . . 

The Influence of HertdUy, — ^Adaptatioa by variation 
would, however, be a slow and uncertain process, and might 
for considerable pedods of time cease to act^ did not heredity 
come into play. This is the tendency of every organism to 
produce its like, or more exactly, to produce a set of newf orms 
varying slightly from it in many directions — a group of which 
the parent form Is the centre. If now one of the most ex- 
treme of these variations is taken, it is found to become the 
centre of a new sot of variations ; and by continually taking 
the extreme in the same direction, air increasing variation in 
that direction can be effected, until checked by becoming 
so great that it interferes with the healthy action of the 
organism, or is in any other way prejudidaL It is also 
found that acquired constitutional peculiarities are equally 
hereditary; so that by a combination of those two modes of 
irariation any desired adaptation may be effected with 
greater rapidity. The manner in which the form or 
constitution of an organism can be made to change con- 
tinuously in me direction, by means of variations which 
are indefinite and in aU directions, i^of^en misunderstood. 
It may perhaps be illustrated by showing how a tree or 
grove of trees might, by natural causes, be caused to travel 
during successive generations in a definite course. The 
tree has branches radiating out from its stem to perhaps 
twenty feet on every side. Seeds are produced on the 
extremities of all these branches, drop to the ground, and 
produce seedlings, which, if untouched, would form a ring 
of young trees around the parent But cattle crop off 
every seedlipg as soon as it rises above the grqund, and 
none can ever arrive at maturity. If, however, one dde is 
protected from the cattle, young trees will grow up on that 
side only. This protection may exist in the case of a grove 
of trees which we may suppose to occupy the whole space 
between two deep ravines, the cattle existing on the lower, 
side of the wood only. In this case young trees would 
reach maturity on the upper side of the wood, while on the 
lower side the trees would successively die, |all, and rot 
away, no yonng.ones taking their place. If this state of 
things continued unchangea for some centuries, the wood 
might march r^gulariy up the side of the mountain till it 
occupied a position many miles away from where it once 
stood; and this would havo taken place, not because more 
seed was produced on one side than the other (there might 
even be very much less), nor because soil or climate were 
better on tlie upper side (they might be worse), nor because 
any intelligent being chose which trees should be allowed 
to live and which should be destroyed ; — but simply because, 
for a series of generations, the conditions permitted the 
existence of yoimg trees on one side, and wholly prevented 
it on the oUier. Just in an analogous way animals or 
plants are caused to vary in definite directions, either by 



t the influence of natural agencies, which render existence 
impossible for those that vary In any other direction, or 
by the action of the judicious breeder,* who car^ully selects 
favourable variations to be the parents of his future stock ; 
and in either case the rejected variations may far outnumber 
those which are preserved. 

Evidence has been adduced by Mr Darwin to show that 
the tendenqr to vary is itself hereditary; so that, so far 
from variations coming to an end, as some persons imagine, 
the more extensively variation has occurred in any species 
in the past, the more likely it is to occur in the future. 
There is also reason to believe that individuals which have 
varied lai-gely from their parents in a special direction will 
have a greater tendency to produce offspring varying in 
that direction than in any other; so that the facilities for 
i^ptation, that is, for the production and increase of 
favourable variations in certain definite directions, are far 
greater than the facilities for locomotion in one direction in 
tiie hypothetical iUustration just given. 

Seiedion and Sturrival of the FiUest ae AgenU in Naturae 
liicUion, — ^We may now take it as an established fact, that 
varieties of animals and plants occur; both in domesticity and 
in a state of nature, which are better or worse adapted to 
special climates. There is no positive evidence that the 
influence of new dimatal conditions on the parents has any 
tendency to produce variations in the offspring better adapted 
to such conditidhs, although some of the facts mentioned 
in the preceding sections render it probable that such' may 
be the case. Neither does it appear tkat this class of 
variations are very' frequent It is, however, certain that 
whenever any animal or plant is largely propogatcd con* 
stitutional variations will arise, and some of those will be 
better adapted than others to the climatal and ofLcr 
conditions of the locality. In a state of nature, every 
recurring severe winter or otherwise unfavourable season, 
weeds out those individuals of tender constitution or 
imperfect structure which may have got on very well during 
favourable years, and it is thus that the adaptation of the 
species to the climate m which it has to exist is kept up. 
Under domestication the same thing occurs by what Mr 
Darwin has termed " unconscious selection." Each culti- 
vator seeks out the kinds of plants best suited to his soil 
and climate, and rejects thosi which are tender or otherwise 
unsuitable. The fanner breeds from such of his stock as 
he finds to thrive best with him, and. gets rid of those 
which suffer from cold, damp, or disease. A* more or less 
close adaptation to local conditions is thus brought about, 
and breeds or races are produced which are sometimes 
liable to deterioration on removal even to a short distance 
in the same country, as in numerous cases quoted by Mr 
Darwin (AnimaU and Plants under Domesttcaiion, vol iL 
p. 273). 

The Method of Aedimatisalion.^TMng into considera- 
tion the foregoing facts and illustrations, it may be con- 
sidered as proved — let, That habit has little (though it 
appears to have some) definite effect in adapting the 
constitution of animals to a new climate ; but that it has a 
decided, though still slight, influence in plants when, by 
the process of propagation by buds, shoots, or grafts, the 
individual can be kept under its influence for long periods ; 
2</, That the offspring of both plants and animals vary 
in their constitutional adaptation to climate, and that 
this adaptation may be kept up and increased by means 
of heredity; and, 3cf, That great and sudden changes 
of climate often check reproduction even when the health 
of the individuals does not appear to suffer. In order, 
therefore, to have the best chance of acclimatising any 
animal or plant in a climate very Hisaimilar from that of 
its native country, and in which it has been proved that 
the species in question cannot live and maintain itself 



88 



ACCLIMATISATION 



without acclimatisation, vre must adopt some such plan 
as the following :— 

1. We must tngasport as large a number as possible of 
adult healthy individuals to some intermediate station, 
and increase them as much as possible for some years. 
Favourable variations of constitution will soon show them- 
selves, and these should be carefully selected to breed from, 
the tender and unhealthy individuals being rigidly elimi- 
nated. 

2. As soon as the stock has been kept a sufficient time 
to pass through all the ordinaiy extremes of climate, a 
number of ^he hardiest may be removed to the more remote 
station, and the same process gone through, giving protection 
if necessary while the stock is being increased, but as soon 
as a largo number' of healthy individuals are produced, sub- 
jecting them to all the vicissitudes of the climate. 

It can hardly be doubted that in most cases this plan would 
succeed. It has been recommended by Mr Darwin, and at 
one of the early meetings of the Soci^t^ Zoologique d'Acclim- 
atisation, at Paris, M. Geofifroy St Hilaife insisted that it was 
the only method by which acclimatisation was possible. 
But in looking through the long series of volumes of Reportn 
published by this Society, there is no sign that any systematic 
attempt at acclimatisation has even once been mode. A 
number of foreign animals have been introduced, and more or 
less domesticated, and some useful exotics have been culti- 
vated for the purpose of testing their applicability to French 
agriculture or horticulture; but neither in the case of 
animals nor of plants has there been any systematic effort 
to modify the constitution of the species, by breeding largely 
and 9decting the favourable variatums i/uU appear^ 

Take the case of the £ucalyptns globulus as an example. 
This is a Tasmanian gum-tree of very rapid growth and 
great beauty, which will thrive in the extreme south of 
France. In the Bulletin of the Society a large number of 
attempts to introduce this tree into general cultivation in 
other parts of France are recorded in detail, with the failure 
of almost all of them. But no precautions such as those 
above indicated appear to have been taken in any of these 
exi)eriments ; and we have no intioQuition that either the 
Society or any of its members are making systematic 
efforts to acclimatise the tree. The first step would be, to 
obtain seed from healthy trees growing in the coldest 
climate and at the greatest altitude in its native coimtry, 
Bowing these very largely, send in a variety of soils- and 
^tuations, in-A part of France where the clunate is some- 
what but not much more extreme. It is almost a certainty 
that a number of trees would be found to be quite hardy. 
As soon as these produced seed, it should be sown in 
the same district and farther north in a climate a little 
more severe. After an exceptionally cold season, seed 
should be collected from the trees that suffered least, and 
should be sown in various districts all over France. By 
such a process there can be hardly any doubt that the tree 
would be thoroughly acclimatised in any part of France, 
and in many other countries of central Europe ; and more 
good would be effected by one well-directed effort of this 
kind than by hundreds of experiments ^ith individual 
animals and plants, which only serve to show us which are 
the species that do not require to be acclimatised, 

A^cclimatisalion of Man, — On this subject we have, un- 
fortunately, very little direct or accurate information. The 
general laws of heredity and variation have been proved to 
apply to ma^ as well as to animals and plants ; and nume- 
rous facts in the distribution of races show that man must, in 
remote ages at least, have been capable of constitutional 
adaptation to climate. If the human race constitutes a single 
species, then the mere fact that man now inhabits every 
region, and is in each case constitutionally adapted to the 
climate, proves that acclimaUsation has occurred. But wo 



iiave the same phenomenon in single varieties of man, such as * 
the American, which inhabits alike the frozen wastes of 
Hudson's Bay and Terra del Fuego, and the hottest r^iona 
of the tropics, — ^the low equatorial valleys and the lofty 
plateaux of the Andes. ' No doubt a sudden transference 
to an extreme climate is often prejudicial to ma% as it is 
to most animals and plants ; but there is every reason to 
believe that, if the migration occurs step by step, man can 
be acclimatised to ahnost any part of the eartii's surface 
in cotdparatively few generations. Some eminent writers 
have denied this. Sir Ranald Martin, from a consideration 
of the effects of the climate of India on Europeans and 
their offspring, believes that there is no such thmg as 
acclimatisation. Dr Hunt, in a report to the British 
Association in 1861, argues that *'time is no agent," and 
— '* if there is no sign of acclimatisation in one generation, 
there is no such process." But he entirely ignores the 
effect of favourable variations, as well as the direct in- 
fluence of climate acting on the organisation from infancy. 

.Professor Waits, in his Introduction to Anthropology, 
adduces many examples of the comparatively rapid con- 
stitutional adaptation of man to new climatic conditiona 
Negroes, for example, who have been for three or foui 
generations acclimatised in North America, on returning to 
Africa become subject to the same local diseases as other 
unacclimatiscd individuals. He weU remarks, that the 
debility and sickening of Europeans in many tropical 
countries arc wrongly ascribed to the climate, hut are 
rather the consequences of indolence, sensual gratification, 
and an irregular mode of life. Thus the English, who 
cannot give up animal food and spirituous liquors, are le^ 
able to sustain the heat uf the tropics than ihe more sober 
Spaniards and Portuguese. The excessive mortality of 
European troops in India, and the delicacy of the child reii 
of European parents, do not affect the real question of 
acclimatisation under proper conditions. They only show 
that acclimatisation is in most cases necessary, not that it 
cannot take place. The best examples of partial or com- 
plete acclimatisation are to be found where European races 
have permanentiy settled in the tropics, and have maintained 
themselves for several generations. There are, however, 
two sources of inaccuracy to be guarded against, and these 
are made the most of by the writers above referred to, and 
are supposed altogether to invalidate results which are 
otherwise opposed to their views. In the first place, we 
have the possibility of a mixture of native blood having 
occurred ; in the second, there have almost always been a 
succession of immigrants from the parent country, -who 
continually intermingle with the families of the early 
settlers. It is maintained that one or other of these 
mixtures is absolutely necessary to enable Europeans to 
continue long to flounah in the tropics. 

There are, however, certain cases in which the sources 
of error above mentioned are reduced to a ^^nimum, and 
cannot seriously affect the results; such as those of the 
Jews, the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope and in the 
Moluccas, and the Spaniards in South America. 

The Jews are a good example of acclimatisation, because 
they have been established for many centuries in climates 
very different from that of their native land ; they keep 
themselves almost wholly free from intermixture with tho 
people around them ; and they are often so populous in a 
country that the intermixture with Jewish immigranta from 
other lands cannot seriously affect the local purity of the 
rac& They have, for instance, attained a population of near 
two millions in such severe climat^es as Poland and Russia ; 
and according to Mr Brace (Eaees of the Old World, p. 1 85), 
** their increase in Sweden is said to be greater than that 
of the. Christian population ; in the towns of Algeria they 
are the only race able to maintain its numbers; and in 



ACCLIMATISATION 



89 



Cocim China oiid Aden they succeed in rearing children 
and fortoing permanent commanities." 

In some of the hottest parts of South America Europeans 
arc perfectly acclimatised, and where the race is kept pure 
it seems to be even improved. Some very valuable notes 
on this subject have been furnished to the present writer 
by the well-kno^Ti botanist Dr Richard Spruce, whoresided 
many years in South America, but who has hitherto been 
prevented by^ill health from giving to the world the results 
of his researches As a careful, judicious, and accurate 
ob-<crver, both of man and nature, he has few superiors. 
He says-^ - ^ 

"The^hite inhabitants of Guayaquil (lat 2** 13' S,) are 
kept pure by careful selection. The slightest tincture of 
red or black blood bare entry mto any of the old families 
wijo are descendants of Spaniards from the Provincias 
V.iscongadas, or those bordering the Bay of Biscay, where 
the morals are perhaps the purest (as regards the intercourse 
tuf the sexes) of any in Europe, and where for a girl, even 
of the poorest class, to have a child before marriage is the 
rarest thing possible. The consequence of this careful 
breeding is, that the women of Guayaquil are considered 
(and justly) the finest along the whole Pacific coast They 
arc often tall, sometimes very handsome, decidedly healthy, 
although pale, and assuredly prolific enough. Their sons 
are big, stout men, but when they lead inactive lives arc 
apt to become fat and sluggish. Those of them, however,^ 
who have farms in the savannahs, and are accustomed to 
take loDg rides m all weathers, and those whose trade 
obliges them to take frequent journeys in the mountainous 
interior, or even to Europe and North America, are often as 
active and as little burdened with superfluous flesh as a 
S':otch farmer. 

*'The oldest Christian town in Peni is Piura (lat 5® S.), 
which was founded by Pizarro himself The climate is 
very hot, especially m the three or four months following 
the southern solstice. In March 1843 the temperature 
only once fell as low as 83% diiring the whole month, the 
ti3ual lowest night temperature being 85* Yet people of 
all colours find it very healthy, and the whites are very 
proUfic. I resided in the town itself nine months, and in 
the neighbourhood seven months more. The population 
(in 1863-4) was about 10,000, of which not only a 
considerable proportion was white, but was mostly descended 
from the first emigrants after the conquest Purity of 
descent was not, however, quite so strictly maintained as 
at Guayaquil The military adventurers, who have often 
risen to high or even supreme rank in Peru, have not seldom 
been of mixed race, and fear or favour has often availed to 
procure them an alliance ^ith the oldest and purest-blooded 
famihes." 

These mstances, so well stated by Dr Spruce, seem to 
demonstrate the complete acclimatisation of Spaniards in 
some of the hottest parts of South America. Although 
we have here nothing to do with mixed races, yet the want 
of fertility in these has been often taken to bo a fact 
inherent in the mongrel race, and has been also sometimes 
held to prove that neither the European nor his half-bred 
offspring can maintam themselves in the tropics. The 
following observation is therefore of interest . — 

" At Guayaquil for a lady of good family — married or 
munarried — ^to be of loose morals is so uncommon, that 
when it does happen it is felt as a calamity by the whole 
community. But here, and'perha];» in most other towns 
in South America, a poor girl of mixed race— especially if 
good-look>ng — rarely thinks of marrying one of her own 
dass uflcfl she has — as the Brazilians say — ' approvcitada 
de^uamocidade' (made the most of bt;r youth) m receiving 
presenU from gentUmefL If she thus-bnng a good dowry 
tn her husband, he doe» not care to inquire, or is not 



sensitive, about the mode in which it was acquired. Th« 
consequences of this mdiscriminate sexual intercourae, espe- 
cially if niuch prolonged, is to diminish, in some cases to 
paralyse, the fertility of the female. And as among people 
of mixed race it is almost universal, the popnUtion of 
these must Call oS both in numbers and quality ** 

The following example of divergent acclimatisation of 
the same race to hot and cold zones is very interesting, 
and will conclude our extracts from Dr Spruce's valuabla 
notes : — 

''One of the most shigular cases connected with this 
subject that '.have fallen under my own observation is the 
difficulty, or apparent impossibility, 6f acclimatising the 
Bed Indian in a certain zone of the Andes. Any person 
who has compared the physical characters of the native 
races of South America must be convinced that these have 
all originated- in a common stirps. Many local dififerences 
exist, but none capable of invalidating this conclusion* 
The warmth yet shade-loving Indian of the Amazon ; the 
Indian of the hot, dry, and treeless coasts of Peru and 
Guayaquil, who exposes his bare head to th^ sun with as 
much 2cst as an African negro , the Indian of the Andes, 
for whom no cdld seems too great, who goes constantly 
bare-legged and often bare-headed, through whose rude 
straw hut the piercing wind of the paramos sweeps, and 
chills the white man to the very boies; — all these, in the 
colour iind texture of the skin, the hair, and other important 
features, are plainly of one and the same race. 

"Now there is a zone of the equatorial Andes, ranging 
between about 4000 and 6000 feet altitude, where the very 
best flavoured coffee is grown, where cane i^ less luxuriant 
but more saccharine than in the plains, and which ia 
therefore very desirable to cultivate, but where the red 
man sickens and dies. Indians taken down from the sierra 
get ague and dysentery. Those of the plains find the 
temperature chilly, and are stricken down with influenza 
and pains in the limbs. I have seen the difficulty 
experienced in getting farms- cultivated in this zone, on 
both sides of the Cordillera. The permanent residents are 
generally limitedftO the major domo and his family; and 
in the dry season labourers are hired, of any colour that 
can be obtained — some from the low country, others from 
the highlands — for three, four, or five months, who gather 
in and grind the cane, and plant for the harvest of the 
following year; but a staff of resident Indian kbourers, 
such as exists in the farms of the sierra, cannot be kept up 
in the Yungaif as these half-warm valleys t are called. 
White men, who take proper precautions, and are not 
chronically soaked with cane-spirit, stand the climate 
perfectly, but the Creole whites are still too much oaballeros 
to devote themselves' to agricultural work. 

"In what is now the republic cf Ecuador, the only 
peopled portions are the central valley, between the two 
ridges of the Andes— height 7000 to 12,000 feet— and the 
hot plain at their western base ; nor do the wooded slopea 
appear to have been inhabited, except by scattered savage 
hordes, even in the time of the Incas. The Indians d the 
highlands are the descendants of others who have inhabited 
that region exclusively for untold ages; and a similar 
affirmation may be made of the Indians of the plain. Now, 
there is little doubt that the progenitors of both these 
sections came from a temperate region (in North America) ; 
so that hcrcwc have one moiety acclimatised to endure ex* 
trerae heat, and the other ejsjtreme cold ; and at this day 
exposure of cither to the opposite extrcme,i(or even, as we 
have sccii, to the cliiivxte of an intermediate zone) is always 
pernicious uRd often fatal But if Ihis great difference Lo^ 
been brought about m the red^ man, might not the same 
have happened to the white man ? Plainly it might, time 
being given i for one cannot doubt that the inherent adaptar 



1—14* 



so 



A C C — AC G 



%nity is the samo in botfi^ or (U, not|t3iat the white man 
pos8ea6e8 it in a higher degree.''' 

, The observations of Dr Spmce are of themselves almost 
oondusive as* to the possibility of Europeans becoming ac- 
dimatiBed'in the tropics; and if it is objected that this 
evidence applies only to the dark-haired southern races, we 
are fortunately 'able to point to facts, almost equally well 
ttathenticated and conclusive, in the case of one of the typi- 
c^ Qermanicraces. At the Cape of Good Hope the Dutch 
iiave been settled and nearly isolated for about 200 years, 
find'have kept themselves almost or quite free from native 
intennizture. They are described as being still perfectly 
i$ix in complexion, while physically they are the finest body 
4sLmen in the colony, being very tall and strong. They 
maxry young,'^ and have large families. The population, 
JMOOiding to a census taken in 1798, was under 22,000. 
In 1865 it was near 182,000, the majority being (according 
to ihAJStaUsman'i Year Book ior 1873) of " Dutch, German, 
«r French orif;in, mostly descendants of original settlers." 
We have here a population which has doubled itself every 
twenty-two years ; and the greater part of this rapid in- 
crease most certainly be due to the old European immi- 
grants. In the iloluccas, where the Dutch ha^e had settle- 
ments for nearly 250 years, some of the inhabitants trace 
their descent to early immigrants ; and these, as well as 
most of the people of Dutch descent in the East, arc quite 
as fair as their European ancestors, enjoy excellent health, 
and are very proMa But the Dutch accommodate them- 
jBolves admirably to a tropical climate, doing much of their 
• vork early in .the morning, dressing vety lightly, and living 
^ quiet, temperate, and cheerful Ufa They also pay groat 
attention to drainage and general cleanliness. In addition 
to these examples, it may be maintained that the rapid in- 
crease of English-speaking populations in the United States 
and in Australia, only a comparatively small portion of 
which can be due to direct immigmtion, is far from support- 
ing the view of Dr Knox, that Europeans cannot per- 
manently TTiftinfftin themsclvcs in those countries. Mr 
Brace expressly denies that the American physique has 
degenerated from the English type. He asserts that manu- 
facturers and others find that " for labours requiring the 
utmost physical endurance and nrascular power, sudi as 
iron-puddling and lumbering in the forests and on the 
streams, and pioneer work, foreigners are never so suitable 
as native Americans. The reports of the examining sur- 
geons for volunteers — such as tiiat of Dr W. H. Thomson 
to the Surgeon-General in 1862, who examined 9000 men 
•-«how a mf higher average of physique in the Americana 
examined than & the English, Germans, or IrisL It is a 
fact well known to our life insurance companies, that the 
average length of life here is greater than that of the 
English tables."— 2%* Jiacea of the Old World, p. 375. 
Although the comparisons here instituted may not be quite 
fair or conclusive, they furnish good arguments against those 
who maintain that the Americans are physically deteriotat- 

On the whole, we seem justlSed in concluding that, under 
favourable conditions, and with a proper adaptation of means 
to the end in view, man may b^ome acclimatised with at 
least as much certainty and rapidity (counting by generations 
rather than by years) as any of the lower nnimalfl. (a. b. w.) 
^ ACOOLADE (from coUvm, the neck), a ceremony an- 
ciently used in conferring knighthood ; but whether it was 
an embrace (according to the use of the modem French word, 
cccolade), or a alight blow on the neck or cheek, is not 
agreed. Both these customs appear to be of great antiquity. 
Oregoiy of To^irs writes that tiie early kings of France, in 
conferring the gilt shoulder-belt, kissed the knights on the 
left cheek; and William tiie Conqueror is said to have 
made nae of the blow in conferring the honour of knight- 



hood on his son Henry. Af first it was given w|^ the 
naked fist, a veritable box on the ear, bat for this was 
substituted a gentle stroke on the shoulder with the flat of 
the sword. A custom of a similar kind is still followed in .. 
bestowing the honour of knighthood. 

ACOOLTI, Benedict, was bom in 1415 at Arezzo, in' 
Tuscany, of a noble family, several members of which were 
distinguished like himself for their attainments in law. 
He was for some time professor of jurisprudence in the 
University of Florence, and on the death of the celebrated 
Poggio in 1459 became chancellor of the Florentine re- 
publia He died in 1 466. In conjunction with 1^ brother 
Leonard, he w^ote in Latin a history of the first crusade, 
entitled De Bella a ChrUUanis contra BarbaroSf pro Ckritti 
Sepulchro et Judasa recuperandiSf libri trea, which, though 
itself of little interest, furnished Taaso with the historic 
basis for his Jerusalem Delivered, This work appeared at 
Venice in 1432, and was translated into Italian in 1543, 
and into French in 1620. Another work of Accolti'a — De 
PrcBstarUia Virorum sui .^^v^— was published at Parma in 
1689. - . 

ACCOLTI, Bx&KABD (1465-1535), son of the preced- 
ing, known in his ovm day as UUnioo Aretino, acquired groat 
fame as a reciter of impromptu verse^ He was listened to by 
large crowds, composed of the most learned men and the most 
distinguished prelates of the age. Among others, Cardinal 
Bemb^ has left on record a testimony to his extraordinary 
talent His high reputation with his contempora^es seems 
scarcely justified by the poems he published, though they 
give evidence of brilliant fancy. It is probable that he 
succeeded better in his extemporary productions than in 
those which were the fruit of deliberation. Hia works, 
under the title Virginia, Comedia,^ Capitoli e Sttambotti dt , 
Measer Bernardo Accolti Aretino, prere published at Florerice 
in 1513, and have been several times reprinted. 

ACCOLTI, PiBTRO, brother of the preceding^ was burn 
at Florence in 1455, and died there in 1549. ,He was' 
abbreviator under Leo X., and in that capacity drew upi 
in 1520 the famous btili against Luther. In 1527 he was 
made a cardinal by Clement VII., who had employed him. 
as his secretary. 

ACCOMMODATION, a term us^ in Biblical interpret 
tation to denote the presentation of a tmth not abaolutdy 
as it is in itself, but relatively or under some modification, 
with the view of suiting it either to some other truth or td 
the persons addressed. It is generally diBtinguished into 
formal and maferia/,— ^the accommodation in the one case 
being confined to thejnethod of teaclung, and in the other 
being extended to the matter taught To the former head 
may be referred ,teaching by symbols or parables, by pro- 
gressive stages graduated according to the capacily of the 
learner, by the application of prophecy to secondary fulfil 
mcnts, &c To the latter head are to be referred the alle 
gations of the anti-supranaturalistic school, that Chiist and 
the writers of Scripture modified or perverted the truth 
itself in order to secure wider acceptance and speedier 
success, by speaking in accordance witn contemporary ideas 
rather than with absolute and eternal truth. 

ACCOMMODATION, in commeroe, denotes generaUy 
temporary pecuniai. aid given by one trader to another, or 
by a banker to his customers, but it is used more par> 
ticularly to describe that class of bills of exchange which 
represents no actual exchange of real value between the 
parties. ' • — 

ACCORAMBONI, Vittohia, an Italian lady remark'* 
able for her extraordinary beauty and her tragie history. 
Her contemporaries regarded her as the most captivating 
woman that had ever been seen in Italy. She was sought 
in marri^e by Paolo Giordano Orsini, Duke of BncciaDQ„ 
who, it was generaUy believed, had murdeied hia wife. 



Isabella de Medici, with his own hand; but her father 
gave her in praference to Francesoo Peretti, nephew of 
Cardinal Montalto. Peretti waa assassinated tl 581), and 
.a few dkys afterwards Vittoria fled from the house of the 
Cardinal, where she had resided, to that of the Duke of 
Brocciano. The opposition of Pope Gregory XIIL, who 
even went so far as to confine Vittoria to Fort St Angelo 
for nearly a year, did not prevent, her marriage with the 
duke. On the accession of Montalto to the ,papal throne 
as Siztua V. (1585), the duke thought it prudent to take 
refuge with his wife in the territory of the Venetian 
republic After a'feW months' residence at Sal6, on the 
Lake of Oarda, he died, bequeathing nearly the whole of 
his large fortune to his widow. This excited the anger of 
Ludovico Orsini, a relative, who caused Vittoria to be 
murdered in her residence at Padan (Dea 22, 1585). The 
history of this beautiful and accomplished but unfortunate 
woman has been written by Adiy (1800), and recently by 
Count Gnoli, and forms the basis of Webster's tragedy, The 
Whke Devil, and of Tieck's romance, ViUaria Aecqrambonu 

ACCORDION (from the French aasord)^ a small muaioal 
instrument in the shape of a bellows, whicn produces sounds 
by the action of wixid on metallic reeds of various sifts. 
It is played by being held in both hands and pulled back- 
wards andjForwards, the fingers beine left free to touch 
the keys, which are ranged along each side. The instru- 
ment is akin to the concertina, but differs from it in having 
the chords fixed by a mechanical arrangement * It is manu- 
'ictured chiefly in Paris. 

ACGOBSO (in Latin Aecursius), Francis, an eminent 
Lawyer, bom at Florence about 1182. After practising 
for some time in his native city, he was appointed professor 
at Bologna, where he^ had great success as a teacher.. He 
undertook the great work of arranging into one body the 
almost inniun^blo comments and remarks upon the Code, 
the Institutes, and Digests, the confused dispersion of which 
among the works of dififerent writers caused much obscurity 
and contradiction. When he was employed in this work, 
it is said that, hearing of a similar one proposed and begiin 
by Odofred, another lawyer of Bologna, he feigned indis- 
position, interrupted his public lectures, and shut himself 
up, till he had, with the utmost expedition, accomplished 
his defid^n. His work has the vague title of tiie Great Ghas, 
and, though written in barbarous Latin, has more method 
than that of any preceding writer on the subject The 
best edition of it is that of Qodef roi, published at Lyons in 
1589, in 6 yob. foUo. Accursius was greatly extolled by 
the lawyers of his own and the immediately succeeding age, 
and he was even called the Idol of JuriscongtUtSf but those 
of later times formed a much lower estimate of his merits. 
There can be no doubt that he has disentangled with 
much ekill the sense, of many laws ; but it is equally un- 
deniable that his ignorance of history and antiquities has 
often led him into absurdities, and b^n the cause of many 
defects in his explanations and commentaries, fie died at 
Bologna in 1260. His eldest son Francis, who filled the 
cliair of law at Bologna with great reputation, was invited 
to Oxford by King Edward I, and in 1275 or 1276 read 
lectures on law in that university. In 1280 he returned to 
Bologna, where he died in 1293. 

ACCOHSO (or AoouBSius), Mabiakoelo, a learned and 
ingenious critic, was bom at -Aquila, in the kingdom of 
Naplca, about 1490. He was a great favourite with 
Charles V., at whose court he resided for thirty-three years, 
and by whom he was employed on various foreign missions. 
To a perfect knowledge of Greek and Latin he added an 
intimate acquaintance with several modem languages. In 
discovering and collating ancient manuscripts, for which his 
travels abroad gave him special opportunities, he displayed 
uncommon dihgence. His work entitled Diatr^xt in 



ACC — ACg 91. 

Aiuontumy Soltnum, et Ovidium, prmted at Rome, in lolio, 
in 1524, is a singular monument of emdition and critical 
skill He bestowed, it is said, unusual pains on Claudian^ 
and made, from different manuscripts, above seven hundred 
corrections on the works of that poet Unfortunately these 
criticisms were never published. He was the first editor 
of the Letters of Cassiodortu, with his Treatise on the Soul; 
and his edition of Ammianus Mdrcellintu (1533) contains 
five books more than any former ope. The afiected use of 
antiquated terms, introduced by some of the Latin writers 
of that age, is humorously ridiculed by him, in a dialogue 
published in 1531 (republished, with his name, in 1574)^ 
entitied Oseo^ VoUoo, , Bomanaque Eloquentia Interloa^ 
torilnis, Dialogus LudU Romanis actus. Accorso was 
accused of plagiarism in his notes on Ausonius ; and the 
determined manner in which he repelled, by a most solemn 
oath, this charge^of literaiy theft, presents us with a singular 
instance of anxiety and care to preserve a lAerary repntsr 
tion unstained. 

ACCOUNT, a Stock Exchange temi: e.g,, '^To Buy or 
Sdlfor the AeeouMt" &c The word has dififerent, though 
kindred, significations, all derived froni the making up and 
settling of accounts on particular days, in which stricter 
sense the word " Bettiement" is more specially used. 

The financial importance of the Account ma,j be gather@3 
from the Clearing House returns. Confining' ourselves to 
the six years, from the 30th of April 1867 to the 30th <{f 
April 1873, we have the following figures, furnished by 
the Clearing House to Sir John Lubbock, and communi- 
cated by him to the Times: — 

On fourth* Ob Stock Exchaage On Comob 

April April oftheHontb. AeeonntDayB. 8ettUnffD«7& 

1867 to 1868 £147,118,000 £444,443,000 £182,293,000 

1868 to 1869 161.861,000 550,622,000 142,270,000 
.1869 to 1870 168.523,000 594,763,000 148.822,000 

1870 to 1871 186,517,000 635,946,000 169,141,000 

1871 to 1872 229,629,000 942,446,000 288,843,000 

1872 to 1878 265,965,000 1,032,474,000 248,561,000 

During the year ending April 80, 1873, the total amount of bUla, 
cbcckfl, oc, paid at the Clearing House showed an increase of 
£643.618,000 during the same period ending April 1872, and of 
£2,74&,924,000 over 1868. The amounts passing through on the 
4^ of the monlh amounted to £265,965,000, showing an increase 
of £86,336,000 over 1872. The payments on Stock ExOwnjge 
AeeowiU JDays formed a sum of £1,032,474,600, being an increase 
of £90,028,000 over 1872. The payments on Consols Account Dccys 
for the same period amounted to £243,561,000, giving an increase 
of £9,718,000 over 1872. 

In English and Indian Government Securities, the settle- 
ments are monthly, and for-foreign, railway, and other 
securities, generally speaking, they are fortnightly. It 
follows therefore that in 1867-1868, an ordinary Stock 
Exchange Account Day involved payments, on Stock 
Exchange accounts only, averaging about £10,000,600 
sterling, and in 1872-3 something like £25,000,000 ster- 
ling; and these sums again, enormous as they are, repre- 
sent for the most part only the balance of much larger 
transactions. The London Account is, in fact, probably 
the greatest and most important periodical event in the 
financial 'world. The great European centres have their 
own Account Days and methods of settlement, but the 
amounts dealt in are veiy puch less than on the London 
market. The leading cities in the United Kingdom have 
also their Stock Exchanges, but their practice follows more 
or less that of London, where the bulk of their business i|, 
transacted by means of post and telegraph. 

The Account in Consols or other English Government 
Securities, or in the securities of the Government of India, 
or in Bank of England Stock, or other Stocks transferable 
at the Bank of England, extends over a month, the settle- 
ments being monthly, and in them the committee of the 
Stock Exchange does not take cognisance of any bargain 
for a future account, if it shall have been effected moro 



92 



A C C— A C E 



than ei^t days previooaly to tKS close of the existing 
Qccoimt 

The Account iu Securities to Bearer, and. with the above 
exceptions, in Registered Securities also, extends over a 
|)enod of from twelve to nineteen d^ya This period is m 
each case terminated by the "settlement.*' which nccurs 
twice in each month (generally about the middle and end), 
on days fixed by the committee for general purposes of the 
8tock Exchange in the preceding month 

This " settlement '' occupies three continuous days, which 
•re aU termed Account days, but the third day is the true 
Account, Setthng, or Pay Day 

Contintiatioo or Carrying-over is the operation by which the 
lettlement of a bargain transact^ for money, or for %, given account, 
may for a comideration (called either a '* Contango' or a ** back- 
tiranlation ") be deferred for the period of another account Such 
a continuation w equivalent to a sale "for the day.' and a repur- 
chase for the succeeding account, or to * purchase ** for the day," 
and a re-salo for the succeeding account The pnce at which such 
transactioDS are adjusted is th« ** Making- Up** price of the day 

Contango is a technical term which expresses the rate of in- 
terest charged for the loan ot money upon the sei^urity of stock 
transferred for the penod of an account or otherwise, or the rate of 
interest paid by the bover to the seller to be aUowed to defer paying 
forthe stock purchasea, until the next settlement day 

Baehpardatum, or, as it in more often called. Back (for brevity), 
io contndistioction to contango, is tlie amount charged for the 
loan of stock from one accMin) to the other, and it is paid to the 
purcliaser by the aeller in order to allow the seller to defer tJie deh- 
verv of the stock 

A BuU AceomU is one in which either the purchases have pre 
dotninated over the sales, or the disposition lo purchase has l)tien 
more marked than the disposition to sell 

A Bear Aoeouru is one in which either the sales hsve prepooderuted 
over the purchases, or in whi^ the disposition to sell has been 
more strongly displavcd than the disposition to buy 

Sometimes the null or the Bear disposition extends to the great 
majority of securities, as when there are general falls or general 
nsca Sometimes a Bull Account in one set of secunties is con- 
temporaneous with a Ikar Account in aoothex. — Vide Cracroft's 
Stock Exchajige ManuuL 

ACCOUNTANT, earlier form Accomptant. in the 
most general sense, is a {)crson skilled in accounta It is 
hpplied to the person who has the charge of the accounts 
in a pubhc ofRce or in the counting-house of a large private 
business. It is also<the designation of a distinct profession, 
which deals m any required, way with mercantile accounts. 

ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL, an officer m the English 
Court of Chancery, who receives all monies lodged in court, 
and by whom they are deposited in bank and disbursed 

ACCRA or Acra, a to^^ or rather a collection of 
forts, in a territory of the same name, on the Gold Coast of 
Africa, about 75 miles cast of Cape Coast Castle Of the 
. forts, Fort St James is a British settlement, CrevcccDur 
was established by the Dutch, and Christianborg l>y the 
Danes , but the two last have since been ceded to firitam — 
Chnstianborg in ISfiO. and Crevecoeur m 1871 Accra 
13 considered to be one of the healthiest stations on the we;>r 
coast of Africa, and has some trade in the productions of 
the intenot,.— ivory, gold dust, and palm-oiJ . while cotton 
goods, tobacco, rum, and beads are importcd^in exchange 
It IS the residence o! a Britwh ^ivil commandant 

ACCRINOTON, an important manufacturing ujwn of 
tiigland, m Lancashire, lies on the banks ot a stream called 
the Hindburn, in a deep ♦alley. 19 miles N from Man- 
Chester and 5 mUes E. of Blackburn It has increased rapidly 
in recent years, and is the centre of the Manchester cotton- 
prmtmg trade. ^ There are large cotton factories and pnnu 
works, besides bleach-Belds, d:c.. employing many hnnd& 
t/ool LB extensively wrought in the neighbourhood The 
town has a good appearance, and among the more handsome 
DuUdmgs are a fine church, m the Gothic style, erected in 
lb38, and the Peel Institution, an Italian structure, contain- 
ing an assembly room, a lecture room. &c,. The sanitary 
arrangements generally are good, and a reservoir capabje 



of containing 140.000.000 gallons has been constructed for' 
the water 8«pply.of the town Accrmgton i» a stiuon oq 
the Lancashire and Yorkshire RaiiH-ay. The popuLiunn of 
the two townships of Old and New Accrington was in 1 SCI. 
17.688, andm 187 1.2 1.78a 

ACCUM. Frederick, chemist, bom at Biickcburg in 
1769, came to London in 1793. and wasappomted teacher 
of chemistry and mmefalogy at the Surrey Institution m 
1801 While occupying this position he published several 
scientific manuals v^A^Dt'sfry. 1803, Mineralogy, 1808, 
Crystallography, dS\ 3), but his name will he chiefly re- 
membered m connection with gas-lighting, the introduction 
of which was mainly due to him and to the enterpnsmg 
pnntsell^r, Ackermann. His excellent Practical Treatise 
on Gadigia appeared in 1815, and he rendered another 
valuable service to society by his T^rtaUte on AdzUteratmt 
o/ Foo4 and Ctdinary Pouoju (1820), which attracted 
much notice at the time it appeared. Both works, as well 
as*^ number of his smaller publications, were translated 
into German. In consequence of charges affecting his 
honesty^ Accum left London for Germany, and in 1822 
was appointed professor in the Industrial Institute and 
Academy of Architecture at Berlin He died there in 1838. 

ACCUMULATOR, a term applied frequently to a 
powerful electrical machine, which generates or accumu- 
lates, by means of fnetion, efectnc currents, of high ten- 
sioi^ — manifested by sparks of considerable length. 
Accumulators have been employed in many places for 
exploding torpedoes and mines, for blasting, &c An 
exceedingly powerful apparatus of this kind was employed 
by the Confederate authorities dunng the avi) war in 
Amenca for discharging submarine and nver torpedoes 
Whatever the nature of the materials employed m the con- 
struction of the accumulator, or' the form which it may 
assume mechanically, it is simply a modification of. or an 
improvement upon, the ordinary cylindncal or the phite- 
glass fnctional electncal machine, «- the fundamental 
scientific pn nciples bei ng the same in nearly every case. The 
exciting body consists generally of a large disc or circular 
plate of vulcanite, — more frequently termed by electncians 
" ebonite," in consequence of its resemblance, in poilit of 
hardness and of polish, to polished ebony. — the vulcanite 
disc taking the place of the ordinary circular plate of 
thick glass 

ACE. the received name tor the single point on cards or 
dice — the unit Mr Fox Talbot has a speculauon {English 
Etymolngies, p. 262) that tbe Latins invented, ii not the 
game of dice, at least the. name lor the single point, which 
they called unus The Greeks corrupted this into oi^os, 
and at length the Germanic races, learning the game trom 
the Greeks, translated the word into ass, which has now 
become act The fact, however, is, that the root of the 
word lies iii tbe Latin as, the monetary unit, which is to 
be identihed with the Greek €U. Doric, ats or d« 

ACEPHALA. a name sometimes giveii to a section ol 
the molluscous animals, which are divided into encephaia 
and acep/tala, according as they hav« or want a disunctly 
differentiated head The Acephala. or LamellibrancAiata, 
as they are also called, are commonly known as bivaivc 
shell-fish 

ACEPHALI (trom 6 pnvative. and «cc0o\v* ^ head), a 
term applied to several sects as having no head or leader, 
and in p<;rticular to a sect that separated itself, in tbe end 
of the 5th century, from the rule of the patriarchs of Alex- 
andria, and remained without king or bisiiop lor more than 
300 years (Gihbon, c xlvii,) 

AcEPHALi was also the name given to the leveller? m 
the reign of Henry L, who are said to have been so poor 
as to have no tenements, in virtue of which they might 
acknowledge a superior lord 



A C E — A C H 



93 



Ac>^*BALi, or Acephalous PersonSf fabulous monsters, 
described by some ancient naturalists and geographers as 
baving no heads. 

ACER See BIapee. 

ACERBI, Giuseppe (Joseph), an Italian traveller, bom 
at Oastei-Goffredo, near Mantua, on the 3d May 1773, 
studied at Mantua, and devoted himself specially to natural 
scienca In 1798 he undertook a journey through Den- 
mark, Sweden, Finland, and Lapland; and in the^ follow- 
ing year he reached the North Cape, which no Italian had 
previously visited. He was accompanied in the latter part 
of the journey by the Swedish colonel Skiold^brand, an 
excellent landscape-painter. On his return Acerb! stayed 
for some time in England, and published his TraveU 
through Sweden, &c (London, 1802), which was translated 
into German (Weimar, 1803), and, under the author's per- 
sonal superintendence, into French (Paris, 1804). The 
French translation received^ numerous corrections, but even 
in this amended form the work 'contains many mistakes. 
Acerbi rendered a great service to Italian literature by 
starting the Bihlioteca Italiana (1816), in which he 
opposed the pretensions of the Academy della Crusca. 
Being appointed Austrian consul-general to Egypt in 
1826, he entrusted the management of the Bihlioteca to 
Gironi, contributing to it afterwards a series of valuable 
articles on Egypt While in the East he obtained for the 
museums of Vienna, Padua, Milan, and Pavia many 
objects of interest He returned from £!gypt in 1836, 
and took up his residence in his native place, where he 
occupied himself with his favouflte siudy till his death in 
Angust 1846. 

ACERNUS, the Latinised name by which Sebastian 
Fabian Klonowicz, a celebrated Polish poet, is generally* 
known, was born at Sulmierzyce in 1551, and died at 
Lublin in 1608. He was for some time burgomaster and 
president of the Jews' civil tribunal in the latter town, 
where he had taken up his residence after studying at 
Cracow. Though himself of an amiable disposition, his 
domestic life was very unhappy, the extravagance and 
misconduct of his wife driving him at last to the public 
hospital of Lublin, where he ended his days. He wrote 
both Latin and Polish poems, and the genius they disr 
played won for hfan the name of the Sarmatian, OvitL 
The titles of fourteen of his works ai*e known; but a 
number of these were totally destroyed by the Jesuits and 
a section of the Polish nobility, and copies of the others 
are for the same reason exceedingly rare. The Victoria 
Deorum ubi continetur Veri Heroie Ediuxdio, a poem in forty- 
four cantos, cost the poet ten years' labour. 

ACERRA, in Antiquity, a little box or pot, wherein were 
put the incense and perfumes to be burned on the altars of 
the gods, and before the dead. It appears to have been 
the same with what was otherwise called thurSbvlum and 
pyxML The censers of the Jews were dcerrm; and the 
Romanists still retain the use of acerrce, under the name 
of tTtcense pots. 

The name acerra was also applied to an altar erected 
among the Romans, near the bed of a person recently de-^ 
ceased, on which his friends offered incense daily till his' 
burial The real- intention probably was to fumigate the 
apartment The Chinese have still a somewhat similar 
custom. 

ACERRA, a town of Italy, in the province of Terra 
di LavoTO, eituated on the river Agno, 7 miles N.R of 
Naples, with whichit is connected by rail It is the oH" 
oentjleemze^the inhabitants of which were admitted to 
the privilege of Roman citizenship so early as 332 B.a, 
and which was plundered and burnt by Hannibal during 
the second Punis war. A few inscriptions are the only 
traces 'time has left of the ancient city. The town stands 



in a fertile district, but is rendered very unhealthy by tha 
malaria rising from the artificial water-courses of the sur- 
rounding Campagna. It is the seat of a bishop, and has a 
cathedral and seminary. Flax* is grown in the neighbonr- 
hood Population. 11,717. 

ACETIC ACID, one of the most'important organic adds. 
It occurs naturally in the juice of many plants, and in cer- 
tain animal secretions ; but is generally obtained, on the 
large scale, from the oxidation of spoiled wines, or from the 
destructive distillation of wood. In the former process it 
is obtained in the form of a dilute'aqueous solution^ m which 
also the colouring matters of the wme, salts, &c, are dis- 
solved ; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily 
term vinegar. The strongest vinegar sold in commerce 
contains 5 per cent of real acetic acid. It is used as a 
mordant m calico-printing, as a local irritant in medicine, 
as a condiment, and in the preparation of various acetates, 
varnishes, dsc Pure acetic acid is got from the distillation 
of wopd, by neutralising with lime, separating the tarry 
matters from the solution of acc£ate of lime, evaporating 
off the water, and treating the dry residue with sulphuric 
acid. On applying heat, pure acetic acid distills over as 
a clear liquid, which, after a short time, if the weather 
is cold, becomes a crystalline mass known by the namo of 
Qlacial Acetic Acid. For synthesis, properties, &c, sec 
Chemistry. 

ACHAIA, in Ancient Geography, a name differently 
applied at different periods. In the earUest times the naQie 
was borne by a small district in the south of Thcssaly, and 
was the first residence of the Achieans. At a later pcnod 
Aehaia Propria Was a narrow tract of country in the north 
of the Peloponnesus, running 65 miles along the Gulf of 
Corinth, and bounded by t^e Ionian Sea on the W., by 
Elis and Arcadia on the S., and by Sicyonia on the E. 
On the south it is separated from Arcadia by lofty moan- 
tains, but the plains between the mountains and the sea are 
very fertile. Its chief town was Pati-se. The name of 
Aehaia was afterwards* employed to denote collectively the 
states that joined the Achaean League. When Greece was 
subdued bj the Romans, Aehaia was the name given to the 
xiiost southerly of the provinces into which they divided the 
country^ and included the Peloponnesus, the greater part of 
Gree*:^ Proper, and the islands. 

Achceans and the Achcean League.^rT!h& early inhabitants 
of Aehaia were called Aclueans. The name was given also 
in those times to some of the tribes occupying the eastern 
portions of the Peloponnesus, particularly Argos and SpartcL 
Afterwards the inhabitants of Aehaia Propria appropriated 
the name. This rcpublicwas not considerable, in early times 
as regards either the number of its troops, its wealth, or 
the extent of its territory, but was famed for its heroic 
virtues. The Crotonians and Sybarites, to re-establish 
order in their towns, adopted the laws and customs of 
the Achasans. After the famous battle of Leuctra, a dif* 
ference arose betwixt the Lacedeemonians and Thebans, 
who held the virtue of this people in such veneration, that 
they terminated the dispute by their decision. The govern- 
ment of the Achsans was democratical. They preserved 
their liberty till the time of Philif> and Alexander ; but in 
the reign of these princes, and afterwards, they were either 
subjected to the Macedonians, who had made themselves 
masters of Greece, or oppressed by domestic tyrants. The 
Achaean commonwealth consisted of twelve inconsiderablo 
towns in Peloponnesus. About 280 years before Christ the 
republic of the Ach^^ns recovered its old institutions and 
unanimity. This was the renewal of the ancient confede- 
ration, which subsequently became so famous under the 
name of the Acblsan League — having for its object, not 
as formerly a common worship, but a substantial poUtfcal 
union. Though dating from the year B.a 280, its import* 



94 



A C H — A C H 



Alice maybe referred to its connection with Aratus of Sicyon, 
«bout 30 years later, as it wsis further augmented by tbo 
splendid abilities of Pbilopocmcn. Tbus did this people, so 
celebrated in the heroic age, once more emerge from com- 
panitive obscurity, and become the greatest among the^tat.es 
of Greece m the last days of its national independence. The 
mhabitants of I'atne and of Dyme were the first assertors of 
ancient liberty. The tyrants were banished, and the towns 
again made one commonwealth. A public council was then 
held, m which affairs of importance were discussed and deter- 
mined ; and a register was provided for recording the trans- 
actions of tLe council. This assembly had two presidents, 
who were nominated alternately by the different towns. 
But instead of two presidents, they soon elected but one. 
Many neighbouring towns, which admired the constitution 
of this republic, founded on equality, liberty, the love ot 
justice, and of the public good, were incorporated with the 
Achaqans, and admitted to the full enjoyment of their 
laws and privileges. The Achaean League affords the moet 
perfect example in antiquity of the federal form of govern- 
ment ; and, allowing for difference of time and place, its 
resemblance to that of the United States government is 
very remarkable. (See Arts. Ampiiictvony and Federal 
Government; also Freeman's Federal Government, 2 vols. 
8vo. 1803, and Comparative Politics^ 8vo. 1873; Droysen, 
Gcschichte da, IlellenismuSf 2 vols. ; Hclwmg, Gesc/iic/Ue 
de.^ Ackdvtchen Bundes.) 

' .VCHAN, the son of Carmi\ of the tribe of Judah, at 
the taking of Jericho concealed two hundred shekels of 
silver, a' Babylonish garment, and* a^ wedge of gold, con- 
trary to the express . command of God. This sin proved 
fatal'to the KracKtes, who were repulsed at the siege of 
Ai. In this emergency Joshua prostrated himself before 
the Lord, and begged that he would have mercy, upon his 
people. Achan was discovered by casting lots, and he 
and his children were stoned to death. This expiation 
being made, Ai was taken by stratagem, (Josh, vii, viii.) 

A CHARD, Franz Carl, a Prussian chemist, born at 
Berlin on the 28th April 1753, was the first to turn 
Marggraff^s discovery of the presence of sugar ift beet-root 
to commercial account. He erected a factory on an estate 
in Silesia, granted to him about 1800 by the king of Prussia, 
and produced there large quantities of sugar to meet 
the scarcity occasioned by the closing of the West Indian 
ports to continental traders. In 1812 a similar establish- 
ment was erected by Naix)Ieon at Rambouillet, although 
the Institute of France ill 1800, while honouring Achard 
for his researches, had declared , his process to have little 
practical value. At the close of the war the manufacture 
of beet-root sugar was protected by duties on other sugars 
that were almost prohibitive, so that the real worth of 
Achard's discoveries could not be tested. Achard was a 
frequent contributor to the Memoirs of Ute Academy of Berlin, 
and published in 1780 Chymisck-Physische Schriftenj con- 
taining descriptions and results of his very numerous and 
carefully conducted experiments on the adhesion of bodies. 
He died in 1821. 

ACHARIUS, Ertk, a Swedish physician and botanist, 
born at Gefle in 1757. The son of a comptroller of 
customs, be studied first in his native town, and then in 
1773 at the University of Upsal, where Liunaius was one 
of his teachers. In 1782 he took the degree of M.D. at 
the University of Lund, and practised thereafter in various 
districts of Sweden. But the direction of his studies had 
been determined by his contact .with Linnaeus, and ho 
found his appropriate sphere when he was appointed 
Professor of Botany at the W'adstena Academy in 1801. 
Five years before he had been admitted a member of the 
Academy at Stockholm He devoted himself to the study 
of the cryptogamic or era of plantSi and especially of the 



family of lichens. 'All his publications were connected 
with this suBJect, the Lidienograpkia Universalis (Got* 
tingen, 1804) being the most important. Acharius died 
of i^oplexy in 1819. His name has beeu given by 
botanists to more than one species of plants. 

. ACHATES, th^ faithful friend and companion of iEneaa, 
celebrated in Yirgii's J^neid d^^fdus Ac/uUes. 

ACHEEN. See AchIn. 

ACHELOUS, the largest river in .Greece, rises in Mount 
Pindus, and dividing Altolia from Aeoxnania, falls into 
the lonian^ea. In the lower part of its ogurse the fives 
winds in an extraordinary manner through very fertile but 
marshy plains. Its water descends from the mountains^ 
heavily charged with fine mud, which is deposited along 
its banks and in the sea at its mouth, where a number of 
small islands have gradvially been formed. It was formerljp 
calle|l Thoas, from its impetuosity in its upper portion, and 
Horner gave it the name of kin^ of rivers. It has a course 
of 130 miles. The epithet Acheloius is used for aqueus 
(Virgil), the ancients calling all water Aehehus, according 
to Ephonis. The river is now called Aspro Potamo. 

ACHENWALL, Gottfried, a German writer, cele- 
brated as having formulated ancl developed the science 
( WissenscAafi der Slaalen), to which he was the first to 
apply the name scienlia siatistica, or statistics. Born at 
Elbing, in East Prussia, in October 1719, he studied at 
Jena, Halle, and Leipsic, and took a degree at the last- 
named -university. He removed to Marburg in 1746, 
where for two years he reqfl lectures on history, and on the 
law of nature aqd of nations Here, too, he commenced 
those inquiries .in statistics by which his name bccaihe 
known. In 1748, having been invited by Miinchhausen, 
the Hanoverian minister, to occupy a chair at the univer- 
sity, he removed to Gottingen, where he resided till his 
death in 1772. His chief works were connected with 
statistics. The Staaisverfassunpen der europdisdien Beichs 
appeared first in 1752, and revised editions— H^orrected 
from information which he travelled thiQUgh England, 
France, and other countries to collect — were published in 
17G2 and 1768. He wad married in 1752 to a lady 
named Walther, who obtained some celebrity by a voliune 
of poems published in 1750, and by other writings. 

ACHERON, in Classical MyUuology, the soiwof Cet^ 
who, for supplying the Titans with drink when they were 
in contest with Jupiter, was turned into a river of Hades, 
over which departed soids were ferried on their way to 
Elysium. The name evei^tually was used to designate the 
whole of the lower world. 

ACHILL, or " Eagle" Islai/d, off the west coast of Ire- 
land, forms part of the county of Mayo. It is of triangular 
shape, and extends 15 miles from east to west, and 12 
from north to south, its to'tal area being 51,521 acres. 
The island is very mountainous'; its extreme western point, 
AchiU Head, is a bold and rugged promontory rising to a 
height of 2222 feet above the sea. Large bogs, incapable 
of cultivation, alternate with the hills of this desolate iaie, 
of whose extensive surface not more than 500 acres have 
been reclaimed. The inhabitants earn a scanty subsistence 
by fishing and tillage ; their dwellings are miserable 
hovels. There is a mission-station on the island, and 
remains of ancient churches are still extant 

ACHILLES ('AxtM»<j)i' When first taken up by the 
legendary history of Greece, the ancestors of Achilles were 
settled in Phthia and in .^gina. That their original seat» 
however, was in the neighbourhood of Dodona and the 
AchelouB is made out from a combination of the fallowing 
facts: That in the Iliad (xvi. 233) Achilles prays to Zeus 
of -.Dodona; that this district was the first to bear the 
oame of Hellas; that the followers of AchiUes at Troy were 
the only persons named Hellenes in the time of Homer 



A H — A C H 



9& 



{pmcy± L 3; cf. Hiad^ ^ 684, where the more usual name 
of Myrmidoncs also occurs) ; that in .£gina Zeus was styleid 
MHellanioe^" and that the name of Selloi, applied to the 
priesthood at Dodona, is apparently identical with the name 
Hellenes. Whether from this local connection the derivation 
of the name of AchiUes from the same root as 'A^cAipoc 
should be preferred to the other derivations, such as 
*Axe-XnJs=»'E;(cXao?, "ruler," or 'Ax-iAcw, = " the bane of 
the Ilians," remains undecided. But this is gained, that we 
see in what manner the legend of Achilles had its root in 
the earlier Pelosgic religion, his adherence to which in the 
prayer just cited would otherwise appear very strange on 
the part of a hero who, through the influence of Homer and 
his successors, is completely identified with the Olympian 
system of gods. According to thcr genealogy, ^Eacus had 
two sons, Pclcus and Telamon, of whom the former became 
the father of Achilles — the latter, of Ajax; but of this 
relationship between Achilles and Ajaz there is no sign in 
the J Had. Pcleus ruled in Phthia ; aiyi the gods remark- 
ing his piety, rewarded him with, among other presents, a 
infe in the person of the beautiful nereid Thetis. After 
her son was bom, Thetis appears to haver returned to her 
life in the sea. The boy was placed under his father's 
friend, the centaur Chciron. When six years old he slew 
lions and boars, and could run down a stag. When nine, 
he was removed from his instructor to the island of Scyrus, 
where, dressed as a girl, he was to be brought up among 
the daughters of Lycoraedcs, his mother preferring for 
him a long inglorious life to a brief but splendid career. 
The same desire for his safety is apparent in other legends, 
which describe her as trying to make him invulnerable 
when a child by placing him in boiling water or in a fire, 
and then salving him with ambrosia; or again, in later 
story, by dipping him in the river Styx, from which he 
came out, all but tlie heel which she held, proof against 
wounds. When the aid of Achilles was found indispensable 
to the expedition against Troy, Odysseus set out for Scyrus 
as a pedlar, spread his wares, including a shield and spear, 
before the lung's daughters, among whom was Achilles 
in disguisa Then he caused an alarm of danger to be 
sounded, upon which, while the girls fled, Achilles seized 
the arms, and thus revealed himself. ^ Provided with a 
contingent of 50 ships, and accompanied by the aged. 
Phoenix and Patroclus, he joined the expedition, which 
after occupying nine years in raids upon the towns in the 
neighbourhood of Troy and in Mysia, as detailed in the 
epic poem entitled the Cypria^ culminated in the regulhr 
siege of Troy, as described in the liiad, the grand object 
of which is the glorification of our hero. Estranged from 
his comrades, because his captive Briseis had been taken 
from him, AchiUes remained inexorable in his tent, while 
defeat attended the Greeks. At length, at their greatest 
need, he yielded so far as to allow Patroclus to take his 
chariot and to assume his armour. Patroclus fell, and 
the news of his death roused Achilles, who, now equipped 
with new armour fashioned by Hephasstus, drove back the 
Trojans, slew Hector, and after dragging his body thrice 
round the Trojan walls, restored it to Priam. With the 
funeral rites of Patroclus the Iliad concludes, and the story 
is taken up by the Ethiopia, a poem by Arctinus of Miletus, 
in which is described the combat of Achilles first with the 
amazon Penthesilea, and next with Memnon. When the 
latter feU, Achilles drove back the Trojans, and, impelled 
by fate, himself advanced to the Scffian gate, where an 
arrqp from the bow of P^ris struck his vulnerable heel, 
and he fell, bewailed through the whole camp. (a. s. m.) 

ACHlliLES TATIUS, a Greek writer, bom at Alexan- 
' dria. The precise time when he flourished is unceitain, but 
it cannot haw^e been earlier than the 9th century, as in his 
principal work he evidently imitates Heliodorus. Suidas, 



who calls him Achilles Statins, says that Ik; was converted 
from heathenism and became a Christian bishop, but this 
is doubtful, the more so that Suidas also attributes to him 
a work on the sphere (ircpl a-x^pai:) which is referred to 
by Firmicus (330-50), and must, therefore, have been 
written by another person. The erotic romnnce of Achillea 
Tatius, entitled The Lovet of Clitop/ion and Lrticippf, is 
almost certainly the work of a heathen writer. The stylo 
of the work is ornate and rhetorical, while the story ia 
often unnatural, and sometimes coarse, and the devcloi)- 
mcnt of the plot irregular and frequently intcmiptcd Its 
popularity at the time it appeared is proved by the many 
manuscripts of it which still exist, and the value attached 
to it by modem scholars and critics is seen in the frequency 
with which it has been reprinted and translated. A Latin 
translation- by AnnibalyCrucceius was published, first in 
part at Leydcn in 1544, and then complete at Basel in 
1554. The Greek text was first printed by Cbmmelin, at 
Heidelberg, in 1 GOl. Other editions by Salmasius (Leydcn, 
1C40X Mitscherlich (Biponti, 1792), and Jacobs (Leipsic; 
1821), have been superseded by the editions of Hirschig 
(Paris, 1856), and Herchcr (Leipsic, 1857). An English 
translation by A H. (Anthony Hodges) appeared at 
Oxford in 1638. 

ACUILLINI, Alexandbe (1463-1512), a native of 
Bologna, was celebrated as a lecturer both in medicine and 
in philosophy, and was styled the second Aristotle. He and 
Mundinus were the first at Bologna to avail themselves of 
the permission given by Frederick IL to dissect dead 
bodies. His philosophical works were printed in one 
volume folio, at Venice, in 1508, and reprinted with con- 
siderable additions in 1545, 1551, and 1568. He also 
wrote several medical works, chiefly on anatomy. 

ACHIN (pronounced Alcheen), a town and also a state of 
Northern Sumatra; the one state of that island which has 
been powerful at any time since the discovery of the Cape 
route to the East, and the only one that sjlill remains indepen- 
dent of the Dutch, though that indepcnclence is now menaced. 

De Barros names Achfn among the twenty-nine states 
that divided the sea-board of Sumatra when the Portuguese 
took Malacca. Northern Sumatra had been visited by 
several European travellers in the Middle Ages, such as 
Marco Polo, Friar Odorico, and Nicolo Conti Some of 
these as weU as Asiatic writers mention Lambri, a state • 
which must have nearly occupied the position of Achfn. 
But the first voyager to visit Achfn, by that name, was 
Alvaro Tellez, a captain of Tristan d'Acunha's fleet, in 
1506. It was then a mere dependency of the adjoining 
state of Pedir; and the latter, with Pasei, formed the only 
states on the coast whose chiefs claimed the title of Sultan. 
Yet before twenty years had passed Achin had not only 
gained independence, but had swallowed up all other states 
of Northern Sumatra. It attained its climax of power Iq 
the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636), under 
whom the subject coast extended from Aru opposite 
Malacca round by the north to Padang on the west coast,, 
a sea-boai'd of not less than 1100 miles; and besides this^ 
the king's supremacy was owned by the large island of 
Nyds, and by the continental Maky states of Johor, 
PAhAng, Quedah, and PerAk. 

The present limits of Aehfn supremacy in Sumatra ara 
reckoned to be, on the east coast the River Tamiang, ia 
about 4** 25' N. lat, which forms the frontier of territories 
tributary to Si&k; and on the west coast a line in about 
2^ 48' N., the frontier of Trumon, a small modem stated 
lying between Achin and the Dutch government of Padang^ 
Even within these limits the actual power of Achin is prcf 
carious, and the interior boundary can be laid down onIj» 
from conjecture. This interior country is totally onex- 
plorcd. It is believed to be inhabited by tribes kindred 



96 



A C HIN 



to the Battas, that remarkable r^ce of anthropophagi who 
adjoin od the soutL The whole area of Achln territory, 
defined to the best of our ability, ^ill contain about 16,400 
English square miles. A cate of 20 per square mile, per- 
haps somewhat too large an average, gives a probable 
population of 328,000. 

The production of rice and pepper forms the chief 
industry of the Achln territory. From Pedir and othc. 
ports on the north coast lai^e quantities of betel-nut are 
exported to continental India, to Bunnah, and to Penang 
ibr China. Some pepper is got from Pedir, but the chici 
export is from a number of small ports and anchorages on 
the west coast, where vessels go from port to port making 
up a carga Achln ponies are of good repute, and are 
exported, l^linor articles of export are sulphur, iron, 
sappan-wood, gutCa-percha, dammer, rattans, bamboos, 
benzoin, and camphor from the interior forests. . The 
camphor is that from the DrycUxdanops campkora^ (or 
which so high a price is paid in China, and the whole goes 
thither, the bulk of that whole being, however, extremely 
small Very little silk is now produced, but in the ) 6ih 
century the quantity seems to have been considerable. 
•What is now wanted for the local textures, which are in 
some esteem, is imported from China. 

The chief attraction to the considerable trade that'existcd 
at Achln two centuries ago must have been gold ,; No 
place in the East, unless Japan, was so abundantly sup- 
plied with gold. We can form do estimate of the annual 
export, for it is impossible to accept Valentyn's statement 
that it sometimes reached 80 bahars (512,000 ounces!). 
Crawford (1820), who always reckoned low, calculated the 
whole export of Sumatra at 35,530 ounces, and that of 
Achin at 10,450; whilst Anderson (1826), who tends to 
put figures too high, reckoned the whole Ach(n export 
alone at 32,000 ounces. The chief imports to Achln are 
opium (largely consumed),' rice (the indigenous supply 
being inadequate), salt, iron ware, piece-goods, arms and 
ammunition, vessels of copper and pottery, China goods Of 
sorts, and a certain kind of dried fish. 

The great repute of Achin at one time 'as a place of 
trade is shown by the fact) that io this port the fiurst Dutch 
(1599) and first English (1602} commercial ventures to 
the Indies were directed. Lancaster, the English com- 
modore, carried letters from Queen Elizabeth to the king 
of Achin, and was well received by the pynce then reign- 
ing, AUuddin Sh^L Another exchange of letters took 
^lace between King James I. and Iskandar Mudain 1613. 
,Bnt native caprice and natural jealousy at the gro^-ing 
force of the European nations in those seas, the reckless 
rivalries of the latter and theix fierce desire for monopoly, 
were alike destructive of sound trade; and the English 
factory, though several times set up, was nevei long main- 
tained. The French made one great effort under Bcaulieu 
(1621) to establish rektions with^ Achin, but nothing 
camet)fit. _ _ 

Still the forcigfl trade of Achfzi^ though subject to spas- 
modic interruptions, was important l>unpier and others 
speak o£ the number of foreign merchants settled there,'^ 
English, Dutch, Danes, Portuguese, Chinese, Banyans 
from Guzerat, Ac Dampier says the roads were rarely 
without ten or fifteen sail of different nations, bringing 
vast quantities of rice, as well as sUks, chintzes, muslins, 
and opium. Besides the Chinese merchants settled at 
Achin, others used to come annually with the junks, ten 
or twelve in number, which arrived in June. A regular 
fair was then established, which lasted two months, and 
was known as the China camp, — a lively scene, and great 
resort of foreigners. 

The Achinese are not identical with the Malays proper 
cither in fispcct or language. , They are said to be tdler, 



handsomer, and darker, as if with a mixture of blood from 
India proper. Their language is little known; but though 
it has now absorbed mud^ Malay, the original part of it is 
said to have characteristics connecting it both with the 
Batta and with the Indo-Chinese tongues. The Achln 
literature, however, is entirely Malay; it embraces poetry, 
a good deal of theology, and several chronicles. \ 

The name of the state is properly AcKeh. This the 
Portuguese made into Achem; whilst we; with the Dutch, 
learned to call it Ackin. The hst appears to have been a 
Persian or Indian form, suggested by jingling analogy with 
MAchin (China). i 

The town itself lies very near the north-west extremity 
of Sumatra, known in 6harts as Achin Head. Here a 
girdle of ten or twelve small islands affords protection to 
the ancboraga This faib in N.W. winds, but it is said 
that vessels may find safe riding at all seasons by shifting 
their berths. The town lies between two'and three miles 
from the sea, chiefly on the left bank of a river of no great 
size. This forms a swampy delta, and discharges by three 
mouths. The central and chief mouth is about^ 100 yards 
wide, and has a depth of 20 to 30 feet within the bar. 
But the latter has barely 4 feet at low tide; at high tide 
it admits native craft of 20 or 30 tons, and larger craft in 
tbe ramy season * The town, Uke most Mahy towns, con- 
sists of detached houses of timber and thatch, clustered in 
enclosed groups called kampongs, and buried in a forest of 
fruit-trees The chief feature is the palace of the Sultan, 
which ^mmunicates with the river by a -canal, and is 
enclosed, at least partially, by a wall of cut stona 

The valley or alluvial phiiu in which Achin lies is low, 
and subject to partial inundation; but it is shut in at a 
short distance from the town, on the three landward sides, 
by hilla It is highly cultivated, and abounds in small 
villages and kam pongs, with white mosques interspersed* 
The hills to the eastward are the spurs of a great volcanic 
mountain^ upwards of 6000 feet in height, called by natives 
Yamuria, by mariners " the Golden Mo\intain.*^J^Of .tho 
town population 'we find no mbderii estimated 

The real original territory of the Achfnese,' called by 
them Great Achfn^in the sense of Achln proper), consists 
of three districts immediately round the city, distinguished 
respectively as the 26, the 25, and the 22. mdkims' (or 
hundreds, to use the nearest English terra). 

Each of these three districts has two heads, called pang* 
Itn/^as; and these, accord ing t o some modem accounts, 
constitute the council of sta^who are the chief adminis- 
trators, and in whose hands it lies to depose the sovereign 
or to sanction his choice of a Successor. Late notices 
speak of a chief minister, apparently distinct from these; 
and another important member of the government \ the 
ShAbandar, who is over all matters of customs, shipplmg, 
and commerce. 

The court of Achin, in the 1 7th century, maintained a 
good deal of pomp; and, according to Beaulieu, the king 
had always 900 elephants. These animals, though found 
throughout Sumatra, are now no longer tamed or kept 

Hostilities with the Portuguese began from the time of 
the first independent king of Achfn; and they had little 
remission till the power of Portugal fell with the loss of 
Malacca (1641). Not less than ten times before that 
event were armaments despatched from Achin to reduce 
Malacca^ and more than once its garrison was very hard 
pressed. One of these armadas, equipped by Iskacdar 
Mudain 1615, gives an idea of the king's Resources.* It 
consisted of 500 saO, of which 250 were galleys, and 

* Seven] other great volcanic cones exist in the Xchi'n territory, utd 
two visible from seaward rise to a height of 11,000 feet or more in tfae> 
unexplored interior. 

* A mukim b said properly to embrace 44 household*. 



A C H — A C I 



97 



kmong these s htiodred ^ere greater than any then naed in 
feurope. 60,000 men were embarked* with the king and 
piis women. ' 

• On the death of Tskandar^e eneceesor in 1641, the widow 
>raB placed on the throne; and as a female reign faYoored 
the oligarchical tendencies of the Malay chiefs, three more 
<]ueens were allowed to reign cniocessively. Though this 
series of f onale sovereigns lasted only fiffy-«ight years alto- 
geUier, so dense Is a|^t to be the ignorance of recent histoiy, 
that long before the end of that pezibd it had become an 
accepted belief among foreign residents at Ach£n\hat there 
never had been any sovereigns in Achin except females; 
and.hence, by an easy inference, that the Queen of Sheba 
had been Queen of Achin I 

In 1699 the Arab or fanaticsl "party suppressed female 
government^ and put a chief of Arab blood on the throne. 
The remaining fiistoiy of Achin. is one of rapid decay. 
Thirty sovereigns in dl have reigned from the beginning 
of the 16th century to the present day. 

After the restoiation of Java to the Netherlands in 1816, 
a good deal of weight was attached by the neighbouring 
English colonies to the maintenance of our influence in 
Achin; and in 1819 a treaty of friendship was concluded 
with the Calcutta Qovemment, which excluded other 
Buropean nationalities from fixed residence in Achin. 
When the home Government, in 1824, made a treaty with 
the Netherlands, surrendering our remaining settlements 
in Sumatra in exchange for oertahi possessions on the con- 
tinent of Asia, no reference was made in the articles to the 
Indian treaty of 1 81 9 ; but an understanding was exchanged 
that it should be modified by us, whilst no proceedings 
hostile to Achin should be attempted by the Dutch. 

This reservation was foimaily abandoned by our Qovem- 
ment in a convention signed at the Ha^e, November 2, 
1871; and little more than a year elapsed before the 
government of Batavia declared war upon Achin. Doubt- 
less there was provocation, as there always will be between 
such neighbours; but the' necessity for war has been 
greatly doubted, even in Holland. A Dutch force landed 
at Achin in April 1873, and attacked the palaca It was 
defeated with considerable loss, including that of the 
general (Kohler). The approach of the south-west mon- 
soon was considered to preclude the immediate renewal of 
r the attempt ; but hostilities were resujued, and Achin fell 
i in January 1874. 

• ' (De Barroe; Faria y Souza; Valcntyn, voL v. ; Beaulieu 
(in Th^not's GoUection); Dampier; Marsden; Crawfurd's 
Hist, and Deel, of the IncL Archip,; J, <^ Jnd. Archip.; 
Dulaurier in J.AnaUque, 3d s. vol viiL; Andeison's Acheen, 
1840; Veth, Aichini &c Leyden, 1873,.&c.) (h. y.) 
'* AOHMET, or Ahm£D, the name of* three emperors or 
sultans of Turkey, the fint of the name reigning from 1603 
to 1617, the second from 1691 to 1695. Achmet III. 
succeeded his brother Mustapha IT., whom the Janissaries 
deposed in 1703. After the battle of Pultowa in 1709, 
Charles XII. of Sweden took refuge with him, and incited 
him to War with Peter the Great, Czar of Russia. Achmet 
recovered the Morea from the Venetians (1715); but his 
expedition into Hungary was less fortunate, his army being 
defeated at Peterwardein by Prince Eugene in 1716, and 
again near Belgrade the year after. The empire was dis- 
j^acted during his feign by political disturbances, which 
[were occasioned, in part at least, by his mlsgovemment; 
and the discontent of his soldiers at last (1 730) drove him 
Iro m flie t hrona '\ He died in prison in 1736. 
r AGHRA Yy a small picturesque lake in Perthshire, near 
iLoch Katrine, 20 nules W. of Stirling, which has obtained 
noto riety from Scotfs allusion to it in the Lady of the Lake, 
i AGHBOMATIC GLASSES are so. named from being 
sp.ciaify eonsfaroeted^with a view to prevent' the confu^on 



of colours and distortion of images that result frum tlte 
use of lenses in optical inMruments. When white light 
passes through a len8» the different-coloured rays that con-' 
stitute it are refracted or bent aside at different angles, and 
so converge at different foci, producing a blurred and 
coloured imag& To remedy this compound lenses havo 
been devised, which present a well-defined image, unsur-' 
rounded by coloured b&nds of light To instruments fitted 
with lenses of this kind has been given the name achromatie^' 
from d privative, and xp^f^^ colotyr. The celebrated opti- 
cian, John DoUond, was the first to surmount this practical 
difficulty, about the year 1757, by the use of a combination 
of crown and flint glasa See Optics, Micbosgope, dfa 4 

ACI HE ALE, a city . and *seaport of Sicily, in the 
Italian province of Catania, near the base of Mount Etna. 
It stands on solidified lava, which has here been deposited 
by different streams to a depth of 560 feet The town, 
which has been almost entirety reH.*rected since the earth- 
quake of 1693, is built of lava, contains many handsome 
edifices, and is defended by a fortress. Linen, silks, and 
cutlery are manufactured, and the trade in cotton, flax, 
grain, and wines is considerable. The place is celebrated 
for its cold sulphurous mineral waters. Near Ad Reals 
is the reputed scene of the mythical adventures of Acis and 
Qalatea; and on this account several small towns in the 
neighbourhood also 'bear the name of Ad, such as Ad 
CasteUo, Ad Terra, &c Ad Reale has a popidation of 
24,151. 

ACID, a general term in chemistry, applied to a 
group of compound substances, possessing certain very 
distinctive characteristics. All acids have one essential 
property, vi&, that of combining chemically with an alkalJ 
or base, forming a new compound that has neither add 
nor alkaline charaeters. The new bodies formed in this 
way are termed salu. Every add is therefore capable of 
produdng as many salts as there are basic substances to bo 
neutrdised; and this sdt-forming power is the best de- 
finition of an acid substance. 

The majority of adds possess the following conlivgeni 
properties:— 

1. When applied to the tongue, they ^zcite that sensation 
which is called sour or aeicL . '» < 

2. They change the blue colours of vegetables to a red. 
The vegetable blues employed for this purpose are generally 
tincture of litmus and syrup of violets or of radishes, which 
have obtained the name of re^t^ents or tests. If theso 
colours have been previously converted to z green by alkalieaib 
th^ adds restore them. 

All these secondary properties are variable; and if we 
attempted to base a definition on any one of them, many 
important acids would be excluded. Take the case of a 
body like silica, so widely diffused in nature. Is pure 
silicious sand or flint an acid or a neutral substance) When 
it is examined, it is found to be insoluble in water; to be 
devoid of taste, and to possess no action on vegetable colour 
ing matters; yet this substance is a true acid, because when 
it is heated along with soda or lime, it forms the new body 
commonly called glass, which is .chemically a salt of silidc 
add Many other adds resemble silica in properties, and 
would be mistaken for neutral bodies if the aalt-|brming 
power was overlooked ^ . 

Another metEod of regarding an add, which is fonnd of 
great importance in discussing chemical reactions, is to say 
an add is a salt whose base is water. This definition is 
very apparent if we regard what takes place fn separating 
the add from a salt Li this decomposition the add would 
appear to be left without having any substitute for the 
removed alkali This is not however the casei, as water is 
found to enter into union instead of the base. Thus every 
true add must contain hydrogen; and if this is displaced 



98 



A CI — AGO 



by a metal, salts are formed directly. An acid is there^ 
fitro a salt, whose metal is hydrogei^ The full importance 
of the definition of an acid wiU.be learned under the head- 
ing Chemistry. 

ACID ALIUS, Valens, a very distinguished scholar 
and critic, bom in 15G7 at Wittstock, m Brandenburg. 
After studying at Rostock and Uelmstaedt, and residing 
about three years m Italy, he took up his residence at 
Breslau, where he professed the Roman Catholic religion. 
His excessive application to study was supposed to have 
caused his untimely death, which occurred in 1595, when 
he had just completed his twenty-eighth year. He wrote 
notes on Tacitus and Curtius, a commentary on Plautus, 
and a number of poems, which ^re inserted in the DdicuB 
of the -German poets. Bailletgave him a place among his 
Enfans Cdl^eSt and tells that he wrote the commentary 
on Plautus and several of the Latin poems when he was 
only seventeen or eighteen years of age. 

ACINACES, an ancient Persian sword, short and 
straight, and ^om, contrary to the Roman fashion, on the 
right side, or sometimes m front of the body, as shown, in 
the bas-reliefs found at Persepolia Among the Persian 
nobility they were frequentlv made of gold, being worn as 
a badge of distinction. The acinaces was an object of 
religious worship with the Scythians and others (HerodL 
iv.62). . 

ACIS, in Mythology t the son of Faunus and the nymph 
Symsdthis, was a beautiful shepherd of Sicily, who being 
beloved by Qalatea, Polyphemus the giant was so enraged 
that he crushed his nval with a rock, and his blood gush- 
ing forth from under the rock, was metamorphosed into 
the rnrer bearing his name (Ovid, Met. ziiL 750; Sil. Ital 
xiv. 221). This nver, now Fiume di Jaci, or Acque Grandi, 
rises under a bed of lava on the easterly base of Etna, and 
passing Aci Reale, after a rapid course of one mile, falls 
into th« sea. The waters of the stream, once celebrated 
for their parity, are now sulphureous. 

ACKERMANN, John Chaistian Gottlieb, a learned 
physician and professor of medicine, bom at Zeulenroda, 
in Upper Saxony, in 1756. At the early age of fifteen he 
became a student of medicine at Jena, where he soon 
attracted the favourable notice of Baldinger, who undertook 
the direction of his studiea When BaJdinger was trans- 
ferred to Gottingen in 1773, Ackermann went with him, 
and afterwards studied for two years at Hall& A few 
years' practice at Stcndal (1 778-99), where there were 
numerous factories, enabled him to add many valuable 
original observations to his translation of Ramazzini's 
Treatise of the Diseases of Artificers (1780-83). In 1786 
he became professor of medicine at the university of 
Altorf , in Franconia, occupying first the chair of chemistry, 
and then, from 1794 till his death in 1801, that of patho- 
logy and therapeutics. Dr Ackermann's knowledge of the 
history of medicine may be estimated by his valuable con- 
tributions to Harless's edition of Fabricius' Bibliotheca 
Groeca. He wrote numerous original works, besides trans- 
lations. 

ACCEMETiE (<lxoifi>7ro9, sleepless), an order of monks 
instituted by Alexander, a Syrian, about the middle of 
the 5th century. Fouhding on the precept, Pray zviihottt 
ceasing, they celebrated divine service uninterruptedly night 
and day, for which purpose they divided themseNes inta 
three sections, that relieved each other in turn. The 
chief seat of the Acoemet» was the cloister Studium at 
Constantinople, whence they were sometimes called Studites, 
Having adopted the monophysite heresy, they were put 
under the Papal ban about the year 536. 

ACOLYTE (from <Uoa(wi9o5, an attendant), one of a 
minor order of clergy in the ancient churdi, ranking 
next to the sub-dcocon. _ We learn from the canons of the 



fourth Council of Carthage that the archdeacon, at theif 
ordination, put into their hands a candlestick with a taper 
and an empty pitcher^ to imply that they were appointed 
to light the candles of the church and to furnish wine 
for the eucharist. Their dress was the cassock and sur^ 
plice. The name and office still exist in the church. 

ACONCAGUA, a province of Chile, South America, is 
about 100 miles long by 40 miles wide, and lies between 
3r 30' and 33^ 20' S. lat, and 70*» and 71* 30' W. long., 
between the provinces of Valparaiso and Santiago on the N, 
and Coquimbo on the S. A large part of th@ province 
is mountainous, but it contains several rich and fertile 
valleys, which yield wheat, maize, sugar-cane, fruits, and 
garden produce in abundance. In &e agricultural dis- 
tricts there are raised from 50 to 60 fanegas of wheat for 
every quadra, equal to about 35 bushels per English acre. 
The province has also mineral resources, but not to such 
extent as Coquimbo or Atacama. Its chief town is San 
Felipe. The mountain Aconcagua, one of the loftiest 
peaks of the Andes, rises to the height of 23,910 feet 
above the sea on the frontier between this province and 
Mendoza, a department of the Argentine Republie. A 
nver of the same name rises on the south side of the 
mountain, and after a course of 230 miles falls into the 
Pacific 12 miles N. of Valparaiso. Population (1870), 
134.178. 

ACONITE, AcoNiTUU, a genus of plants commonly 
known as Aconite, Monkshood, Friar's Cap, or Helmet 
(fiower, and embracing aboi^t 18 species, chiefly -natives of 
the mountaiuDus parts of the northern hemisphere. They 
are distinguished by having one of the five blue or ydlow 
coloured sepals in the form of a helmet j hence the English 
name. Two of the petals placed under the hood of the 
calyx are supported on long stalks, and have a hollow 
spur at their apex. The genus belongs to the natural 
order Ranunculaceae, oi the Buttercup family. Acofiitum 
Napdlus^ common monkshood, is a doubtful native of 
Britain. It is an energetic irritant and narcotic poison. 
It causes death by a depressing effect on the nervous system, 
by producmg palsy of the muscles concerned in breathing, and 
by fainting. A tincture prepared by the action of spirit 
on the roots is uded medicinally to allay pain, especially 
in cases of ticL Its roots have occasionally been mistaken 
for horse-radish. The Aconite has a short underground 
stem, from which d^k-coloured tapering roots descend. The 
crown or upper portion of the root gives rise to new plants. 
When put to the lip, the juice of the Aconite root pro- 
duces a feeling of numbness and tingling. The horse- 
radish root, which -belongs to the natural order Cruci- 
feras, is much longer than that of the Aconite, and it is 
not tapering ; its colour is yellowish,, and the top of the 
root has the remains of the leaves on it. It has a pun* 
gent taste. Many species of Aconite are cultivated in 
gardens, some having blue and others yellow flowers. 
Aconihim Lycoctonwn^ Wolfsbane, is a yellow-flowered 
species common on the Alps of Switzerland. One species, 
Aconitum heterophyllum, found in the East Indies, and 
called Butees, has tonic properties in its roots. The roots 
of Aconitum ferox supply the famous Indian fN'ipal) 
poison called Bikh, Bi^ or Nabea This species Is con* 
sidered by Hooker and lliomson as a variety of Aconittsm 
Napellus. Aconitum palmatum yields another of the 
celebrated Bikh poisons. Aconitum luridum^ of the Him» 
layas, also furnishes a poison. 

ACONTIUS, the Latinised form of the name of Qiagoxo 
AcoNdO, a philosopher. Jurisconsult, engineer, and theolo 
gian, bom at Trent on the 7th September 1492. He em» 
braced the reformed religion; and after having taken«efugp 
for a time in Switzerland and Strasbui^, he came to Eng* 
land about 1558* Ho waa very favourably received by 



AC O- 

Qoecii Klifflhftth^ at whose court, if is said^ though on, 
donbtful aathoiity, that ha resided for a considerabk period. 
"With the sanction of Parliament, ho carried on for severai 
yean extenaiTQ works for the embankment of the' Thames, 
and so reclaimed a large quantity of waste land, part of 
which was bestowed upon him by way of recompense. His 
'gntitode to Queen Eluabeth was expressed in the dedica- 
tion to her of his celebrated CoUecUon of the Stratagems of 
'SataHf which has been often translated, and has passed 
thiongh many editions. Various opinions haTo been given 
of this work, which advocated toleration to an extent that 
many considered indifierence. The nature of its doctrine 
may perhaps be best gathered from* the fact that it gained 
for the author the praise of Anmnius, and the strong con- 
demnation of the Calvimsta. Acontius also wrote a treatise, 
De Methodoy which was published at Basel in 1558« . He 
died in London about the year 1566. 

AOORUS, a genus of monocotyledonous plants belonging 
to the natural order Anndea), and the sub-order Orontiaceae. 
Aeonti Calamus, sweet^edge or eweet-flaff, is a native of 
Britain. It has aii agreeable odour, and has been used as 
a strengthening remedy, as well as to allay spasms. The 
starchy matter contained in its running stem or :hi2ome 
is associated with a fragrant oil, and it is used as hair- 
powder. Confectioners form a candy from the rhixomes 
of the plant, and it b also used by perfumers in prepanng 
aromatic vinegar. 

% ACOSTA, CnRisTOVAL d', a Portuguese naturalist, bom 
St Mozambique in the early part of the 16th century. On 
a voyage to Asia he waa taken captive by pirates, who 
exacted from him a very large ransom. After spending 
some yeai8>in India, chiefly at Qoa, a Portuguese colony, 
he returned home, and settied as a surgeon at Burgos. 
Here he published his Tratado de las drogas p medecinas 
de las Indias orientcUes (1578) This work was translated 
into Latin, Italian, and French, became well known through- 
oat Europe, and is still consulted aa an authority. Acosta 
also wrote an account of his travels, a book in praise of 
women, and other works. He died in 1580. 
^ ACOSTA, Joseph d', a celebrated Spanish author, was 
bom at Medina del Campo about the year 1539. In 1571 
ha went to Peru as a provincial of the Jesuit^; and, after 
remaining there for seventeen years, he returned to his 
native country, where he became in succession visitor for 
his order of Aragon and Andalusia, superior of Valladolid, 
and rector of the university of Salamanca, in which city he 
died in February 1600. About ten years before his death 
he published at Seville his valuable Histovia Natural y 
Mortd de las Iridias^ part of which- had previously appeared 
in Latin, with the title De Naiura Novi Orbu, libri duo. 
This work, which has been translated into, all the principal 
languages of Europe, gives exceedingly valuable informa- 
tion regarding the condition of South America at the time 
On the subject of climate Acosta was the first to propound 
the theory, afterwards advocated by Buffon, which attri- 
buted the different degrees of heat in the old and new con- 
tinents to the agency of the winds. He also contradicted, 
from his own experience, the statement of Aristotie, that 
the middle zone of the earth was so scorched by the sun as 
to be destitute of moisture, and totally uninhabitable. Even 
after the discovery of America this Aristotelian dogma was 
an article of faith, and its denial was one ground of the 
charge of scepticism and atheism brought against Sir Walter 
Baleigh. Acosta, however, boldly declared that what he 
had seen was so different from what he had expectedj that 
^he could not but *' laugh at Aristotle's meteors and his 
philosophy." In speaking of the conduct of lus country 
|nien, and the meSns they employed for the propagatldn of 
their faith, Acosta is in no respect superior to the otner 
'prejudiced^ writers of his countiy and age Thouj[h he 



AGO 



99 



acknowledges that the career of Spanish eonquest was 
marked by the most savage cruelty and ojppression, he yet 
represents this* people as chosen by Qod to spread the gospel 
among the nations of America, and recounts a variety ot 
miracles as a proof of the constant interposition of Heaven 
in favour of the merciless and rapacious invaders. Besidea 
his History, Acosta wrote the following works ; — 1. De Pro-^ 
mtdgati/me £vangeln apud Barbaras ; 2. Dt Ckristo Reve- 
lato; 3. De Temporibus Novissimis, lib. vi; 4. Co7icionu7it> 
tomi tti. ^ 

^ ' ACOSTA, Uriel d', a Portuguese of noble family, waai 
bom at Oporto towards the dose of the 16th century.. 
His father being a Jewish convert to Christianity, ho waa 
brought up in, the Roman Catholic faith, and stricUy ob- 
serve the rites of the church till the course of his inquiriea 
led him, after much^paioful doubt, to abandon the religion 
of his youth for Judaism. . Passing over to Amsterdam, he , 
was received into the synagogue, having his name changed 
from Gabriel to UrieL He soon discovered, however, that 
those who sat in Moses* seat were shameful perverters of 
the law ; and his bold protests served t}nly to exasperate 
the rabbis, who finally punished his contumacy with the ' 
greater excommimication. Persecution seemed only to 
stimulate his temerity, apd he soon after published a de- 
fence, Examen das tradv^oens Phariseas, dec, in which he 
not .merely exposed the departures of the Jewish teachers 
from the law, but combated the doctrine of a future life,^ 
holding himself supported in this position by the silence* of. 
the Mosaic Books. For this he was imprisoned and fined, 
besides incurring public odium as a>blasphemer and atheist. 
Nothing deterred, he pursued his speculations, which ended 
in his repudiating the divine authority of the law of Moses. 
Wearied, however, by his melancholy isolation, and longing 
for the benefits of society, he waa driven, in the inconsis- 
tency of despairing scepticism, to seek a return to the Jewish 
conununion. Having recanted his heresies, he was re- 
admitted after an excommunication of fifteen years, but 
was soon excommunicated a second time After seven 
years of miserable exclusion, he once more sought admis- 
sion, and, on passing through a humiliating penance, wa» 
again received. These notices of his singular and unhappy 
l^e are taken from his autobiography, Exemplar Humaiiat 
VttoBy published, with a " refutation," by Limborch, and 
republished in 1847. It has b«ibn said that he died by 
his own hand, but this is, to say the least^ doubtful. His 
eventful history forms the subject of a tale and of a tragedy 
by Gutzkow. 

ACOTYLEDONES, the name given to one of the Classes. 
of the Natural System of Botany, embracing flowerlesa 
plants, such as ferns, lycopods, horse-tails, mosses, liverworts,, 
lichens, sea-weeds, and mushrooms. The name is derived 
froin the character of the embryo, which has no cotyledon. 
Flowering plants have usually one or two cotyledons, that 
is, ileed-leaves or seed-lobes connected with their embryo ; 
while in flowerless plants the body representing the embnro 
consists of a cell, called a spore, without any leaves. The 
plants have no flowers, and their organs of reproduction are 
inconspicuous, hence they are called by Linnaeus crypto 
gamous. Some flowering plants, such as dodders, have no 
cotyledons; and some have the cotyledons divided into 
more than two, as in conifers. Some acotyledonous spores, 
when sprouting, produce a leaf -like expansion called a pro« 
thallus, on which the organs of reproduction, consisting 
of antheridia and archegonia, are produced This is well 
seen in the case of ferns. In the interior of the, anthcrL 
dian cells, moving filamentous bodies, called spcrmatozoids, 
have been observed These fertilise the arcbogonial cells, 
whence new plants are produced. In the article Botany 
these plants will be noticed under Class III. of the Natural! 
System. 



100 



ACOUSTICS 



ptfliiUkD. L A COUSTICB (from <Sxd^, to hear) is that biunch of 
XjL Katiiral Philoeophj which treats of the nature of 
Mmndyand the laws of its production and propagation, in so 
far as these depend on physical principles. The description 
of the mechanism* of the organ of voice' and of the ear, and 
the difficult questions connected with the processes by 
which, when sonnd reaches the drum of the car, ;t is trans- 
mitted to the brain, must be dealt with in separate articles 
of this worL It isto the physical part of the science of 
acoostiGB that the present article is restricted. 

Pabt L 

General notiOM <u to Vtbraiumi, Wcmet, d&c 

Soand is 2. We may easily satisfy (nmelTes that, in every in- 

'?|^ ^ stance in which the aetisatioQ of sound is^excited, ihe body, 

nbrauons. ^Jj^^^q^ thfrsoond proceeds, must have been thrown, by a 

blow or other means, into a state of agitation or tremor, 

implying the existenoe of a vibratory motion, or motion to 

and fro, of the particles of which, it consists. 

Thus, if a common glass-jar be struck so as to ^eld an 
audible sound, the existence of a motion of this kmd may 
be felt by the finger lightly applied to the edge of 'the 
glass ; and, on increasing the pressure so as to destroy this 
motion, the sound forthwith ceases. Small pieces of cork 
put in the jar will be found to dance about during the con- 
tinuance of the sound ; water or spirits of wine poured into 
the glass will, tmder the same circumstances, exhibit a 
ruffl^ surface. The experiment is usually p6i)onned, in a 
more striking manner, with a bell-jar and a number of 
small light wooden balls suspended by silk strings to a 
fixed fnuzie above the jar, so as to be just in contact witb 
the widest part of the' glass. On drawing a violin bow 
across the edge, the pendulums are thrown off to a con- 
siderable distance, and falling back are again repelled, 
&a 

It is also in many cases possible to follow with the eye 
the motions of the particles of the sounding body, as, for 
instance, in the case of a violin string or any string fixed 
at both ends, when the string will appear, by a law of 
optics, to occupy at once all the positions which it suc- 
cessively assumes during its vibratory motion. 
Sourd it 3. It is, moreover, essential, in order that the ear may 
propagated \^ affected by a sounding body, that there be interposed. 
^ vibra^ between it and the ear one or more intermediate bodies 
tions of air, (fnedia), themselves capable of ^molecular vibraiion, which 
kc shall receive such motion from the source of sound, and 

transmit it to the external parts of the ear, and especially 
to the membrana tympani or drum of the ear. This state- 
ment is confirmed by the weU-known effect of stopping the 
ear with soft cotton, or other substance possessing little 
elasticity. 

The edr aromid us forms the most important medium of 
communication of sound to our organs of hearing ; in fact, 
were air devoid of this property, we should practically be 
without the sense of hearing. In illustration of the part 
thus assigned to the atmosphere in acoustics, an apparatus 
lias been constructed, consisting of a glass receiver, in which 
-is a bell and a hammer connected with clock-work, by 
which it can be made to strike the bell when required. 
The receiver is closed air-tight by a metal plate, through 
which passes, also air-tight, into the interior, a brass rod. 
By properly moving this rod with the hand, a detent is 
released, which checks the motion of the wheel-work, and 
the hammer strikes the beU continuously, till the detent is 
•jpnshed into ita original position.. . Aa long as the air in 



the receiver is of the usual atmospheric density, the sound! 
is perfectly audible. But on -rarefying the air by means 
of an air-puihp (the clock-work apparatus having been 
separated from the plate of the pump by means of a pad- 
ding of soft cotton), the sound grows gradually fainter, 
and at last becomes inaudible^whcn the rarefaction -of the 
air has reached* a very low point. If, however, at this 
stage of the experiment, the metal rod be brought into 
contact with the bell, the sound will again be heard^ 
clearly, because now there is the necessazy communication 
with the ear. On readmitting the air, the sonnd recovers 
its original intensity. This experiment was first performed 
by Hawksbee in 1705. 

4. Inasmuch, then, as sound necessarily implies theljvBof 
existence in the sounding body, in the air, dec, and (we^^'^ 
may adfd) in the ear itself, of vibratory motion of the par- °^°^^ * 
tides of the various media concerned in the phenomenon, 
a general reference to the laws of such motion ia essential 
to a right understanding of the principles of acoustics. 

The most familiar instance of this kind of motion is 
afforded by the pendulum, a small heavy ball, for instance, 
attached to a fine string, which is fi;ced at its other end. 
There is but one position in which the ball will remain at 
rest, vix., when the string is vertical, there being then 
equilibrium between the two forces acting on the body, 
the tension of the string and the earth's attractive force or 
gravity. Thus, in the adjoining fig., if is the point of 
suspension, and CA the vertical throng^ that point of 
length /, equal to, the string, A is the eqmlibrinm position 
of the {Article. 

Let now the ball be removed from A to P, the siring being 
kept tight, so that P describes ~ 

the arc AP of a qircle of radius 
equal to /, and let the ball be 
there dropped. The tension of 
the string not being now directly 
opposite in direction to gravity 
Q), motion will ensue, and the 
body will retrace the arc PA. 
In doing so, it will continually 
increase its velocity until it 
reaches the point A, where its- 
velocity will be a maximum, and 
will consequently pass to the 

other side of A towards Q. But now gravity tends to 
draw it back towards *A, and hence the motion becomeB 
a retarded one ; . the velocity continually dimininhAn^ and 
is ultimately destroyed at some point Q, which would be 
at a distance from A equal to that of P, but for the 
existence of friction, resistance of the air, &c, which make 
that distance less. From Q it will next move down with 
accelerated motion towards A, where it will have its greatest 
velocity in the direction from left to right, and whence it 
wUl pass onwards towards P, and so on. Thus the body 
will vibrate to and fro on either side of A, its amplitude of 
vibration or distance between its extreme positionsgradually 
diminishing in consequence of the resistances before men- 
tioned, and at last being sensibly reduced to nothing, tha 
body then resuming its equilibrium-position A> 
^ If the amplitude of vibration is restricted witlun incon- 
siderable limits, it is easy to. prove that the motion takes 
place just as if the string were removed, the ball deprived 
altogether of weight and urged by a force directed to the 
point A, and proportional to the distance from that point. 
For then, if m be any position of the baU, the chord mA 
may be regarded as coincident, with the tangent to the 




F!(5.1. 



A C O.U.S TIC S 



lOi 



circle at m, and tberefon as being pcrpendicukr to Cnt.^ 
Hence g, acting paiallel to CA, being resolved along Om 
and 4n<A, the fonner component is counteracted bj the 
teiiflioii of the string, and there remains as the only effeo- 
1m aicoeleratian, the tangential component along inA, 

wfaiciiybythetEiangledf loreesyiseqnalto^-^ or |*Afli, 

and 18 therefore proportional to Auk 
. On -diia aoppontun of indefinitely small vibrationi^ the 
pendntam is iBOchronons; that is, the time oocnpied in 
passing from one extreme position to the other is the same, 
for a giTen length { ol the pendolnm, whateyer the extent 
of'vibratioa 

We condnde from this that; whatover may be the natore 
of the forces'by which a'partade is urged, if the resultant 
of those forces is' directed towards a fixed point, and is 
proportional to the distance from that point, the particle 
will oedllato to and fro about that point in times which 
are independent of the amplitudes of the vibrations, pro- 
'▼ided these are very small _^ "^ 

mA 5. The particle, whoee vibratory motion we have been 
tntuH' oonaidering, .is a solitary particle acted on by external 
forces. But, in acoustics, we have to do with the motion 
of particles forming a connected system or medium, in^ 
whidi the forces to be considered arise from the mtrtual 
actions of the particles. These forces are in equilibrium 
with each other when the particles occupy certain relative 
positions. But, if any new or disturbing force act for a 
short time on any one or more of the particles, so as to 
cause a mutual approach or a mutual recession, on the 
removal of the disturbing force, the rdisturbed particles 
win, if the body be ekutie, forthwith move towards their 
respective positions of equilibrium. Hence arises a vibra- 
tory motion to and fro of each about a given point, 
analogous to that of a pendulum, the velocity at that point 
being always a maximum, alternately in opposito directions. 
Thva^ for example, if to one extremity of a pipe contain- 
ing air were applied, a piston, of section equal to that of 
the pipe, by pushing in the piston slightiy and then remov* 
ing it, we should cause particles of air, forming a thin 
section at the extremity of the pipe, to vibrato in directions 
puaUel to its axis. 

In order that a medium may be capable of molecular 
vibratio&s, it must^ as we haye mentioned, possess deutieUy^^ 
that is, a tendency always to return to its original condi- 
tion when slightiy disturbed out of it * • . - 
nMBta* 6. We now proceed to show how the disturbance where- 
^>f^ by ciertain particles of an elastic meditmi are displaced from. 
^"^^'^^ tueir equiMMum-positions, is successively transmitted to 
^ the te&jaining particles olthe medium, so as to cause these 
also to vibmto to and fra 

Let us consider a line of such particles p, a?, a, 6, &c 



y xa^ack^h' ^ i e f g hi kj m 



nop 



equidiistant from each pthef, As above; and suppose one of 
them, say a, to be displaced, by any means, to o^. As we 
have seen, this particle will swing from Oi to «« ^^^ hsck 
e^ain, occu|)^g a certain time T, to complete 'its double 
v%ration. But it is obvious that, the distance between a 
and the next particle d to the rigjit being diminished by 
the dispbosment of the former to a,, a tendency is gene- 
rated in 6 io move towards a,, the mutual forces being 
too longer in equilibrium, but having a resultant in the 
direction 5a^. The partide h will therefore also suffer 
dispkoement^ and be compelled to swing to and fro about 
the point h. For similar reasons the particles c, (f . . . 
will all likewise be thrown into tibration. Thus it is, then, 
that the dlstorbance propagates itself in the direction under 
iDotisideration. . There is evidently also, in the case su^^ 



posed, a transmission ffomii toi,|v4fiSB.,id,in the opponto 
direction. 

) Confining our attention to pronagatioa In the direction 
abe . . ., we have next to remark Uiat each particle in that 
line will be affected by the distuAanoe always later than 
the particle immediately preeeding it, so as to be found iu 
the same stage of vibration a certain interval of time after 
the preceding partidei 

' 7. Two particles which are in the eame stege of vibro^ ponai 
tiori, that is, are equally di^laoed tom their eqnilibrluxib 
positions, and are'moving m the same direction and wit^i 
equal velocities, are said to be in the same jdAom. Hence 
we may express the preceding statement more briefly thus: 
Two partides of a disturbed medium at different distancea 
from the pentre of disturbance, are In the same phase at 
different times, the one whose distance ftamiha^ otaitn ia 
the greater being later than the othec 

8. let us ii^ the meantime assume thal^ the' iniervaW 
ah^ bc,ed.. .\ being equal, the intervala of time which| 
elapse Ji>etween the like phases of b and a, of c and 6 . . . .| 
are also equal to each other, and let us consider what at 
any given instant are the appearances presented bgr the 
different particles in the row. 

,. , T being the time of i^ eomvUte vibration of each partido, 

let — be the interval of time requisite for any phase of a 
.. ji 

to pass on to b/^ Jf then at a certain instant a is displaced 
to its greatest extent to the ri^t, b will be somewhat sd^rt' 
of, but moving 'towards, Un corresponding position, e still 
further short, and so oo. ^Proceeding in tiiis way^^ we shall; 
come at lengUk to a partide p, for which the distunce 
dp^p. oh^ which therefore lags in ito vibrations behind a 
T ' 1 

by a tiine »;» x — «T, and is consequentiy precisely in 

the same p&se sa ar And between these two partidca 

a, j9, we shall evidentiy have partides in aJl the possible , 

phases of the vibratory motiozL At hy which is at distance 

from a ■ j^ the difference of phases compared' with a, 

will be (T, that is, k will,»at tiie given instant, be dia*' 

placed to tiie greatest extent on the opposite side of ite' 

equilibrium-position from that in which. a is displaced; iu 

other words, A is in the exactiy opposite phase to a. 

9. In the case- we have just been considering, the vibra^ Lc^^^ito- 
tions of the partides have been supposed to take place in ^^ ^°^ 
a direction coinddent with that in which the distaxbanoe ^^^^ 
passes from one partide to another. • The vibratioos^^re 

then -termed ^oR^F^ftM&'iui/. '^ 

But it need scarcdy be observed that the vibrations may 
take place in any direction whatever, and may even be 
curvilinear. . If they take place in directions at right 
angles to the line of progress of the distorbancet, they are 
said to be trat^sversoL ^ 

10. Now the reasoning employed in the preceding case w&ve of 
will evidentiy admit of general application, and vriD, in traosvenal 
particular, hold for transversal vibmtions. Hence if wc <l«Pl*o^ 
mark (as is done in fig. 2) the positions a, ftj Cj . . ., occupied °^^^ 
by the various particles, when swinging transversely, at tho 
instant at which a has ite maximum displacement above ite 
eqtulibrinm-poeition, and trace a continuous line running 
t^ugh the pointe so found, that line will by ite ordinates 
indicate to the eye tife state of motion at the given instant, < 




Fig. 2.. . . ^ 

Thus a and p aie'in'the same phcusi^is srealso 5 and 
q, e and r, &c, a and A are is cppodte p^oes, as are also- 
6and^eandJ^dM; 



102 



ACOUSTICS 



Difltaoces a/>, bq, bt.^ aeparating particles in the same 
phase, and each of which, as we have seen, is passed over 
by the disturbance in the time T of a complete vihrar 
tion, include within them aU the possible phases of the 
motion. 

Beyond this diBtance, the eorve repeats itself exactly, 
that is, the phases recur in the same order as before. 

Now the figure so traced offers an obvious resemblance 
to the undulaUng surface of a lake or other body of water, 
after it has been disturbed by wind, exhibiting a wave 
with its troogh AA^B, and its crest Bjd^C. Hence have 
been introduced into Acoustics, as also into Optics, the 
terms tocne and undulation. The distance a/>, or 6^ . . . 
or A C, which separates two particles in same phase, 
or which includes both a wave-crest and a wave-trough, 
is termed the Ungth of the ufove, and is usnally dmoted 
by A. 

As the curve, repeats itself at intervals each —X, it 
follows that particles are in the same phaso at any given 
moment, when the distances between them in the direction 
of transmission of the disturbance » A, 2X, 3A . . . and gene- 
rally •» nX, where n is any whole number. 
.Particles such as a and A, b and i, Ac, which are at 

distances ■■ ^X , being in opponU phases, so will also be 

1 3 

particles separated by distance, rX + X ■> z^, or, in general, 

by -X -f mX a (2m -f 1 )r , that is, by any odd multiple of ^ 
* * 

fl^dtiL. ^^- -^ ^^® construction to the one just adopted for the 
displacements of the particles at any given instant, may be 
also applied for exhibiting graphi^iy their velocities at 
the same instant Erect ^ the various points a, b, e, Ac, 
perpendiculars to the line joining them, of lengths pro- 
portional to and in the direction of their velocities, and 
draw a line through the extreme points of these perpendi- 
culars ; this line will answer the purpose required. It is 
indicated by dots in the previous figure, and manifestly 
forms a wave of the same length as the wave of displace- 
ments, but the highest and lowest points of the one wave 
correspond to the points in which the other wave crosses 
the line of equilinrium. 
Waves for 12. In order to a graphic representation of the displace- 
tUnS vibrft- °^®"^ ^°^ velocities of partides vibrating Umgiivdmcdly, 
liooa. it is convenient to draw the lines which represent those 
quantities, not il the actual direction in which the motion 
takes place and which coincides with the line a 6 e ^ .. ., but 
at rieht angles to it^ ordinates drawn upwards indicating 
dispuioements or velocities to the right (t.e., in the (iirec- 
tfon of transmission of the disturl^ce), and or^ nates 
drawn downwards indicating displacements or velocities in 
the opposite direction. When this is done, waves of dis- 
placement and velocity are figured identically with those 
tor transversal vibrations, and are therefore subject to the 
same resulting laws. 

13. But not only will the above waves enable us to see 
at a glance the circumstances of the vibratory motion at 
the instant of time for which it has been constructed, but 
also for any subsequent moment Thus, if we desire to 

T 
consider what is going on after an interval -— , we have 

simply tP conceive the whole ^ve (whether of displace- 
ment or velocity) to be moved to the fight through a dis- 
tance »a6. llien the state of motion in which a was 
before will have been transferred to 5, that of 6 will have 
been transferred to c, and so on. At the end of another 
such interval, the state of the particles will in like manner 
be represented by the wave, if pushed onward through 
nother equal space. Jn short, the whole circumstances 
*nay bo pictured to the eye by two waves (of displacement 



Propagv 
tioQ of 



and of velodty) ad*iincing continuously in the line abc . ., 
with a velocity V which will ^ke it over the distance o^ is 

the time --,Vbeingaiepefore-Y"^Y'*"T'^'^"f 

F 

This is fermed the velocity of propagation of the wave, 
and, as we see, is equal to the length of the wave divided 
by the time of a complete vibmtion of each particia 

If, as is usually more convenient, we express T in terms 
of (he number n of complete vibrations performed in a 

given time, say in the unit of time, we shaU have ^ - a , 

and hence «t « 

1 4. There is one veiy im jtortant distinetien between the VubtiA 
two cases of longitudinal and of transversal vibrations which ^^ ^^^\ 
DOW claims our attention, viz., that whereas vibrations of J^^ 
the latter kind, whan propagated from particle to particle Tibntcti 
in an elastic medium, do not alter the relative distances of 
the particles, or, in other words, cause no change of density 
throughout the medium; longitudinal vibrations, on tiie 
other hand, by bringing the particles nearer to or further 
from one another than they are when undisturbed, are 
necessarily accompanied by alternate condensations and 
rarefactions. 

Thus, in fig. 2, we see that at the instant to which that 
fig. refers, the displacements of the particles immediately 
adjoining a are equal and in the same direction ; hence at 
that moment the density of the medium at a is equal to 
that of tlie undisturbed medium. The same applies to the 
points A, p, Ac, in whkh the displacements are at their 
maxima and the velocities of vibration » 0. 

At any point, such as c, between a and A, ihe displace- 
ments of the two acyoining particles on either side are both 
to the right, but that of the preceding particle \& now the 
greater of the two, and hence the density of the medium 
throughout aA exceeds the undisturbed density. So at 
any point, such as/, between A and A, the same result holds 
good, because now the displacements are to the left, but 
are in excess on the eight side of the point /. From a 
to A, therefore, tl^ medium is condensed. 

From A to B, as at ik, the displacements of the two 
particles on either side are both to the Ufit \h»X of the pre* 
ceding particle being, however, the gres^. The medium, 
therefore, is here in a state of rarefaction. And in like 
manner it may be shown that there is rarefaction from B 
to p; so that the medium is rarefied from A. to p. 

At A the condensation is a maximum, because the dis- 
placements on the two sides of that pbint are equal and 
both directed towards A. At B, on the other hand, it id 
the rarefaction which is a maximum, the displacements on 
the right and left of that point being again equal, but 
direct^ outwards from B. 

It clearly follows from all this that„if we trace a curve 
of which any ordinate shaU be proportional to the differ- 
ence between the density of the corresponding point of the 
disturbed medium and the density of the undisturbed 
medium— ordinates drawn upwards indicating condensation, 
and ordinates drawn downwards rarefaction — that curve 
will cross the line of rest of the particles a 6 c . . . in the 
same points as does the curve of velocities, and will there- 
fore be of the same length X, and will also rise above that 
line and dip below it at the same parts. But the connec- 
tion between the toave of condensation and rarefaction and 
the wave of velocity, is still more fntimate, when the 
extent to which the particles are displaced is very small, as 
is always the case in acoustics. For it may be shown that 
then the degree of condensation or rarefaction at any point 
of the medium is proportional to the velocity of vibration 
at that point The same ordinates, therefore, will rcpro- 



ACOUSTICS 



103 



Kut Uid degrees of oondenaation; which . represent the 
relodtiea, or, in other words, the wave of tondensatoon and 
tarelactimi may be regarded as coiacadent with the ?elocjt.y 

Ydoaty tf propagation of waves of kmgUudwU duturbanee 

through any daatvc medium, 

lorityof 15 Sir Isaac Newton was the first who attempted to de- 

we. tenrnne, on theoretical grounds, the velocity of sound in 

air and other fluids. The formula obtained by him gives, 

however, a numerical value, as regards air. falling far abort 

ol the result derived from actual erperimenti and it was 

Dot till long afterwards, when Uplace took up thequea- 

toon, that complete coincidence was arrived at bet^ien 

theory and observation. . Weare indebted to the late m- 

feasor Rankme, of Glasgow {^hiJL Trans. 1870, p. 277)>, 

for a very simple Sid elegant investigation of the qoeatioo, 

which we will here reproduce in an abridged form. ^ 

Let OS ooncaivB the longitudinal distnrbanoe to be pro- 
paffated throogh a medixim contained in a atnight tube 
h^ a tnuisverae aectioo ecittaltojimty, butof indflfimto 

Lrt" two transverse pUnee A, A, (fig. 3) be conceived 

as moving along the in- _* ■ .! 1^ — 

tenor of the tube in the , ' ^- ' -^^ ' r^.""*"-^; 

tame direction and with, ^i*— »► f 

the same velocity V as the ^^^ 3 

disturbance-wave ttseli. ^ ^ j^_ ' • _ 

Let ttj «, be the velocities'^ dispUcement of the particles 
of the medium at A, A, respectively, at any given instant, 
estimatod in the same dir^ctipn as Y; and pjp. the eoire- 
spending densities of the medium. 

The disturbances under consideration, being such as 
jii-eaerve a permanent type throughout their propagation, 
it follows that the quantity of matter between A, and A, 
remains constant during the motion of these planes, or that 
as much most pass mto the intervening space through one 
of them as uBSues frem it through the other. Now at A, 
the velocity of the particles relatively to A, itself is V - a, 
unooreb, and consequently there flows mto the space A, A, 
through A, a mass (V - ujpi in the.umt of time. ^ 

Forming a similar expression as regards A^ putting m for 
the invariable mass through which the disturbance is pro- 
pagated in the umt of time, and oonsidenng that if p de> 
note the density of the undisturbed medium, m is evidently 
equal to Vp, we have— 

' Now, pip, being the pressures a£ A^ A, respectively, 
and therefore p, - p^ the force generating the aooeleration 
M - n,, m unit of time, on the mass m of the medium, by the 
second law of motion, 

yjliTOinnftitig u^, u^ from these equations, and putting for 

JL , -^ , - the sjrmbols «,^ s„ e (which theiefore denote the 

volumes of the unit of mass of the^ distnii>ed medium at 
At, A9 and of the undisturbed medium), we get: 

n^^hZh and V«-^ ^"A 
•i-«i •i-«t 

Now, if (as is generally the case in sounds the changes 
»f pressure and volume occnmng during the oisturbence of 
the medmm are very small, we may assume that these 
changes are proportional one to the other. Hence, denote 
mg the ratio which any increase of pressure bears to the 
dirainxilion of the unit of volume of the subetanoe, and 

• 6es^' lUzvvU, Theory ^BmL p. SOSL 



which is termed the dastu:Up of the substance, by ^ we 
shall obtain for the velocity of a wave of longitudinal di* 
placements, supposed small, the equation. ^ 



orV- 




(L) 



16 In applying this formula to the determinatiott of UplM% 
the velocity of sound in any particular medium, ft la corwctioe. 
requisite, as was shown by Laplace, to take mto account 
the thermic effects produced by the condensations and 
rarefactions which, as we have seen, take place m the sub- 
stanca The heat generated durmg the sudden comprea- 
sion, not being conveyed away, raises the v^ue of the 
elasticity above that which otherwise it would have, and. 
which was assigned to it by Sir Isaac Newton. _ 

Thus, in a pafeet gas, it is demonstrable by the pnn-i 
dples of Tbsbmodtii AiocB, that the elasticity e, which, in ; 
the undisturbed state of the medium, would be siinply 
equal to the pressure p, is to be made equal to yp, where 
y ia a number exceeding unity and represents the ratio of 
the specific heat of the gas under constant praanre to its 
specific heat at constant volume. ^ 

^t Hence, as air and most other gases may be pracDcaUy 
regarded as perfect gases, we have for them: 



V-J^-J^ 



(ID 



^1*7 Prom this the following inference may be drawn:— V«loe(ty of 
T>io* velocity of sound in a given gas 13 unaffected ^Y^^^^^^ 
c. mge of pressure if unattended by change of temperature. ^^^^^, 
For, b^ Boyle's law, the ratio ? is constant' at 'a given jJJJ^J^ 
temperature ' The accuracy of this inference has been con- 
firmed by recent experiments of Begnault 

18. To ascertain the influence of change of temperature s^et at 
on the velocity of sound in a gas, we remark that, by Gay "^^^ 
Lussac's law, the pressure of a gas at different temperar ^Jf^ 
turee vanea proporUoDally both to its density p and to^ 
1 +a<, where t is the number of degrees of temperature 
above freezing pomt of water (32 Fahr.),andtti8thee^pan. 
sion of unit of volume of the gas for eveiy degree above 

I If, therefore, p,p,p.^p;denot»themesi^^^ 
corresponding to temperaturee 32* + <^ and 32^, we have:. 

£-1(1 +aO 

and hence, denoting the corrcspoading velocities of aonnd 
by V, V^ we get: 

J^-J(i-»-*0 

whence, a being always a very smaD fraction, is obtained 
veiy nearly. 

J..1 +^£andV.Y.-^.t.V^ 

The velocity increaBos, therefore, by |V» for every da- 

gree of rise of temperature above 33*. . ,„ . . -_ 

19. The general expression for V given m (p-M^y be ^^0|« 
put in a differ^t form, if we introduce a height H of tbc J^~«^ 
gas, regarded as having the same density p throughout and 
exerting the pressure p then p^gpSSi^ where ^ ia the 
acceleration of gravity, and there renilta; 

Now Jfn or J^^\ ia the velocity D which wonld 

*oe aoqinied by a badj CiHn^ ta faciiafroiii.a hei^t -^ • 
Hence V-UJ> 



104 



ACOUSTICS 



Expert* 
Tienla for 
kterraln* 
ng Vlo 



If y were equal to 1, V « U, which is the result oBtainecT 
by Newton, and would indicate -that the velocity- of sound' 
in a gaa equals the velocityof a'body falling from a height 
equal to half of that of a^homogeneous atmosphcra^of^the 

NuracricAi 20. In common dry air at 32° Fahr., ^ being* 32*2 ft, and 
•alne4)f V the mercurial Aarometer 30 ins, or 2-5'ft,'the^dcnsity of 
lo air. ^^ ^ to that of mercury as I: 10,485"6; hence H» 
10,458-6 x2-5ft.- 26,214 ft. 

Also v« 1-408 

Hence V^s. Vl.4a8x 32,2 x 26,214 -1090 ft- 
and, by § 18, the increase of velocity for each degree^ of rbo^ 

. , ^ / V • ^\' 1000 ^45> r ^^t\..t^ 

of tcmperature;(^a-bemg ^j ^ Ii§^ <^^ Syj ^^MlO-^ft..; 

1- ft very nearly. 
V 10 diffe- 21. If the valu6 of y were the samc^for-different gases,^ 
^ it is obvious from formula V — -. /y ? that, at ^ given 

temperature, the ^elociticd of sound in those gases would be to 
each other inversely as the square roots of their deiisities. 
Regnault has found that this is so for common air, carbonic . 
acid, nitrous oxide, hydrogen and ammoniacal gas (though 
less so as regards the two last). 

22. The experimental determination- of the velocity of 
sound in air has been carried out by ascertaining accurately-, 
the time intervening between the flash and report of a gun . \. 
as observed at a given distance, an^ dividing the distance 
by the time. A discussion of the many experiments -con- 
ducted on this prineiple in various countries and at various; 
periods, by Van Dcr Kolk (Lond. and Edin. Phil, llag.t^ 
July 1865), assigns to the velocity of sound in dry air at 
32° Fahr., 1091 ft 8 in. per second, with a probable error 
of *3-7 ft; and still more recently (in 1871) Mr Stone,.: 
the Astronomer Royal at the Cape of Good Hope, has 
found 109d*6 as the result of careful experiments by him- 
self there. The coincidence of these numbers ^ith that 
we have already obtained theoretically sufficiently -estab-i 
lishes the general accum<;y of the theory, 

23. Still it cannot be overlooked that* the -forinuia for 
minieniity V is founded on assumptions which, though approximately, 

»<>'"»a. ^j^ jjQt strictly correct Thus, the air is not a perfect gas, 
nof is the variation of elastic force,- caused by the passage 
through it of a wave of disturbance -always very small in 
comparison with the clastic force of the undisturbed air. 
Earnshaw (1858) first drew attention to these points, and 
came to the conclusion that the velocity of sound increases 
-tvith its loudness, that is, ^ith the violence of the disturb- 
iincc. In confirmation of this statement, he appeals to a 
lingular fact, viz., that, during experiments made by 
Captain Parry, in the North Polar Regions, for determin- 
ing the velocity of sound, it was Invariably found that the 
-report of the discharge of cannon was heard, at a distance 
of 2| miles, perceptibly earlier than the sound of the word 
firt^ which, of course, preceded the discharge. 

As, in the course of propagation in unlimited dr, there 

1^^ gradual decay in the intensity of sound, it would fol- 

lowthat the velocity must also gradually decrease as the 

sound proceeds onwards. This curious inference has been- 

verified experimentally by Regnault, who found the velocity 

of sound to have decreased by 2*2 ft per second in passing 

jftom a distance of 4 000 to one of^7500 feet 

^' «iepooa» ^^- Among -other interesting results^ derived^ % 'the- 

>D ihti accurate methodstadoptcd*by*RQgnault,*but which want of 

litch-af space -forbids u.«i*to-*dcscribe,.'may-be^mentioned?the^e- 

pcndencc of the velocity»of* sound on its pitch,.lower notes 

being, ra^.7x<r. /transmitted at a more rapid rate than higher 

ones. Thus, the'fundamcptaUnote of.-^a^f.trumpetiJtravol.s 

faslCK/tlian-its harmnnicsv 



25: The velocity of sound' in liquids and solids (IBmdls-^Vufix^u.] 
, placements being longitudinal), may be obtained by fonDulaF*nd s:*ud^ 
(I.),, neglecting the thermic effects^ofUhe*>comprcssions:an<{ 
expansions as being comparatively>.inconsidcrablc,>and may 
^bc putin other forms: 

Thus^if we»dcnote-by-f thc'change-iniength of one foot 
of a column of the substance^ produced^ byntarovm^wcight 

. w, then € being = - or — , we have -« ? andrhcnce: 



^Vf- 



(IV.) 



/ d^peody 



OUQ^ 



or,, replacing - (which^ is the*' length - in feet>-6f a. column 

• that^ would • be - increased' I foot by the • weight • of L cubic 
:foot).by7, 

V-^ • • . (V,) 

which shows that the velocity is that du6:to a fall through 

Of, again, in the case of a liquid',, if .17 denote the change 
of volume,, which would-be produced 'by. an increase of 
pressuro'^ equal to one atmosphere, or to that of a column 
H ot the liquid, since J is tEo- change^ of volume-due to 

weight of a column I of the liqnid)-aa<f;'. - « y and' - 
^—, we get 

y^j^ (VI 

^ t. For water, -^ » 20,000' very..near!y;-H«34"ft- Via *o 

and hence V « 4680'f eefc 

ThiA namber coincides very- closely with the value ob- 
tained, whether by direct experiment,, as by CoUadon-and^ 
Sturm oh the Lake of -Geneva in 1826, who found 470S, 
or by indirect means which assign to t^e- velocity ia the 
water of the River Seine at 59"* Fahr. a velocity.of 4714 ft. 
(Wertheim). 

Ex. 2. For iron. Let t^e weight necessary^to double V in ira» 

the length of an iron bar. be 4260 millions of lbs. on the 

square foot Then a length / will be extended>to r+ 1 by 

- - 4260 millions Ibal ., -^ -«. ^, , 

a force of -, ; — oij the sq. ft, This^. -.therefore, 

by our definition of 7, must" be tl^e weight- of<a cubic foot 
of the iron. Assuming the density of iron to be 7 8,' and 
62 '32 lbs. as tbe weight df a cubic foot ^ of water, we get 
7*8 X 62-32 or 486 lbs. as the weight of an equal- bulk of 



irOn. ' Hence 



4260 milliona 



426(V 

■k486«and7--;^r Jnillions, 

4oo 



.which gives *V* 7^ *^??:^^ milHona 
^ /456b x^aOOO^lOOO V284 

"br V- 17,000 fee^persecondmeariy. 

As in- the case of water.and'iroft^;SO^ in-*gcncral,:it'may 
t>e stated that sound' travels ''faster* in- liquidsHhan* in -air^ 



and still ^faster in solids, theratio^ - ^Being least in\gascs» 

and greatest in solids^ 

26. Biot, about 50 years^ago,,^availed-himsclf^o^thc £.\i..€n- 
' great difference in the velocity of the propagation of ►sound mcuLiJ 1 
through metals and through air, 'to determinerv the ratio of ^"^'^"^ 
the one velocity to the other* A belhplaced>nearoner€x- j^^^^J^ 
tremitjr of a train of* iron- pipes forming at joint' length -of 
upwardsof 3000 feet7i>eing struclnat the^«ame instant'^a- 
the'8ame»*cxtremity of the- pipe, a^pereon^-'placed>«trlhe 
•-other extremity heard 'first' the mound'^of^lhesblo^onrrth^ 
, C£in^conveyed through the iron; and then,- after. an interval^ 



ACOUSTICS 



105 



of time, which was noted as Qociiratety as possililc, the 
sound of the hell transmitted through tlie air. The 
result was a velocity for the iron of 10*5 times that in air. 
Similar experiments on iron telegraph wire, made more 
recently near Paris by AVertheim and Breqnet, have led to 
an almost identical number. Unfortunately, owing to 
the metal in those oxpofiments not forming a continuous 
whole, and tu other causes, the results obtained, which fall 
short of those otherwise found, cannot be accepted as correct 
' Other means therefore, of an indirect character, to which 
we will refer hereafter, have been resorted to for deter- 
mining the velocity of sound in solida Thus Wertheim, 
from tLe pitch of tihe lowest notes produced by longitudinal 
friction of wires or rods, has been led to assign to that 
velocity values ranging, in different metals, from 16,822 
feet for iron, to 4030 for lead, at tempemture 68" Fahr., 
and which agree most^reoaarfcably with those calculated by 

means of the formula V • /- He points out. however, 

that these values refer only to solids whose cross dimensions 
arc small in com])anson witli their length, and that iu order 
to obtain the velocity of sound in an aniimited solid moss, 
It 18 requisite to multiply the value as above found by 
y I or f nearly. For while, in a solid bar, the extensions 
and contractions dne to any disturbance take place laterally 
OS well as longitudinally , in an extended solid, they can 
only occoi in the bttor direction, thus increasing the 
value of €. 

27 To complete the discussion of the velocity of the 
propagation of sound, we have still to consider the case of 
transversal vibrations, such as are executed by the points 
of a su-etched Wire or cord when drawn out of its position 
of rest by a blow, or by the friction of a violin-bow. 




n«.4 

|^>t7 «C Let or (fig. 4) be tho position of the string when undis- 

y^ . tiirbed, ninp when displaced. We wiU suppose the amount 

isToid ^^ displacement to be very small, so that we may regard 

ratioHL. the distance between any two given points of it as remain- 

uig the same, and also that the tension P of the string 

IS not changed in its amount, tmt only in its direction, 

which is that of the string. 

Take any origin o in ox, and a5»6e» &t (a very small 
quantity), Uien the perpendicnhirs am, bn, cp, bib the dis- 
placements of abc Let k, Ihe the middle points of inn, 
np; then H (which «>mn oi ab very nearly) may be re- 
garded as a veiy small part of the strmg acted on by two 
forces each - F, and acting at n in the directions np, nm. 
These give a component parallel to ac, which on our sup- 
position is negligible, and another F along nb, such that: ' 

F-P(sin^-sin^-P ("!? ^^)^'P.'!^ 

Now if e -B a length of string of weight equal to P, and 
the string be supposed of uniform tliickness and density, 

the weight of iia- . I^ . -. Ex, and the mass mSl klm 

^^ ' • 

Ucnco tlie occclcration /in direction nb 
P nq-pr 



/- 



IT xfo denote ma by y, oa by x, and the tiine by ^ «B 
shall readily see that this equation becomes pltimati^y, 

which is satisfied by putting 

y-^(^+ Jffc, O + ^C-JP- ^/5^0 
where ^ and ^ indicate any functions. 

Now we know that if for a giveo^ value of C, d?be io^ 
creased by the length X of the viravo, ^e value of p remainfl 
unchanged; hence, 

But this condition is equaUy satisfied for a given value of 

— .^ _ 

X, by increasing Jgc C by A, uc., increasing t by *J^ • 

This therefore must » T (the time of a complete vihratioii 

of any point of the string), ^ut V»x,. Hence, 

V-^-c . (VIL)- 

is the expression for the velocity of sound when due to 
very small transversal vibrations of a thin wire or chord, 
which veloaty is consequently the same as would be 



acquired by u body falling through a height equal to one 
half of a length of Uic chord such as to have a weight 
equal to the tension. 

The above may also be put in tho form-* 

where P is the tension, and w the wcQght of the unit of 
length of the chord. 

28. It appears then that while sodnd is propagated by Compori- 
longitudinal vibrations through a given substance with ifaie •<»> of v 
same velocity under all dreumstances, the rate of its trans- ^^^^j 
mission by transversal vibrations through the same sub- f^, |oq^ 
stance depends on the tension and on the thickness. The tadissi 
former veloci^ bears to the latter the ratio of Jl: ,Je, vilnsttonA. 
(where ^ is the length of the substance, which would be 
lengthened one foot by the weight of one foot, if'we take 

the foot as oar mut) or of ^- : 1, that is, of the squaie 

root of the length which would be extended one foot by 
the weight of e feet, or by the tension, to 1. This, for 
ordinaiy tensions, results in the velocity for longitudinal 
Vibrations being veiy much in excess of that for transvenal . 
vibrationa 

29. It is a well known fact that, in all but very excep- Lew of 
Lionel cases, the loudness of any sound is less as the die- dsesy of 
tance increases between the source of ^und and the ear. JjJ^*^ ^ ^ 
The law according to which this decay takes place is the ^^^ ii,. 
same as obtains in other natural phenomena, vis., that in cwied <ii» 
an unlimited and uniform medium the loudness or intensity 
of the sound proceeding from a veiy small sounding body 
(strictly speaking, a point) varies inversely as the square 
of the distance. This follows from considering that the 
ear AC receives only the conical portion OAC of the whole 
volume of Soimd emanating from O, and that in order that 
an eap BD, placed at a ^ 
greater distance from O, 
may admit the same 
quantity, its area must be 
to that of AC : as OB* : 
0A« But if A' - AC 
be situated at same dis- ^^' *• 
tance as BD, the amount of sound received by it and hf 
BD (and therefore by AC) will be as the ana of A^ or 
AC to that of BD. Hence, the intensities of the eonnd tt 




UiU. 



ilMI 



\oa 



AC0US,T1CS 



licnrd by the same ear at the distances OA and OB are to 

each other as OB- to OA* 

fi.rtuenccof 30. In order to verify the above law ^hen the atmo- 

iimint&bad aphere forms the intervemng medium, it would be necessary 

density oi ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ oonsiderable elevation above the earth's 

iatensity oi surface, the ear and the source of sound being separated 

bouDd. by air of constant density. As the density of the air 

diminishes, we should then find that the loudness of the 

sound at a given distance would decrease, as is the case in 

the air-pump ezpermient previously described. This arises 

from the decrease m the quantity of matter impinging on 

the ear, and the consequent diminution of its tU^vcu 

The decay of sound due to this cause is observable in the 

rarefied air of high mountainous regions. De Saussure, the 

oelebiated Alpine traveUer, mentions that the report of a 

pistol at a great elevation appeared np londer than would 

a small crater at a lower level. 

But it is to be remarked that, according to Poisson, 
when air-strata of different densities are interposed between 
the source of sound and t£e ear pkused at a given distance, 
the intensity depends only on the density of the air at the 
source itself; whence it follows that sounds proceeding 
from the surface of the earth may be heard at equal dis- 
tances as distinctly by a person in a floating balloon as by 
one sitoated on the surface itself; whereas any noise origi- 
nating in the balloon would be heard at the surface as 
faintly as if the ear weos placed in the rarefied air on a 
level with the balloon. This was exemplified during a 
balloon ascent by Glaisher and Cozwell, who, when at an 
elevation of 20,000 feet, heard with great distinctness the 
whisde of a locomotive passing beneaUi them. 

Paet m. 

RefUxion and Refiuctiim of Soknd. 

31. When a wave of sonnd travelling through one 
medium meeta»a second mediuni of indifferent kuad, the 
vibrations of Hta^opn particles are communicated to the 
particles of toe n'eW medium, so that a wave is excited in 
the latter, and is propagated through it with a velocity de- 
pendent on the density and elasticity of the second medium, 
and therefore differing in general from the previous velocity. 
The direction, too, in which the new wave travels ib dif- 
ferent from the previous one. This change of direction is 
termed re/raaioh^ and takes place according to the same 
laws as does the refraction of light, viz., (1.) The new 
direction or refracted rap lies always in the plane of 
incidence^ or plane which contains the incident ray (t.e., 
the direction of the wave, in the first medium), and the 
nonual to the surface separating the two media, at the 
point iu which the incident fay meets it; (2.) The sine of 
the angle between the normal and the mcident ray bears to 
the iine of the angle between the normal and the refracted 
ray, a ratio whicb-is constant for the same pair of media. 

Fur a theoretical demonstration of these laws, we must 
refer tu the art. Optics, 'where it will be shown that the 
ratio involved in the aeound kw is always equal to the 
ratio of the veloaty of the wave ui the first medium to the 
velocity lu the second ; iu other words, the nnes of the 
angles iii q^iestion are directly proportional to the velocities. 

32. tieiice sonorous rsys, ui passing from one medium 
into another, are bent in towards the 
normal, or the reverse, according as the — < '^ 
velocity of propagatioo m the former 
exceeds or fails ^hort of that lu the latter. 
<Thus,.ior Instance, sound is refracted 
'4oward8 the perpendicular when passing y^ 

into air from water, or into cHrbonic acid ^ J/f 

gas from air ; the converse is the case when 

the passage takes place the opposite way. ^* 

33. It further follows, as in the analogous case of light. 



Uwtof 
refrsctilK. 



rcrraetloD 
13 to or 

from th« 

riormftl w> 
c^ord'ng to 
rolHhT* 
t-alaea of , 
the velc^ 
citiua. 

LimiUng 

loUl ro- 
Ocrlioa. 




I that there is a certain angle termed the limitinff wagU^ 
whose jine is found by dividing the less by the greatei 
velocity, such that all rays of sound meeting the snrfaoe 
separating two different bodies will not pass onward, 
but suffer total reflexion back into the first body, il 
the velocity in that body is less than that (n the othei 
body, and if the angle of incidence exceeds the limitiDg 
angle. 

The velocities in air and w^ter being respectively 1090 
and 4700 feCt, the limiting angle for these media may be 
easily shown to be slightly above 15^% Hence, rays of 
sound proceeding from a distant source, and therefore 
nearlv parallel to each other, and to PO (fig. 6), the angle 
POM being greftter than 15^"*, will not pass into the water 
at all, but suffer total reflexion. Under such circomstanoes, 
the report of a gun^ however powerful, WQold be inaudible 
by an ear placed in the water. • 

34« As jight Ib concentrated into a focus by a convex Aocqs:k 
glass lena (for which the velocity of light is lees than for \»oam. 
the air), so sound ought to be nude to oonveige by passing 
through a convex lens formed of earhomuc acid gas. On 
the other hand, to produce convergence with water or 
hydrogen gas, m both< which the velocity of sound exceeds 
its rate in air, the lens ought to be concave. These results 
have been conflrmed experimentally by Sondhaus and 
Hf^ech, who also succeeded in verifying the law oi the 
equality of the index of refraction to the iptio of the 
velocities of sound. 

35. When a wave of sonivl falls on a surface separating Uv« c' 
two media, m addition ta the refracted wave traosmitted ^^^^'' 
into the new medium, which wl* have just been consider* 

ing, there i^ also a fresh wavo,.formed in the new medium, 
and travelling in it in^M^^^i^(>^ direction, but, of course, 
with the same velocity. Thlk reflecUd wave is subject to 
the same laws as regulate the reflexion of light, vis., (1.) 
the coincidence of the planes of incidence and of reflexion, 
and (2.) the equality of the angles of incidence and 
reflexion, that is, of the angles made by the ihcident and 
reflected reys with the normal 

36. As in an ellipse (fig. 7), the normal PC at any point Refl<rr 
bisects the angle SPH (S, H 
being the foci), rays of sound 
diverging from S, and falling on 
the spheroidal 'surface formed by 
the revolution of the ellipse about 
the longest diameter AB, will be 
reflected to H. Also, since SP 
+ PH is always - A B, the times in which the different rays 

will reach H will ail be equal to each other, and hmioe a 
crash at S will be heard as a crash at H. 

37. At any point P of a pambola (fig. 8) of which 8 is t^^<^ 
the focus, and AX the axis, the normal FQ bisects the ^^ ^^ 
angle SPX, PX being '^^ *' 
drawn parallel to AX 

Hence rajrs of sound 
diverging from 8, and 
falling on the paraboloid ^ 
formed by the revolution 
of the parabola about its * 
axis, will ail be reflected 
in directions parallel to o^^^*^ 

the axis, krkvicevem x ^^ X 

rays of sound XP, XQ, ^' ^ 

&c., £pom a very distant source, and parallel to the »^» of 
a paraboloid, will be reflected into the focus. Con 
sequently, if two reflecting paraboloids be placed at a 
considerable distance from and opposite to each other, 
with their axis coincident in direction (fig. 9), the tick of 
a watch placed at the focus S of one will pe heard dia 
tinctly by an ear at S', the focus of the other. 




iokL 




ACOUSTICS 



107' 




rig. 9. 



38. As a lumixiouB otject may giro a SQccession of 
imagea when placed between two or more reflecting lor- 
facea^ bo also in like dxcnm- 
stances may a aoond suffer 
repetition. 

To these principles are 
easily traceable all the pecu- 
liarities of echoes. A wall 
or steep cliff may thus send 
bock, ' somewhat reduced in 
intensity, a shout, the report 
of a pistol, Ac. The time 
^diich elapses between the sound and its echo may be 
easily deduced from the known velocity of sound in air, 
if the distance of the wall be given. Thus, for a distance 
of 87 yaidSy^the interval wUl be found by dividing the 
double of that. or 74 yards by 370 yards, the velocity of 
sound at 50** Fahr., to amount to f of a second. Hence, if 
we assume that th^ rate at which syllables can be distinctly 
uttered is five per second, the wall must be at a distaaoe 
exceeding 37 yuds to allow of the echo of a word of one 
syllable reaching the ear e^Ur the word has beoi uttered, 
74 yards for a word of two syllables, and so on. 

.If the reflectfaig surface consiBts of one or more walls, 
cliffs, &&, forming together a near approach in shape to 
that of a prolate spheroid or of a double parabolic surface, 
then two points may be found, at one of which if a source 
of sound be placed, there will be produced, by conver- 
gence, a distinct echo at the other. As examples of this 
may be mentioned the whispering gallery. in St Paul's,. 
London, and the still more remarkable case of the 
Cathednl of Girgenti in Sicily mentioned by Sir John 
HerscheL 
k* 39. On similar principles of repeated reflexion may be 
' explained the well-known fact that sounds may be con- 
veyed to great distances witL remarkably sl^t loss of 
intensity, on a level pieee of ground or smooth sheet of 
water or ice, and still more 90 in pipes, chimneys, tunnels, 
&& Thus, in one of Captain Fwrrfs Polar o^edi- 
tions, a conversation was on one occasion carried on, 
at a distance of 1^ mile, between two individuab sepa- 
rated by a frozen sheet of water. M. Biot heard distinctly 
from one end of the train of pipes | of a mile kng, 
previonsty referred to, a low whisper proceeding from 
Qie opposite end. 

Ptaetical illustrations are afforded by the system of 
eommuniestion by means of tubing now so. extensively 
adopted in pnblie and private buildmgs, and by the tpeah- 
im^ trmnpA and the Mr trmKptL 

40. The prdonged roll of thunder, with its manifold' 
varieties; is partly to be ascribed to reflexion by moun- 
taim^ doods, &e.; but is mainly accounted for on a diffe- 
rent aeonstic prindplcf, vi&, the comparatively low rate of 
transmission of samd thxoo^ air, as was first shown 
by Dr Hooka at the dose of the 17th century. The ex- 
pknation will be move easily understood by advertinff 
to the esse of a voDey fired by a long line of troops. A 
penon situated at a point in that line produced, will first 
it is evident hear the report of the nearest musket, fol- 
lowed by that of the one following, and so down to the 
last one in the line, which will dose the prolonged rcU 
thus leaching his ear; and as each single report will appear 
to him less intense according as it proceeds from a greater 
distance, the roU of musketry thus heard will be one of 
gradaslly decreasing loudness. But if he were to place 
niniself at a relatively great distance right opposite to 
the centre of the line, the separate reports from each of 
the two wings would reach him nearly at the same moment, 
and hence we sound of the YolTey would now approach 
more nearly to that of a single loud crash. If the line of 



soldiers formed an arc of a drde .having its oantre in his 
position, then the distances gone over by the aepaiate 
reports being equal, they would reach his ear at the same 
absolute instant of time, and with exactly equal intensi- 
ties; and the effect produced would be strictly the same 
as that of a single explosion, equal in violence .to the sum 
of all the separate dischai^ges, occurring at the same dis- 
tance. It is easy to see that, by varying the form of the 
^line of troops and the position of the observer, tiie sonoroua 
effect ^ill be diversified to any extent desired. If the*! 
we keep in view the great diversity of form exhibited by 
lightning-flashes, which may be regarded as being lines, at 
the points of which are generated explosions at the same 
instant of time, and the variety of distance and relative 
position at which the observer may be placed, we shall 
feel no difficulty in accounting for all those acoustic pheno- 
mena of thunder to which Hooke's theory is applicuile. 

Pabt IV. 
Th€ Friticiplei 0/ Jfuiical Harmonf. 

41. A few words on the subject of muneal harmonf 
must be introduced here for the immediate purposes A 
this artide, further details being reserved for the spe^al 
artide on that subject 

Sounds in genml exhibit three different^qmifities, so 
far as their effect on the ear is concerned, vis., kmdneit, 
pitch, and timbre. 

Loudness depends, oet par., on the violence with which Linuliiwt 
the vibrating portions of the ear are exdted; and there- ^®P^>^ /*' 
fore on the extent or ampHtude of the vibiation» of the^Jj^^ 
body whence the sound proceeds. Hence, after a bell has 
been struck, its effect on the ear gradually diminishes as 
its vibration becomes lees and less extensive. By the 
theory of vibratbns, loudness or intensity is measured by 
the vis-wM ^ the vibrating partides, and is oonsequentiy 
proportional to the square of their maximum velocity or 
to the square of their maximum displacement Helm- 
holts, howeyer, in his remarkable work on the perception 
of tone, observes that notes differing in pitch differ also in 
loudness, where their vie viva is the same, the higher notf 
always exhibiting the greater intensity. 

42. Difference of pUch is that which finds tspression in ptteh d^ 
the common terms applied to notes : Acute, Aritt, kiffh, podf oo 
eharp, grave, de^, low, flat. We will point out presently in JJjJJS^ 
what manner it ia established that this qualiQr of sound da- ^"'**'^'^ 
pends on the rapidity of vibration of the parfidei of air in 
contact with the external parts of the ear. Thd jatch ol 

a note is higher in proportion to the number of vibntiollB 
of the air corresponding to it^ in a given time, sudi as one 

second. If % denote this number, then, by { IS, la^r't 

«nd hence, Y being constant, the pitch is higher the leas 
the length X of the wave. ^ 

43. Timbre, or, as it is termed by Qerman voUStBUs^^BaC^n^ 
UoMff-farbe, rendared by lyndaU into dang-eolour or dcMg* 

tint, but forwhich wewouldsubstitttte the expressionoowi^ 
colour, denotes that peculiarity of impression produced on 
the ear by sounds otherwise, in pitch, loudutts, dkc., alike, 
whereby they are recognisable as different from eadi other. 
Thus human voices are readily interdistinguishable ; so 
are notes of the saQie pitch and intensity, produced by 
different instruments. The question whence arises this dis- 
tinction must be. deferred for the present 

44. Besides the three qualities above mentioned, there Db tiactioi 
exists another point in which sounds may be^iistinguished l»twM& 
among each other, and which, though perhaps reducible to "^tgifii"^ 
difference of timbre, requires some special remarks, viz., ^^ 
that by which sounds are characterised, either as noiaa or 

as mueical notee. A musical note is the result ol regular. 



108 



ACOUSTICS 



Lftirs of 
masicsl 
harmoDj. 



lUtioiof 
vilmUont. 



Unlnoa 



OcUra; 



Twelfth 
Acd Fifth. 



third. 



Major 

3lXth. 

5ftnor 

^.'.lird. 



Fourth, 
ik'contl. 



periodic vibrations of the air-particIcs acting on the ear, 
and therefore also of the bodj whence they proceed, each 
particle passing through the same phase at stated intervals 
of tima On Uie other hand, the motion to which noise is 
d«e is irregular and flitting, alternately fast and slow, 
and creating in the mind a bewildering and confusing 
effect of a more or less unpleasant character. Noise may 
also be produced by combining in an arbitrary manner, 
several musical notes, as when one leans with the fore-arm 
against the keys of a piano. In fact, the composition of 
regular periodic motions, thus effected, is equivalent to an 
irregular motion. 

45. We now proceed to state the laws of musical har- 
mony, and to describe certain instruments by means of 
which they admit of being experimentally established. 
The chief of these laws are as follow : — 

(1.) The notes employed in music always correspond 
to certain definite and invariable ratios between the num- 
bers of vibrations performed in a given time by the air 
when conveying these notes to the ear, and these ratios 
are of a very simple kind, being restricted to the various 
permutations of the first four prime numbers 1, 2, 8, 5, 
and their powers. 

(2.) Two notes are in unisw whose corresponding vibra- 
tions are executed exactly at the same rate, or for which 

(denoting by n. n, the numbers per second) ^ « 1. This 

ratio or interval (as it is termed) is the simplest possible. 

(3.) The next inUrval is that in which ^ ■• 2, and is 
termed the octave, 

(4.) The interval ^ • 3 lb termed the twelfth^ and i^ 

we reduce the higher note of the pair bv an 8^, i.e., divide 
its number of vibrations by 2. we obtain the interval 

^ - -, designated as the interval of ^^fifiL 

(5.) The interval ^ . 
tached to it, but if we lower the higher note by two 
8** or divide «, by 4, we get the interval ^-j, or the 
interval of the mqjor third, 

(6.) The interval ^ - r is termed the vuj^ iixtk, 

(7.) The interval ^ - -4" " I ^ termed the minor 
n o Q 

third. 

2x9 4 . , , , , 

-^ ■ 3 >* termed Vxtfourik. 



Seventh. 



DUionte 



5 has no particular nama at- 



(8.) The interval ^ . 



9 



(9.) The interval - which, being - « >« 5, may be re- 

~2~ 

garded as formed by taking in the first place a note one- 
fifth higher than the key-note or fundamental, t.e., higher 

than the latter by the interval -, thence ascending by 



another fifth. 



3 3 

which gives us - x rand lowering this by 



an octave, which results in r , which is called the Moond. 

o 

1 ft A * 

(10.) The interval J or ^ x -, may be regarded as the 

raiuor third Q) of the fifth Q),and is eaUedthe interval 

of the Sfven^A. 

46. If the key-note or fundamemal be denoted by C, 
and the notes, whose intervals above are those just 
enumerated, by D, E, F, G, A, B, C we form what ii 



known in music as the natural or dmtanic scale, in whicb 
therefore the intervals reckoned from C are successiTdy : 
^ 5 4 3 5 15 « 
8' 4' 3' 2' 3* 8' * 
and therefore the intervals between each note and thf 
one following are : 

9 10 16 9 10 9 18 
8' 9' 15' 8' 9* 8' 15 

Of these last intervals the fird^ fourth, and nxth aroU^ort: 
9 
each » -, which is termed a fnqfor tone. The second and Nice:: 1 

o 

Jf/th are oaoh -> -r-, which ia a ratio slightly less than 
the former, and hence is called a minor ton^ The titniSeaitvi 
and seventh are each " 7^» to which is given the name of 

semi-tone. 

By interposing an additional note between each pair of Os^ii^ 
notes whose interval is a major or a minor tone, the result-*^ 
ing series of notes may be made to exhibit a nearer ap- 
proach to equality in the intervals successively separating 
them, which will be very nearly semirtones. This sequence^ 
of twelve notes forms the chromatic scale. The note inter- 
posed between and D is either sharp (C^ or D flat 
(Db), according as it is formed by raising a semi-tone or 
lowering D by the same amount 

47. Various kinds of apparatus have been contrived with 
a view of confirming experimentally the truth of the laws 
of musical harmony as above stated* 

Savarfs toothed wheel apparatus consists of a brass &n-:'' 
wheel, whose edge is divided into a number of equal pro-*^^^'''^ 
jecting teeth distributed uniformly over the circumference, 1^'., 
and -mack is capable of rapid rotation about an axis per- 
pendicular to its plane and passing through its centre, by 
means of a senes of multiplying wheels, the last of whit^ 
is turned round by the hand. The toothed wheel being 
set in motion, the edge of a card or of a funnel-shaped 
piece of common note paper is held against the teeth, 
when a note will be heard arising from the rapidly suc- 
ceeding displacements of the air in its vicinity. The pitch 
of this note will, agreeably to the theory,* rise as the rate 
of rotation increases, and becomes steady when that rota- 
tion is maintained uxiif orm. It may thus be brought into 
unison with any sound of which it may be required to 
determine the corresponding number of vibrations per 
second, as for instance the note A,, three 8^ higher than 
the A which is indicated musically by a small circle placed 
between the second and third lines of the G clef, which 
A is the note of the tuning-fork usually -employed foe 
regulating concert-pitch. A3 may be given by a piana 
Now, suppose that the note produced with Savart's app«i- 
ratus is in unison with A3, when the experimenter turns 
round the first wheel at the rate of 60 turns per minute or 
one per second, and that the circumferences of the various 
multiplying wheels are such ihat'the rate (tf revolution of 
the tooled wheel is thereby increased 44 times, then the 
latter Wheel will perform 44 revolutions in a second, and 
hence, if Uie number of its teeth be 80, the number of 
taps imputed to the card every second will amount to 
44 X 80 or 3520. This, therefore, is the number of vibra- 
tions corresponding to the note Aj. If >ro divide this by 
2^ or 8, we obtain 440 as the number of vibrations answer* 
ing to the note A. This, however, tacitly assumes that 
the bands by which motion is transmitted from wheel to 
wheel do not slip during the experiment If , as is alwajrs 
more or less the case, slipping occun, a different mode for 
determining the rate at which the toothed wheel revolvdi, 
such as is employed in the ^^n of De Is Tour Imds belong 
must be adopted. 



ACOUSTICS 



109 



If, for the fiiugle toothed wheel, be substituted a set 
of four with a oommon axis, in which the teeth are in 
the ratios 4:5:6:8, and if the card be rapidly passed 
along their edges, we shall hear distinctly produced the 
fiuukmental chord C, £, G, C| and shall thus satisfy our- 
selTes that the intervals C, E; C| Q, and C .0^ are (as they 

OQ^t to be) -, ry and 2 respectively. 

48. The 9yrm of Seebeck is the simplest form of appa- 
ratus thus designated, and consists of a laige circular disc 
of pasteboard mounted on a central axis, about which it 
may be made to revolve with moderate rapidity. Thi^ disc 
is perforated with small round holes arranged in circles 
about the centre of the disc. In the first series of circles, 
reckoning from the centre, the openings are so made as to 
divide the respective circumferences, on which they are 
found, in aliquot parts bearing to each other the ratios of 
the^ numbers 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 
64. The second series consists of circles each of which is 
formed of two sets of perforations, in the first circle arranged 
as 4 : 6, in the next as 3 : 4, iken as 2 : 3, 3 : 5, 4 : 7. 
In the outer series is a circle divided by perforations into 
four sets, the numbers of aliquot parts being as 3 : 4 : 5 : 6, 
followed by others which we need not further refer to. 

The disc being started, then by means of a tube held at 
one end between the lips, and applied near to the disc at 
the other, or more easily with a common bellows, a blast 
of air is made to fall on the part of the disc wfaieh con- 
tains any one of the above ordes. . The current being 
alternately transmitted and shut off, as a hole passes on 
and off the aperture of the tube or bellows, causes a vibra- 
tory motion of the air, whose rapidity depends on the 
number of times per second that a perforation passes the 
mouth of the tube. Hence the note produced with any 
given circle of holes rises in pitch as the disc revolves 
more rapidly; and if, the revolution of the disc being kept 
as steady as possible, the tube be passed rapidly across the 
circles of the first series, the notes heard are found to pro- 
duce on the ear, as required by theoxy, the exact impres- 
sion corresponding to the ratios 2:4: &o., i,e,, of a series 
of notes, which, if the lowest be denoted by C, form the 
sequence C C| IB^ Q^ Q^ &c, &a In like manner, the first 
. dicle in which we have two sets of holes dividing the circum- 
ference, the one into say 8 parts, and the other into 10, or 
in ratio 4 : 5, the note produced is a compound one, such 
as would be obtained by striking on the piano two notes 

separated by the interval of amigorthird f-\ Similar 

results, all agreeing with the theory, are obtainable by 
means of the remaining perforations. 

A still simpler form of syren may be qgnstituted with a 
good spinning top, a perforated card disc, and a tube for 
blowing with. 

49. The syren of Gagnard de la Tour is founded on the 
same principle as the preceding. It consists of a cylindrical 
chest of brass, the base of which is pierced at its centre 
with an opening in which is fixed a brass tube projecting 
outwards, and intended for supplying the cavity of the 
cylinder with compressed air or other gas, or even liquid; 
The top of the (^Imder is formed of a plate perforated near 
its edgs by holes distributed uniformly in a circle o^Kfen- 
tric with the plate, and which are cut obliquely through 
the thickness of the plate. Immediately above this fixed 
plate, and almo^ in contact with it, is 
another of the same dimensions, and 
funuahed with the same number, n, of 
opepings similarly placed, but passing 
obliquely through in aii opposite directioii 
from tiiose in j^ fixed plate, the one set 
being incHned to the left, the other to the t^t 



\' 



F^.IO. 



This second plate is capable of rotation about a steel 
axis perpendicular to its plane and passing through its 
centre. Now, let the movable plate be at any time in a 
position such that its holes are immediately above those in 
the fixed plate, and 'let the bellows by which *air is forced 
into the cylinder (air, for simplicity, being supposed to be 
the fluid employed) be put in action ; then the air in its 
passage will strike the side of each opening in the mov- 
able plate in an oblique direction (as shown in fig. 10), and 
will therefore urge the latter to rotation round its centre. 

After -th of a revolution, the two sets of perforations will 

again coincide, the lateral impulse of the air repeated, and 
hence the rapidity, of rotation increased. This will go on 
continually as long as air is supplied to the cylinder, and 
the velocity of rotation of the upper plate will be accelerated 
up to a certain maximum, at which it may be maintained 
by keeping the force of the current constant ' 

Now, it is evident that each coinddenoe of the' perfora- 
tions in the two plates ia followed by a non-coincidence, 
during which the air-current ia shut off, and that con- 
sequently, during each revolution of the upper plate, there 
occur n alternate passages and interceptions of the current 
Hence arises the same number of successive impulses of 
the external air immediately in contact with the movable 
plate, which is thus thrown into a state of vibration at the 
rate of n for every revolution of the plate. The resijlt la 
a note whose pitch rises as tho velocity of rotation increases, 
and becomes steady when that velocity reaches its constant 
value. If, then, we can determine the number m of revolu- 
tions performed by the plate in every second, we shall at 
once have the number of Wbrations per second correspond- 
ing to the audiblo note by multiplying ff| by a. 

For this purpose the steel axis is f urmshed at its upper 
part with a screw working- into a toothed wheel, and driv- 
ing it round, during each revolution of tho plate, through 
a space equal to the interval between two teetL An 
index resembling the hand of a watch partakes of this 
motion, and pointa successively to the divisions of a 
graduated dial On the completion of each revolution of 
this toothed wheel (which, if the number of its teeth, be 
100, will comprise 100 revolutions of the movable plate), 
a' projecting pin fixed to it catches a tooth of another 
toothed wheel and turns it round, and with it a correspond- 
ing index which thus records the number of turns of the 
fiivt toothed wheel As an example of the application of 
this syren, suppose that the number of revolutions of the 
plate, as shown by the indices, amounts to 5400 in a 
minute of time, that is, to 90 per second, then the number 
of vibrations per second of the note heard amounts to 
907», or (if number of holes in each plate "8) to 720. 

50. Dove, of Berlin, has produced a modification of the t)ov«*« 
syren by which the relations of different musical notes "Tnn- 
may be more readily ascertained. In it the fixed and 
movable plates are each furnished with four concentric 
series of perforations, dividing the circumferences into 
different aliquot parts, ae p, ex,, 8, 10, 12, 16. Beneath 

the lower or fixed plate are four metallic rings furnished 
with holes corresponding to those in the platesf and which 
may be pushed round by projecting pins, so as to admit 
the air-current through any one or more of the series of 
perforations in the fixed plate. Thus, may be obtained, 
either separately or in various combinations;.the four notes 
whose vibrations are in the ratios of the above numbera, 
and which therefore form the fundamental chord (CEGC^). 
l^e inventor has given to this instrument the name of tne 
many-voiced $yren, 

51. Helmholtz has further adapted the J^ren for n^oi^^^, 
extensive use, by the addition to Dove's inBtroment of doable 
another chest containing its own fixed and moivable per- syreA. 



no 



ACOUSTICS 



ViVw. 

graphs 



foraied plates and perforated rings, ))otli the moveable plates 
being dnven by the same current and revolving about a com- 
mon axis. Annexed ia a figure of this mstrument (fig. 11). 
52. Hie relation between the pitch of a note and the 
frequency'of the correspond- 
ing vibrations has also been 
studied by graphic methods. 
Thus, if an elastic metal slip 
or a pig's bristle be attached 
to one prong of a toniuff- 
fork, and if the fork, while 
in vibration, is moved rapidly 
over a i^ass plate coated wi0i 
lamp black, the attached ^p 
touching the plate lightly^ a 
vavy line will be traced on 
die plate answering to the 
vibvatians to and ho of the 
fork. The same result will 
be obtained with a stationary 
fork and a movable glass 
plate; and, if the time oc- 
cupied by the plate in moving 
through a given distance can 



iniePhon 
aiito* 

graph. 




^ng. IL 



be ascertained, and the number of complete undulations ex- 
hibited on the plate for that distance, which is evidenily 
the nun^ber of vibrations of the fork in tliat time, is 
reckoned, we shall have determined the numerical vibra- 
tion-value of the note yielded by the fork. Or, if the same 
plate be* moved in contact with two tuning-forks, we shall, 
by comparing the number of sinuosities in the one trace 
with tlutt in the other, be epabled to assign the ratio of 
the corresponding numbers of vibrations per second. Thus, 
if the one note Emb an octave higher than -the other, it will 
give douUe the number of waves in the same distance. The 
motion of the plate may be simply produced by dropping 
it between two vertical grooves, the tuning-forks being 
properly fixed to a frame above. 

53. Qreater accuracy may be attained with the so-caUed 
Vibrograph or PhonaiUograpk (Duhamel's or Kcenig's), 
oonslBting of a glass cylinder coated with lamp-black, or, 
better still, a metallic cylinder round which a blackened 
sheet of paper is wrapped. The cylinder is mounted on a 
horizontal axis and turned round, while the /M>m£er attached 
to the vibrating body is in light contact with it, and traces 
therefore a wavy circle, which, on taking off the paper and 
flattening it, becomes a wavy straight line. Ilie superiority 
of this arrangemeuT arises from the comparative facility 
with which the number of revolutions of the cylinder in a 
given time may be ascertained. In Ko&nig's phonauto- 
graph, the axis of the cylinder Ib fashioned as a screw, 
which works in fixed nuts at the ends, causing a diding as 
well as a rotatory motion of the cylinder. The lines tr^^ed 
out by the vibrating pointer are thus prevented from over- 
lapping when more than one turn \b given to the cylinder. 

Any sound whatever may be made to record its trace on 
the paper by means of a large parabolic cavity resembling 
a speaUng-trumpet, which is freely open at Uie wider ex- 
tremity, but is closed at the other end by a thin stretched 
membrane To the centre of this membrane is attached a 
small feather-fibre, which, when the reflector is suitably 
placed, touches lightly the surface of the revolving cylinder. 
Any sound (such as that of the human voice) transmitdng 
its .rays into the reflector, and communicating vibratory 
inotion to the membrane, will cause the feather to trace a 
sinuous line on the paper If, at the same time, a tuning- 
fork of known number of vibrations per second be made to 
trace its own line close to the other, a comparison of the 
two lines gives the number corresponding to the sound 
onder consideration. 



Past V. 

StaUonarg Wavet. 

54. We have hitherto, In treating of the propagation of St&Uor 7 
waves of sound, assumed that the medium through which ^^^^ r 
it took place was unlimited in all directions, and that the ^^''^ '^ 
source of sound was single. In order, however, to under. ^Zl^f-^., 
stand, the principles of the production of sound by musical greiL ' ' 
instruments, we must now direct our attention to the case vavt^i 
of two waves from different sonroea travelling through the 
same medium in opposite directions. Any particle of the 
medium being then affected by two different vibxationa at 
the same instant will necessarily exhibit a ditferent state 
of motion bom that due to eidier wave acting separately 
from the other, and we have to inquire what is the result of 
this mutual vUcrference (as it is termed) of the two given 
waves. Supposing, as sufficient for our purpose, that the 
^ven .waves are of equal lengths and of equal amplitudeo^ 
m^ other words, tha^i the corresponding notes are of the 
same pitch and equally loud; and supposing, further, thai 
they are advancing in exactly opposite directions,' we ahaO 
now show that the result of the mutual interference of two 
such waves is the production of a Mtationcay vfcne^ that 
is, taking aay line of particles ol the medium along 
the direction of motion of 

the component waves, cer- J ^ j L ' ^ j 

tain of them, such as a, c, ] 

9 . at intervals each ^ 12> 

- r, will remain constantly m their usual undisturbed posi- 
tions. AH the particles situated between a and e wiD 
vibrate (transversely or longitudinally, as the case may 
he) to and fro in the same direction as they would if 
affected by only toe of the interfering waves, but with 
different amplitudes of vibration, ranging from-sero at a to 
a maTJmnm at b and theuoe to zero at c Those between t 
and e will vibrate in like manner, but always in an opposits 
direction to the similarly placed particles in ae, and so on 
alternately. 

The annexed figures will represent to the eye the states of 
motion at intervals of time^j^ of the time T of a complete 
vibration of the particles. In fig. 13, 1, the partides in 




c 

ng.18. 



T 



a c are at their greatest distances from their undisturbed 
positions {above ot to the rights according as the motion is 
transversal or longitudinal). In fig. 13, 2, they are all in 
th^^r undisturbed positions. In Sg. 13, 3, the displace 
ments are all reversed relatively to fig. 13, 1. In fig. 13, 
4, the particles are again passing through their equilibrium 
positions, resuming the positions indicated in fig. 13, I, 
after the time T. 

The points ace, &c., which remain stationary are twmed Nodes o 
nodes, and the vibrating parts between them veniral ^^^ 
segments, '^''^' 

54a. Proof In fig. 14, 1, the full curved line represents Proof 
the two intc^ering waves at an instant of tim^ such tbai 



ACOUSTICS 



lU 



b their progress towvds each other, they are then coinci- 
dent It ill obvious that the particles of the medium will 
It the moment in question be displaced to double the ex- 
tent of the displacement producible hf either waye alone, 
10 that the rauluxni ware may be represented by the dotted 
curre. In ^. U, 2, the two interfering waves, repre- 
lentod by the full and dotted curves respectively, have each 




Fig. 14. 

passed over a distance « ^ A, the one to the right, the other 
to the left, and it is manifest that any disturbance of the 
medium, producible by the one wave, is completely nentra> 
Used bj the equal and opposite action of the other. Hepce, 
the partidea of the medium are now in their undisturbed 
positiona. In 6g. H, S, a further advance of the two 
wftvea, each in its own direction, over a space >■ } A, has 
again brouj^t them into coinddenoe, and the result is the 
wave represented by the dotted line, which, it wiU be re- 
marked, has its creiCf, where, in fig. 1, are found trwghi. 
In fig. 14, 4, after a further advance >■ 4 A, we have a repeti- 
tion of the case of fig: 14, 2, the particles are now again un- 
affected by the wavea. A still further advance of ^ X, or 
of X reckoned from the commencement, brings us back to 
the same state of things as subsisted in fig. 14, h An m- 
spectioa and inter-eomparison of the dotted Ihies in these 
fignrea aft now suflident to establish the aoenracy of the 
kwa, before mentioned, of tlatumarf wtwtil 

Paw VL 

Mtuieal Sirinfft 

^ 55. We have in musical strings an instance of the 
^ occumnce of stationaiy wavea. 

Lei AB (fig. 15) be a wire or , ^ 

string, supposed meanwhile to 

be fixed only^ one eztremi^ B, 

and let the wire be, at any part, 

excited (whether by passing a 

violin bow across or by friction 



ng.15. 



along it), so that a wave (whether of transversal or longi- 
tudinal vibrations) is propagated thence towards B. On 
reaching this point, which is fixed, reflexion will occur, 
in consequence of which the partides tl^ re wiU sulSer a 
complete reversal of vdodty, just as- when a perfectly 
elastic hall strikes against a smooth surface perpendi- 
(mlnriy, it rebounds with a vdodty equal and oppodte to 
that it previoudy had. Hence, the displacement due to 



the incident i»-avo bcuig BM, the displacement after re- 
flexion will be ^N equal and opposite to BM, and a 
reflected wave will result, represented by the faint line 
in the fig., which will travel with the same velodty, but 
in the opposite direction to the inddent wave fully lined in 
the fig. The interference of these two oppositely pro- 
gressing waves will consequently give rue to a stationaiy 
wave (fig. IG), and if we 
take on the wire distancea ^ ^ 



BC, CD, DE, &C.-4 K 



iT 
Fig. 10. 

the points B, C, D, tS, . will be nodes, each of which 
separate portions of the wire vibrating in oppodte direo- 
tions, t.tf., ventral $egnunZ$. 

56. Now, it is obvious that, inasmuch as a node is a point 
which remains always at rest while other parts of the 
medium to which it belongs are vibrating, such point may 
be absolutely fixed without thereby interfering with the 
oscillatoiy motion of the medium. If, therefore, a length 

AB of wire be taken equal to any multiple of - , A may be 

fixed as well as B, the motion remaining the same as 
before, and thus we shall have the usual case of a mudcal 
string. The two extremities being now both fixed, there 
will be repeated reflexions at both, and a consequent 
persistence of two progressive waves advancing in opposite 
directions and producing together the stationaiy wave 
above figured. 

57. We learn from this that a musical string is suscep- Ponda-- 
tible of an infinite variety of modes of vibration cone* menui ana 
spending to different numbers of subdivision into ventral ^»<boo*^ 
segments. 

Thus, it may have but cm ventral segment (fig. 17), or 
but two nodes formed by its 
fixed extremities. In this < 
the note emitted by it is the 
lowest which can posdbly be Fig. 17. 

obtained from it, or, as it is called, kB fundamental note. 
If I denote Uie length of Uie wire, by what has been already 

proved, /- |,and therefore the length of the wave X« 

2f. Hence, V bdne the velodty of propagation of the wave 
through the wire, Uie number n^ of vibrations performed 



in the nnit of time with the fundamental note is 



21' 



The next possible subdivision of the wire is into two 
ventral segments, the three _..^ 
nodes bdng the two fixed ^^f!!!!!!^!!^^^ 
ends A, B, and the middle A 
point C (fig. 18). Hence, 7- A, Fig. 18. 

and the number of vibrationan, 

«--j- or double of those of the fundamental The note, 

therefore, now is an 8*^ higher. 

Reasoning in a like manner for the cases of three, four, 
&C., ventral segments, we obtain the following general 
law, which is applicable alike to tranwersdy and to Umgi- 
iudinally vibrating wires: 

A wire or string fixed at both ends u capable o/yjMinff, in 
addition to its fimdammtal noU, anyone of a series of notes 
corresponding to 2, 3, 4 times, *c, the number of vibrations 
per second of the fundamental, vis., theoctdve, twelfth, double 
octave, ^ • ♦ 

These higher notes are termed the harmonses or (by the 
Qermans) the owtfreowes of the string. 

It is to be remarked that the overtones are in general 
fainter the higher they are in the series, because, as the 
number of ventral segments or independently vibrating 
parU of the string increases, the extent or amplitude of ^^^ ^ 
the vibrations dimiushes. huM to- 

58. Not only may the fundamental and its harmonics gaUNo. 



11:2 



ACOUSTICS 



bovbert 



M obtained independently of etch other, bat thej are alao 
to be heard aiinultaDeouelj, porticnlarly, for the reaeon 
jnit given, thoee that are lower in the scale. A practised 
ear eaaily diaoeme the coexistence of these various tones 
when a pianoforte or violin string is thrown into vibration. 
It is evident that, in such case, die string, while vibrating 
aa a whoia between its fixed 
eztremitiea, ia at the same 
tiMe ezecnting subsidiary osdl- ^ 
lationa about its middle point, 
its poiuts of trisection, &c., at ^^ ^^' 

shown in fig. 19, for the fuijaamental and the first har- 
monic 

BmiMBlci^ 69 The easiest means for bringing out the harmonics of 
a string consists in drawing a vioUn^w acroea it near to 
one end, while the feathered end of a quill or a hair-pencU 
is held lightly against the string at the point which it is 
ititended shau form a node, and ia removed just after ihe bow 
ia withdrawn. Thus, if a node is made in this way, at | 
of AB from A, the note heard will be the twelftL If 
light paper rings be strung on the cord, they wiU be 
dnven by the vibrations to the nodes or points of reet, 
which will thus be clearly indicated to the eye. 
V 

CompMl- 60 Theformulafli,* — shows that the pitch of the funda- 

•0& of foil* ' 

d&meotab mental note of a wire of given length rises with the velocity 
of 0tringB of propagation of sound through it Now we have learned 
t^umw- ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ .velocity, in ordinary circumstances, is 
ly and Iod- ^normoxisly greater for a wire vibrating longitudinally than 
gltadinaHy. for the same wire vibrating transversely. The fundameiital 
note, therefore, is far higher in pitch in the former than, in 
the latter casa 

As, however, the quantity V depends, for longitudinal 
vibrations, solely on the nature of the medium, the pitch of 
the fundamental note of a wire nibbed along its length 
depends — the material being the same, brass for instance- 
on its length, not at all on its thickness, && 

But as regards strings vibrating transversely, such as 
are met with iu our instrumental music, V, as we have 
seen (§ 27), depends not only on the nature of the sub- 
stance used, but also on its thickness and tension, and hence 
the pitdi of the fundamental, even with the same length 
of string, will depend on all those various circumstances. 
Tranrrvm* 61 If we put for V its equivalent expressions before 
given, we have for the fundamental note of transversely 
vibrating strings; 



ty vibnt- 
ing ftilog 



whence the following inferences may be easily drawn : 

If a string, its tension being kept invariable, have its 
length altered, the fundamental note will rise in pitch in 
exact proportion with its diminished length, that ia, » 
varies then inversely as / 

Hence, on the violin, by placing a finger successively on 
8432381 
any one of the strings at -, g, -, -, -, -, -, we shall ob- 
tain notes corresponding to numbers of vibrations bearing 
to the fundamental the ratios to unity of the following,. 
9 5 4 3 \f> 

nr. 8» i* 3» 2' 8* ^* ^^^ '^^**®® ^**"^ therefore, with 

the fundamental, the complete scala 

nx 62 By ftghiffnmg a musical string, its length remaining 

VTenaion. unchanged, its fundamental ia rendered higher. In fact, 

then, n is proportional to the square root of the tension. 

Thus, by quadrupling the tension, the note is raised an 

octave. Hence, the use of keys in tuning the violin, the 
•(t pianoforte, &a 

1 63 Equal lengths of stringa of the same density and 

ilikkness. equally stretched, but of difi'erent thicknesses, give fundar 



mentals which are higher in pitch in proportion to dimi- 
nution of thicknews (i.e., n varies inversely as the thicknessy 
Thus, of two strings of same kind of gut, same length and 
same tension, if one Jbe twice as thick as the other, its 
fundamental will l]^ sa octave lower. Hence, three of ther 
strings of the vioGn^^ough all of gut, ha^e different 
fundamentals, because unequally thick. 

64. Equally long and equally stretched strings or wires vl 

of different thickness and different material, have funda- ^_1-. 
mentals higher in pitch the less the wfiights of the strings; v^ ' ' 
» here varies invenely aa the square root of tiia w6ight » ^^ 
of a given length of the string. 

65. If, in last case, the thicknesses of the strings «« 

which are to be compared together are equal, then m varies 

inversely aa the square root of the density. *^^^' 

Hence, in the violin and in the pianoforte, the lower 
notes are obtained from wirea formed of denser material 
Thus, the fourth string of the violin lis fonned of got 
covered with silver wire. 

66. A highly ingenious and instructive method for Meld; -< 
Uluatrating tiie above laws of musical strings, has been P^;^ " 
recently contrived by M. Melde, and consiBts simply in^^o'^^'^ 
attaching to the ventral segment of a vibrating body, 
such as a tuning-fork or a bell-glass, a silk or cotton thread, 

the other extremity being either fixed or passing over a 
pulley and supporting wogjits by which the thread may be 
stretched to any degree required. The vibrationa of the 
laiiger mass are communicated to the thread which, by 
proper a4iustment of its length and tension,, vibrates in 
unison and divides itself into one or more ventral segments 
easily discernible by a spectator. Jf the length of the 
thread be kept invariable, a oertam tension wiU give but 
one ventral segment; the fundamental note of the thread 
is then of same pitch as the note of the body to which it 
is attached. By reducing the tension to ^ of its previous 
amount, the number of ventral segments will be seen to be 
increased to two, indicating that the first harmonic of the 
thread is now in unison with the solid, and consequently 
that its fundamental is an octave lower than it waa with 
the former tension ; thus confirming the^ law that n varies 
as J^, In like manner, on further lowering the tension 
to f . three ventral segments will be formed, and so on. 

The law t^at, cast, par., n varies inversely as the thick- 
ness may be tested by forming a string of four lengths of 
the single thread used before, and consequently of double 
the thickness of the latter, when, for the same length and 
tension, the compound thread will exhibit double the num- 
ber of ventral segments presented by the single thread. 

The other laws admit of similar illustration. 

Pabt VIL 
Stiff Rods, Plates, ibc 
67 If, instead of a string or thin wire, we make use of Rod. '^ 
a rod or narrow plate, sufficiently stiff toYesLst flexure, we '^^,' 
may cause it to vibrate # 2 S> tran^- 

transversely when fixed ' * .J — ■• 

at one end only In this 
case the number of vi- 
brations corresponding to 
the fundamental note 
varies as the thickness 
directly, and as the fiquane 
of the length inversely. 
The annexed figures re* 
present the modes of vi<i. 
bration corresponding to 
the fundamental and the 
first two overtones, the 
rod passing to and fro 
^between the positions AQKO and ATTT.^ 




In all cases A 



ACOUSTICS 



113 



being fixed is neoeasBiily a node, aiid B being free is the 
middle of a Tentral eegroent We have thus a saccesaion 
of cases in which the rod oontains ^, f , f , &c. ventfal seg- 
ments. The numbers of Tibrations per second are as the 
squares of these, or, as I : 9 : 25 : &€. The reason of this 
is, that (taking the case of fig. 20, 3) the part FB, which 
may be regarded as an indqiendent rod fixed at the end 
F, is evidently ^ of the length of AB, and consequently, 

since mx ^, has a proper note of* 5' or 25 times the 

rapidity of vibration in fig. SIO, 1. 

By attaching, with a little bees' ivax, stiff hog'a Welles 
to one prong of a tnnin^-fork, or to the edge of a bdl- 
^asB, or even a common jar, and clipping them on trial to 
suitable lengths, we shall find that, on drawing a note in 
the nsnal way from the tuning-foik or glass, the bristles 
will divide into one or more separately vibra&ig segments, 
as in the above figs. 

68. The tvnUig-forh itself may be re- 
garded as belonging to the class of stiff 
rods. When emitting its fundamental 
note, it vibrates, as in fig. 21, with nodes 
at b and d and extreme positions abcdi 
BBd/bgcOk, 
<• 69. The transversal vibrations of thin 
square, circulac, and other plates of metal 
Of glass, are interesting, because, if these are 
kept in a horizontal position, light dry sand 
or powder sifted over the upper surface, will be tlyiown nff 
the ventral segments to the nodal lines, which will thus be 
rendered manifest to the egre, forming what aie termed 
CkladniC9fig%re9, As in the case of a musical string, so- 
here we find that the pitch of the note is higher for a given 
plate the greater the number of ventral segments into 
which it is divided; but the conYerse of this does not hold 
good, two different notes being obtainable with the same 
number of such segments, the position of the nodal lines 
being, however, different 

70. The upper line of annexed figures shows how 
the sand arranges itself in three cases, when the plates 
are square. The lower line gives the same in a sort of 




V 




UealiMed fonn, andiss usuaHy to be foun4 in acoustical 
works. Fig. 22, 1 corresponds to the lowest possible note 
of the particular plato used; Fig. 22, 2 to the fifth 
higher; Fig. 22, 3 to the tmnih or octave of the tMrd, 
the numbm of vibration in the same time being {s 2 
to 3 to 5. 

ft the plate be smaQ, it is sufficient, in order to bring 
out the simpler sand-fisures, to hold the plate firmly 
between two fingers of Ute same hand placed at any point 
where at least two nodal lines meet, for instance the centre 
in (1) and (2), and to draw a violin bow downwards across 
the edge near the middle of a ventral segment But with 
bger plates, which alone^rill furnish the more complicated 
figures^ aclamyaciew must be used for fixing the plate, and, 




at the same tuie, one or more other nodal points ought 
to be touched with the fingers while the bow is being 
applied. In this way, any of the possible configurations 
may be easily produced. 

71. By similar methods, a circular plate ma^ be made Cbealsr 
to exhibit nodal lines dividing tlie snrfaoa by diametral r*~^" 
lines into four or a greater, but always «b«ii^ number of 
sectors, an odd number being incompatible with the general 
law of stationary waves- that the parts of a body a4Joiniii^ 
a nodal line on either side must always vibrate oppositely 
to each other. 

Another class of figures consists H 
circular nodal lines along with diar 
metral (fig. 23). 

CHrcukr no<ul lines unaooompanied ^^ _. 

by intersecting lines cannot be pro- ^' 

duced in the manner described ; but may be got either 
by drilling a small hole through the centre, and draw- 
ing a horse-hair along its ed^ to bring oat the note, or 
by attaching a long t£n elastic rod to the -centre of the 
plate, at right ai^ea to it, holding the rod by the middle 
and rubbing it lengthwise with a bit d cloth powdered 
with resin, till the rod gives a distinct note ; tiie vibra 
tions are communicated to jte plate^ whidi consequently 
vibrates transversdy, and cavses the aand to heap iteaif 
into om or more concentric rings. 

72. The theory of the vibrations of pbtea has not yet Tliaory 
been put on a qifite satisfactory basis. Hie following law ofChiadiiis 
may« however, be regarded as confirmed by experiment, ^V^ 
viz., that when two c&erent plates of the same substance 
present the same nodal configuration, the numbers of 
vibrations are to each other directly as the thicknesses, and 
inversely as the superficial areas. 

73. Paper, parchment, or any other thin membrane Vflmtioas • 
stretched over a equare, cireulsr, te, frame, when in the <tf "^"^ . 
vicinity of a diffidently powerful vibrating body, wiU,****^ 
through the medium of the air, be itself made to vibrate 

in unison, and, by using sand, as in previous ihstances» 
the. nodal lines will be depicted to the eye, and seen to 
vary in form, number, and position with the tension of the 
plate and the pitch of the originating sound. The mem- 
brana tympani or drum of the ear has, in like inanner and 
on the same principles, the property of r^>eating the 
vibradons of the external air which it communicates to the 
internal parts of the ear. 

74. Rods vibrating longitudinally are, as we EavealBeadyLoDgltii- 
remarked, subject to the laws of stationary waves. If, for ^^■l ^^<^ 
instance, a wooden rod fixed at one end, be nibbed near |^ ^ 
the top between the finger and thumb previously coated 

with powdered resin, it will yield a fundamental note when 
it so vibrates as to have only one node (at tiie fixed 
extremity) and half a ventral segment reaching from that 
extremity to the other, that is, when the length / of the 

V . 
rod is \ X, or X » 4/, and therefore f tt- But it may 

also give overtones corresponding to 2, 3, kc nodes, the 

free end' being always the middle of a ventral scl|ment» 

4/ 41 
and for which therefore the lengths ef waves aae -r-, -;r, 

3 o 

<lcc (as will be easily seen by referring to figs, in § 67, 

which may equally represent transversal and longitudinal 

displacements). Hence, the fundamental^and harmonies 

of a rod such as we are now considering, have vihcaiiona 

whose rates are as the successive odd numbers. 

A series of like rods, each fixed at one end into a Ubok 

of wood»-and of lengths bearing to each othen the i^itioa 

1 : ft : ^c. (as in § 61]^ will give the common^cale when> 

rubbed in .the manner ahready mentionel This follows 

V 1 

from the focdainflDtal haiving a» ^ Sod therefore hoc 7. 



114 



A C O U ST I C S 



Okas rodB or tUDae'ioay also be made to vibrate longi- 
< tndinally by oieans of a moiet piece of cloth ; but it ia 
. odvigable to damp tliem firmly at the centre, when each 
half will ▼ibrate according to the aame laws aa the wooden 
rods above* The existence of a motion of the partidca of 
glaaa to and fro in the direction of its length may be well 
exhibited, by allowing a small baU of stone or metal 
suspended by a string to rest against one extremity of the 
rod, when, aa aoon as the latter is made to sing hj frictiun, 
the baU wOl be thrown off with considerable violence. 



Paet vm. 



r#Llr U t^6 
essential 

■sound la 



Prtndpc* 
of B«r- 

Cheory. 



Tkeory of Fipei. 

76. The longitmdmal vibrationa of air enclosed in pipes 
are of greater practical importance than those of other 
bodies, becanae made available to a veiy great extent for 
mosical porpoaea. In the flute, horn, trumpet, and other 
wind inatrunteota, it ia the contained air that forms 
the essentia] medinni for the production of aound, the wood 
or metal endoaing it having no other eflfoct but to modify 
the tmbrt or a cona t ie colour of the nota 

76. In dealing with the theory of pipes, we piust treat 
the air precisely in the saoje manner as we have dealt with 
elastic rods vibrating lengthwise, a jHpe stopf^ at both 
ends bttng regarded as equivalent to a rod fixed at both 
ends, a pipe open at both ends to a rod fite at both ends, 
sod a pipe stepped at one end and open at the other to a 
rod fixed at one end and free at the other. When there- 
fore the air within the pipe ia anywhere dispkoed along 
the length of the pipe, two waves travel thence in opposite 
directions, and bcong reflected at the extremitiee c^ tiie 
pipe, there results a stationary wave with one or more 
ftired nodal sections, on'one side of which the air ia at any 
moment being diaplaoed in one dlrectioQ, while on the 
fitJier side it is displaced ill the oppositSL Hepce, ^dien 
the air on both aidea of the node • ^^~^^^ 
ia moving in towards it, there ia "7^^*^^ * "^ 

condensation ffoing on at the ^ -^ 

node, fdlowed by larefaetioa on 
the reversal of the motion of the 
air. The full lines in awww r ^ \ " 
figs, are curves cl duplaeemadM^ 
the dotted lines curves of vdocity ^ 
and dftwity (vidl § 10 and U). «- 

As a stopped end prevents any _ 
motion of die air, a nodal section "" 
is always found there. And as, 

at the open end, we may conceive the internal air to be 
maintained at the same density as the external air, we may 
assume that such end coinddes with the. middle pf a ven- 
tral segm^t 

From these assumptions, which form the basis of 
Bemouilli's Theory of Pipes, we infer: 

77. That in a pipe stopped at botli ends, aa in a rod 

fixed at both ends, the fundamental > ^ ^ 

note (fig. 25, 1 ), corresponds to X » 2/, 

and therefore to M" ^» ^ denoting 

die velodty of sound in air, and the 

overtones to numbers of vibrations 

- 2n, 3«, and so on. Fig. 25, 2, 
./represents the octave. 
Op«npipe. ' 78. That in a^-pipe open at both^ ends the same holds 

good as in the previous case. For (fig. 26^ 1) AC«4 X 

X - 4 AC - 2/, and m fig. 26, 2, AD - I X, and also 

Fu!?Ded j^t. " i ' • • ^ ■ 't <» 4 its value for the .fundamental; and 

«ne Md limilacly for the other harmonica. 

only. 79. TWr iD_a_pipe open at od» end and stopped at 



rig.M. 



Pipe 
stopped at 
boLh< 



Fig. SO. 



Fig. 26 
Simjiarly for tba 

a given pipe r 



the other (or, as it is usually termed, ^ «<o/)peEf pip^ ouie $ 

77, being purely imaginary), 

the fundunental note has n — 

V 

rj, and the overtones correa* 

pond to 3i», 59». . . . 

For, in fig. 27, 1, AB or 
/-^ X, and in fig. 27, 2, CB 
or {a^ib evidently* ^ AB or 

ii, whence X » |^ in^iich being ^___ 
of value of X in previous 
case, shows that the number ' 
of vibrations is three times greater, 
other overtones. 

80. It follows from the above^ that 
(whether open or stopped) may 
be made to emit, ii^ addition 
to or in combination with its 
fundamental, a series of over- 
tones, whichy in an open pipe, 
follow the natural numbosi 
and hence are the octave, 
twelfth, tef but, in a ttoppei 
pipe^ follow the odd numbers, 
80 as to want the octave and 
other notes represented by the _ 

even numbers. The succession ^of overtones may be 
practically obtained by properly regulating' the force 
of the blast of air fay which the air^olnmn ia put into 
vibratuxL 

.81. If the fundamental notes of two pipes of eq[nalN '^^ 

lengths, but of which one la open, the other 8t(^^>ed, be °>; - 

compared together, they will be found to differ in pitch by '^ ' 

an octave, the stopped being the lower. Thia £act ia in 

keeping w^ the theory, for the numbers of vibratioQSi< 

V V 
being mpectivBly rr and r?, are in the ratio of 3 to L. 

82. B|y ahering the length of the same pipe^ we can ^t'^-' 
vaiy the pitdi <S ihp fundamental- at' pleasure^ since n 
varies inversely as L This is effected in the flute and 
some other wind instruments byoneans of openings along 
part of the pipe, which, being dosed of opened by means 

of keys and of Uie fingers, increaae or diminish, the length 
of the vibrating aircolumn. Jn this manner the anooesszve 
notes olMthe s^e are usually obtained within the range cf 
an octave. The scale is further extended by bringing into 
play the higher harmonics. 

83. Since in an open pipe «>-^y and therefore '""^t ^'\ 

if for V we put 1090 ft, and for n 264, which » the 
number of vibrations per second usually assigned \o the 
note 0, w^ get / » 2 ft very nearly. This» acoordin^y, is 
the length of the so-called open pipe. Tlie C stepped 
Ipe must, by what has been stated ^ove,.be 4 feet in 




pi}- 



84. Conversely it is obvious that the velocity V of aound ^«'^' 
in air, and generally in any gas, may be deduced from the ^-y^ 
equation VB2n/, and that Sf two pipea of equal length J^^^^i 
contain respectively air and any olaer gas, the velocities 

in the two media being to each other directly as the 
number of vibrations of the notes they respectively emit, 
we may, from the well-ascertained value of the 'Velocity in 
air, determine in this way the vdodties in. other gases, 
and thence the values of theb ooefiicidnts y (t^ § 21). 

85. While the inferences drawn byjneans of Bmonillf s l>*' 
theory agree, to a certain extent, with actual observation, ^''- 
there are diiBcrepancies between the two which point to^"^" 
the existence of some flaw in one or both of the hypotheses 

on which the theory rests. In truth, the ccmditiona 
assumed by Bemouilli are such as do not fuUy occnr in 



ACOUSTICS 



115 



practice The stopppd extreinity of i pipe is aJwaya to 
Ronie ext-pnt of 4 /leldmi; nature, and does not therefore 
exactly ctiiincide with a oiidal surface . nor can the ini«nial 
ur immodiaufly adjoiuing the open end be perfectly free 
from variaU4>n of deoHity danng the mbrations of the 
whole QiHiis. particuhirly ho at ^ the emhtmrJaurt, where the 
blast \» introduced by which the Uine is originated. It 
would appear from recent expenments that the pitch of a 
pifM? IS somewhat lower than the above theory would 
lodjcate 
u pi|«L 86 , The reed-pipe differs in oiaoy respects from the 
suDple pipe which we have been oooaidenng. A small 
elasur stnp of metal, &zed at one extremity (the rtmi\ 
tifj* over a slit of the same shape, and la set 10 transverse 
vthration by a current of air acting andemeath. If, ^as is 
the caM* ID the accordion and barmoniom, the reed is/id- 
pnivided with s pipe. th« pitch of itB note m regulated 
altogether by the dimensions of the reed, id oonfomuty 
with the law of tranversely vibrating plates . ahhough, it 
]j) to be remarked, the .note is really due to the vibratioiis 
of the air which alternately escapes through the alit of the 
reed, and ui prevented doing so exactly as often as the 
reed executes a movement to and fro. The proper note of 
the reed itself is very poor and faint 
i!^'*<A 87 In the reed-pipe there is added above the reed a pipe 
' '^^ the air in which partakes of the vibratory motion, and im- 
proves the quahty of tiie sound The pitch la, however, 
Dot affected by Uus pipe, unless it exceed a certain length 
/. when the pitch begins to fall, and oontinuea to do so as 
/ 18 increased, till, when the length of pipe la 2/, the note 
18 again restored to its original pitch, dec 
KT' 88 M. Weber, to whom we are indebted for these end 
^<^ other canons facts respecting reed pipes, has explained 
^^ them thus —If the reed be exactly at that part of the 
vibrifcmg air-column where the air<li8placementa are at 
thev maximum, and where consequently the air suffere no 
variation of density during the vibratory motion of the 
column, the oscillauons of the reed are not at aU affected 
by the air-vibrationa, and consequently the pitch of the 
reed-pipe is the same as thsjt of the reed itsell But if the 
reed be sttnated at any other part of the air-column, and 
especially si a nodal section, where the air is undergoing 
alternate oondansatioD and rarefaction, then, when the air- 
blast from the wind chest pushes in the reed, the air in 
the pipe IS in the act of. rarefaction, and consequently tends 
to acoekrale the reed inwards, whereas the elasticity of 
the reed tends m an opposite direction When, again, the 
reed is passing to the other extreme of its vibrauon, the 
air ID the pipe is in the act of condensation, and tends to 
accelerate the reed outwards or in the opposite direction to 
the elasticity of the reed Hence the reed is affected just 
as if its elasticity, and therefore the rapidity of its vibra^ 
tiona, were diminished, and thus the pitch is lowered 

VkXi TX. 

Stngtng Flama, 

^ . 89 Tbe ekewuaU or gas harmamoim^ which consists of 
"^ s small flame of hydrogen or of coal gas. bunung at the 
lower part of the in tenor of a glass tabe, and giving out a 
very distinct note, exhibits considerable analogy with the 
reed-pipe For. as Sondhaus seems to have estabbshed 
the primary cause of the note lies in the oscillations of the 
gap within the burner and the feedmg-pipe, which there- 
fore play exactly the same part^as does the reed portion of 
the reed-pipe The air in the gUss tube being heated by 
the 6ame ascends, and the pressure above the flame being 
thence diminishfld. tbe flame is forced upwards by the gas 
beneathy until an influx of atmosphenc air at the top cA 
the tube forces the flame bacL Thus a periodic agitation 



I of the flame ensues, accompanied by a corresponding di» 
turbance of the air-column in the glass tube. The sixe of 
tbe flame and its position within the tube mast be so 
regulated ss to bnng out the best possible note, which will 
then be found to be the same as the air in the tnbe wuuld 
Itself emit, according to the laws of pipes, allowanoe being 
made made for the high temperature of the air. A senes 
of tubes may thus be arranged of suitable lengths to give 
the common scalei It sometimeB happens, parucularly 
with short tubes, tbat the note will not come otft spontane- 
ously, all that IS required, then, is either by blowing gently 
at the top of the tube, or by sui^ujg in unison with th<: 
expeeted note, to give to the air the requisite initial movo- 
ment 

The flame, which bums steadily with a yellowish light 
before the tjibe sounds, will, as soon as the note is hecud, 
be seen to flicker up and down, changing rapidly from 
yellow to blue ^d blue to yellow, its intensity also chang- 
mg penodically. These fluctoatioiis^re best seen by view- 
ing the image ci the flame reflected by a small plane mirror, 
held 111 the hand and moved to and fro. Before the note 
IS heard, the image of the then quiescent flame, being im- 
pressed on different points of the retina, appears as a con- 
tmuons luminous strip ; but, when the harmonioon speaks, 
the various images beoome quite detached from one another, 
ahowing that the portion of the retina over wjjich the 
reflected light passes \m sensibly affected only at certain 
pouts of it, whjch evidently eorrespond to the instants of 
time at which the flame, in its periodical fluctuations, is at 
its brightest. 

90. Naked flames, that is, flames nnacoompanied by tubea, NakeS 
may al0O give out musical notes, and many smgular in- Asbms^ 
stances are mentioned by Tyndall and others ol their 
sensitiveness to external sounds. 

91. Koenig of Paris haa oonstmcted an apparatus in- Flaor* 
tended to indicate the modes of vibration of the different 
parts of vibrating bodies, such as oohimne of air, kc, by 
means of flames, and to which he has given the name df 
tbe Flam8 Mcmomuier. We will here describe its applica- 
tion to the case of oigan-pipea. An open pipe has three 
apertures along one 8i£, one at tbe middle, (flg. 28), t.«., 
at a node of the fundamental tone, and the two others, a, 6, 
half way between o and the extremities of the 
pipe, and coinciding therefore with the nodes of. 
the flnt overtone or octave. These openings are 
closed by thm flexible membranes forming the 
ends of small boxes or eaptuUt, the spaces within 
which ocmimunicate by caoutchouc tubes with a 
ooal-gas reservoir, and also by separate tubes with 
small gas burners arranged on a vertical stand 
The gas being introduc^i, and the three flames 
kindled and adjusted to equal heights of about | 
of an inch ; if the pipe be made now to otter its flist over- 
tone, the flame connected with o will remain stationaiy 
and of the same brightness as before, but those communi- 
cating with a and b wiU become longer and thinner, and 
assume a bluish and faint huninosit}^ But, if the funda- 
mental be brought out of the pipe, then it is e's flame 
that is violently affected, while those of a and L are scarcely 
affected at all If the flames be originally made less in 
height (say } inch), those of a and 6 in the former rase, and 
of in the latter, will be extinguished These results are 
due to tbe condensations and rarefactions of the air u the 
pipe which are at their maximum at a node; causing the 
membrane pUced there to vibrate outwards and inwards, 
and hence to force more or less of the gas mto the buiper. 

In order to compare together the notes of different pipes, 
four plane reflecung surfaces are connected together in the 
form of a cube, which is mounted on a vertical axis aboot 
which it IS capable of being torQed nmnd Each pipe is 



w 



ng.i8. 



116 



ACOUSTICS 



fnraiahed with one opeiuDg, « membrane, &c (aa above), 
at its mHdla As pointed out (§ 87), if any of the pipes 
be made to sound, die reflector, being at the same time put 
in motion, a series of separate images will be seen. On 
sounding another pipe, whose fundamental is an octave 
higher, we shall have a second line of images sepieusted 
from each other by half the interval of those in the former 
series This is best observed when the tw,o flames are placed 
in the sany3 vertical line. If the note of the second pipe 
is a fifth higher than the first, and consequently its vibra- 
tions to those of the first as 3 to 2, then the same space 
which contains two images of the lower note wUl contain 
three of the higher, and so on, for other combinations 
When more complicated ratios are to be tested; it is {re- 
ferable to connect both capsules with the same bozner, 
either with or without the reflector. 

Part X. 
C<jmmwnie<aion of VtbraHaiu 
Commotti- 92. The communication of sonorous vibrations fnpm one 
eatioQ be- body to another plays so essential a part in acoustics that 
ffEML ^ ^^^ words must here be given to the subject It appeaie 
uUdft, and ^ ^ ^^ sstabUahed that while the vibrations of a solid 
liquids. are in general most readily oommunicated to other solids 
in contact with It, they are not so to liquids, and still less 
so to air and other aeiifonn fluids. Thus, a tuning-fork 
Lb inaudible at any moderate distance unless applied to a 
table, by ^ whose extended surface the air can be more 
intensely affected. So likewise a musical string sounds 
veiy poorly unless connected with a resonant cavi^ or 
wooden chest, to the wood of which it first imparts its 
vibratory motion, which then produces statiooaiy warns, in 
the continued air. 
RuDdt'sax- ^3. A few years ago M. Kundt made known a method 
liariiMBta. founded on the commnnicabflity oi vibiation, by which 
the velocities of sound in different media may be compared 
together with great facility. T^e aglass tabe 3 feet er up- 
wards in length, drop into it a small quantity of the fine 
povriler of the chib-moas or lycopodium, and turn the tube 
round so as to spread the powder over tlite internal surface 
of the tube. Stop both ends of the tube with corks^ clamp 
it at its centre, and rub one of its halves lengthwise with 
a moist cloth, so as to cause the glass to sound a note. It 
will then be found that, the air within the tnbe taking up 
the motion, and a stationary wave being foimed in it, the 
powder is driven off from the ventral segments and forms 
little heaps at the nodes. TIm dust-heaps are, by the laws 
of stationaiy waves, separated therefore from each other 
by intervals each equal to half the length of an air-wave, or 

-. ^ theuy the number ol heaps -m, and the length 

21 
df ihe tube ml-, k» - 

But, by the laws of longitudinal vibrations of rods, the 

length* X! of the glass-wave » 4 Tr j « 21. Hence - * flh 

^bat is, the number of dust-heaps is equal to the ratio of 
tihe lengths of a wave of sound in glass and in air, and 
oonsequently to the ratio xd the velocities of sound in those 
media. (For the vi})rations being in unison, their number 
io a giyen time must ])e the same for the glass and the 

MiSf ii, -7 = ^ ; V, V being the velocities). i 

Kundt found 16 to be the number of heaps; prior 
^pperiments of a different kind had, as we have before 
mentioned, given this as the number of times that the 
velocity of sound in glass exceeds its velocity in air. 

Instead of producing the air-vibrations by friction of the 
'tube oontaining the air, it is preferable to make use of a 
amaller tnbe or rod, furnished with a cork at one end. which 




fits like a piston into the tnbe, and projecting at its oatci 
end through an opening in the cork whichdcccs the air 
tube. The rod tluis inserted is the one^ which is nibbed 
longitudinally and communicates its vibrations to the aii 
in the endosmg tube. By meaiis of an apparatus of tlua 
kind, Kundt detenni&ed the ratio to the velocity of Bound 
in air of its velocity in varioos solids, and also (replacing 
the air in the tube by different gases) of its velocity in 
these gsiea. 

PuaxXL I 

Imierfermee of SouncL 

94. When two or more sonorous waves travel through VM&its i 
the same medium, each particle of the air being simultane- ^^« 
ously affeoted by the disturbaneee due to the diffei^t^^ 
waves, moves in a different manner than it would if only 
acted on by each wave singly. The waves are said mutually 

to interne. We shall exemplify this subject by consider- 
ing the case of two waves travelling in the same direction 
through the air. We shall then obviously be led to the 
following results:— 

95. If the two waves are of equal length A, aad are in TV «^ 
the same phase (that is, each producing at any given ^-'r' 
moment the same state of motion in the air-psrticlee), their ^"^ 
com b ined effect is equivalent to that of a wave of the ^im 
length A, but by which the excuxaioQa ci the particles are 
increased, being the 
sum of those due 
to the two oom- 
ponent waves re- 
spectively. 

If the two inter- 
fering wBves^ beins; 
still of samsLleAgtS 
X, be in opposite 
phases, or so thai ^^ 

one is in advance of the other by -,and oonaeqiieiitlly odo 

produces in the air the opposite state of motion to the 
other, then the resultant wave is one of the some length 
X, but by which the excursions of the particles are de- 
creased, being the difference between those due to the 
component waves. If the amplitudes of vibration which 
thus mutually interfere are moreover equal, the effect is 
the total mutual destruction of the Vibratory motion. 

Thus we learn that two musical notes, of the same pitch, 
conveyed to the ear through the air, will produce the effect 
of a single note of the same pitch, but of increased loudness, 
if they aie in the same phase, but affect the ear very 
slightly, if -at all, when in opposite phases. If the diffiftr- 

ence of phase be varied gradually foun zero to- X, thereeultr 

ing sound will gradually decrease from a mnyimn^ to a 

96. Among the many experimental eonfiimations which Kxp'" 
may be adduced of these proportionB. °^*'^-^ 
we will mention the following: — 

Take a circular plate, such as is / li^''^^^ Vib-* 
available for the production of Chladni's 
figures (§ 71), and cut out of a sheet*' 
of pasteboard a piece of the shape 
ABOCD (fig. 30), consisting of two 
circular quadrants of the same diameter 
as the plate. Let, now, the plate be '*«• **• 
made in the usual manner to vibrate so as to exhibit two 
nodal lines coinciding with two rectangular diametera If 
the ear be placed right above the centre of the plate, the 
sound will be scarcely audible. But, if the pasteboard be 
interposed so as to intercept the vibrating 84;mcnts AOB, 
DOC, tiie note becomes much more distinct The i 




plAU- 



ACOUSTFCS 



117 



h 






of r«ro 



of this tft. that the tegmenta of the pUte AOD. BOC 
always vibrate m the same direcuon, but oppositely to 
U)e se$i]|ents AOB« DOC. Hence, when the pasteboard 
IS (D Its place, there are two waves oi same phase starting 
(rum the two former segments, and reaching the ear after 
equal distances of transmission throogh the air. are again 
m the same phase, and prodnce on the ear a conjunct im- 
prt^sioo. But when the pasteboard is removed, then there 
IS at the ear opposition of phase between the fiirtt and the 
socond pair of waves, and consequently a minimum' of sound. 

97 A tubular piece of wood shaped as u fig. 31, and 
havijig a piece of thin membrane stretch^ over 
the opening at the top C, some dry sand being 
strttvn over the membcane, is so placed over a 
circular or rectangular vibrating plate, that the 
eiids A. B' lie over the segmeptt of the plate, 
sQch as AOD, COB u the previous fig., w^ch ^ 
ore in the same state of motion. The sand at C will 
be set m nolent movement But if the same ends 
A. B, be. placed over oppositely vibrating segments (such to 
AOD, COD), the sand will be scarcely, if at all, affected. 

98. If a tuning-fork in vibration he turned round before 
the ear, four positions will be found m which it will be 
inaudible, owing to the mutual mterference of the oppo- 
sitely vibrating prongs of the- forh. On mterposwg the 
hand between the ear and either prong of the fork when 
th one of those positions, the sound becomes audible, be- 
cause then one of the t^o interfering waves is cut off from 
the ear. This experiment may be vaned by holding the 
fork over a glass jar into which water la poured to euch a 
depth that the air-column within reinforces the note of 
the fork when suitably placed and then turning the fork 
round. 

99 Helmholtc's double syren (§ 51) is weO c»lcnlated 
for the investigatioo of the laws of interference of sound* 
For this purpose a simple mechanism is found in the m- 
stnunent, by ineans of which the fixed upper plate can be 
turned round and placed m any position relatively to the 
lower one. If, now, the apparatus be so set that the notes 
from the upper and lower chest are in unison, the upper 
fixed pkte may be placed in four positions, such as to 
cause the air-current to be cut off in the one chest at the 
exact instant when it is freely passing through the other, 
and vice veraa. The two waves, therefore, being in opposite 
phases, neutralise one another,^ and the result is a famt 
sound. On turning r«nnd the upper chest mto any mter- 
mediate position, the mtensity of the sound wil increase 
up to a manmum, which occurs when the air in both chests 
is beug admitted and cut off contemporaneously. 

100. If two pipes, in exact unison, and furnished with 
flame manometers, are m communication with the same 
wind-chest, and the two flames be placed m the same 
vertical line, on introducing the'current from the bellows, 
we shall find that the two lines of reflected images wiU be 
80 related tuat each image in one lie^ between two images 
in the ether. This shows that the air-vibrations m one 
pipe are always in an opposite phase to the other, or that 
condensation is taking place in the one when rarefaction 
occurs in the other. This arises from the current from the 
bellows passing alternately into the one and the other pipe. 
There will also be a remarkable collapse of the sound 
when both pipes eommumcate with the wind-chest com- 
pared with that produced from one pipe alone. 

101. If the two interfering waves are such as produce 
vibrations whose numbers per second are n, n respectively, 
these bemg to each, other m the rauo of two integers m, m 
^len expressed in its lowest terms, then the lengths of the 
waves A, X' being mversely as » to n', wiU be to each 
other as m' -. «, and consequently m A » m' X' Parucles 
therefore of the iir separated by this distance from each 



other wiU be in the same phase, that la, the length o{ the 
reatdtatu wave wiU be m A or «i' A', &nd if N denote the 

corresponding number of vibrations N « ~ or •^. 

Thus, for the fundamental and its octave - » it ^^ 

therefore K«» or r-« that is, the note of interference 

18 of the same pitch as the fundamental 

For the fundamental and ita miyor third, t * «• Heqce 

« w' 
N • 4 ^ T ' ^^ **• ^ resnlting sound i» two oetaves 

lower than the fundametaL 

For the fondamental and its m%jor sixth, "7 ~gi N 

therefore " • or r-, and the resulting sound ia a twelfth 

below the lower of the two interf enng notes. 

If m and m differ by 1, then N«i»-f»'; for m^m' 



Pux>d»* 

meoui I 
ocuv«. 



Panda- 
meiiUl A.)') 
migorttuni. 



Funda- 
menul au2 
major 
fixtli. 



or 1 • 



N N 



Hence, if the ratio of the Tibrationa Oue of 



of two interfering sounds is expressible in its lowest terma 
by numbers whose difference us unity, the resulting note 
has a number of vibrations simply equal to the differeooe 
of those of the mterfering notes. 

The results stated in this section may be tested on a har- 
momum. Thus, if the notes B, C, at the extreme eight ol 
the mstrument be struck together, there will be heard an 
interference note four octaves lower in pitch than the 
above C, because the mterval m question being a seaai- 
tone, IS II, and, consequently, by last case, the interference 
note IS lower than the C by mterval ^'^ 

Other notes may be heard resulting from the mntnal 
interference of the oyertonea. 

102. When two notes are not quite in tune, the resulting 
sound is found to alternate between a maximum and mini- 
mum of loudness recumng penodically. To these periodical 
alternations has been given the name of Beats. Thenr 
ongin is easily exphcabla Suppose the two notes to ooi^ 
respond to 200 and 203 vibrations per second ; at some 
instant of tune, the air-particles, through which the waves 
are passing, will be similarly <bspiaced by both, and con- 
sequently the jomt effect will be a sound of some inten^ty. 
But, after this, the first or less rapidly vibrating note will 
fall behmd the other, and cause a dimmutiou in the joint 
diB|dacements of the particles, till, after the lapse of ^ of 
a second, it will have fallen behind the other by A a vibra- 
tion. At this moment, therefore, opposite diapkcements 
will be produced of the air-particles by the two notes, and 
the sound due to them will be at a minimum. This will 
be followed by an increase of intensity until the lapse ol 
another sixth of a second, when the less rapidly vibrating 
note will have lost another half-vibration r^tively to the 
other, or one vibration reckoning from the original period 
of tame, and the two component vibrations will again con- 
spire and reproduce a maximum effect Thus, an inter 
val of ^ of a second elapses between two successive maxima 
or beats, and there are produced three beats per second. 
By aimilar fseasouing It may be shown that the number of 
b^ts per second is always equal to the difference between 
the numbers of vibrations in the same time corresponding 
to the two mteriermg notes. The more, therefore, these 
are out of tune, the more rapidly will the beats follow each 
other " 

Beats are also heard, though less distmctly, when other 
concords duch as thirdt^ JJ/t/is, tbc, are not perfectly in tune; 
thus. 200 vibrations aud 303 vibrations per second, which 
form, in combmauon, an unperfect fifth, produce beats 
occurring at the rate of three per second. 



118 



ACOUSTICS 



Tb^aam- 
her of rl- 
bnitionj of 

founl bj 
beats 



Tuning by 
beftis. 



Irriiailig 
tlfectof 
rapid bffiU 



103. The phenomeoa of beats may be easily observed 
with two organ-pipes put slightly out of tune by placing 
the hand near the open end of one of them, with two 
musical strings on a resonant chest, or with two tunmg- 
Corks of same pitch held over a resonant cavity (such as a 
glass jar, tnd. § 97), one of the forks being put out of tune by 
loading one prong with a small lump of bees'-waz. In the 
bat instance, if the forks are fixed on one solid piece of wood 
which xan be grasped with the hand, the beats will be 
actually felt by the hand. If one prong of each fork be 
furnished with a small plain mirror, and a beam of light 
from a luminous point be reflected successively by the two 
mirrors, so as to form an image on a distant screen, when 
one fork alone is put in vibration, the image will move on 
the moreen and i)e seen as a line of a certain length. If 
|K>th iorks are in vibration, and are perfectly in tune, this 
line may either be increased or diminished permanently in 
Imgth, according to the difference of phase betw^n the 
two sets of vibrations. But if the forks be not quite in 
'tune, then the length of the image will be found to fluo> 
toate between a maTJmnm and a minimum, thus making the 
beats sensible to the eye. The vibrograph (§ 52, 53) is 
also weD suited for the same purpose, and so in an -especial 
manner is Helihlidts' double jyren (§51), in which, by 
continually' turning round the upper box, a note is pro- 
duced by it more or less out of tune with the note formed 
1^ the lower chest, according as the handle ii moved more 
or less n^idly, afid most audible beats ensue. The gas 
hannonica and the flame manometer also afford excellent 
illustrations of the laws of beats. 

*104. Advantage has been taken of these laws for the 
purpose of determiSling the absolute number of vibrations 
per second corresponding to any given note in music, 
whence may be derived the number for all the other notes 
(9 40 j. The human ear may be regarded as most correctly 
appredating two notes differing by an octave. Two tuning- 
forks then are taken, giving respectively the note A and 
its lower octave, and a number of other forks are prepared 
intennodiate in pitch to these, say 54, and by means of 
bees'-WEX ibese are so tuned, that the first gives four beats 
with the A fork, the second four beats with the fourth, and 
io on up to the last, which also gives foub beats with the 
A^ fork. Now, if » » the unknown number of vibrations 
for ihe note A, »-4, «-8 . . . n-55x4, will be the 
numbers f^r all the successive forks down to the A^, fork, 

which being an octave below A, we have: - "f^^ - ^ a jand 
consequently n >■ 440. 

105. Bea^ also afford an excellent practical guide in the 
tuning of instruments, but more so for the higher notes of 
the register, inasmuch w the same number of beats, that 
IS, the same differenoe between the numbers of vibrations, 
for two notes of high pitch, indicates greater deviation 
frqm perfect unison, than it does for two notes of low 
pitch. Thus, two low notes of 32 ajod 30 vibrations 

respectively, whose interval is therefore^ or— ie.,a semi- 

30 10 

tone, give two beats per second, while the same number of 
beats are given by notes of 32 >cl6 (four octaves higher 
than the firat of the preceding) or 512 and 514 vibretions, 
which are only slightly out of tun& 

106: As the interval between two notes, and con- 
sequently the number of beats increases, the effect on the ear 
becomes more and more unpleasant, and degenerates at last 
into an irritating rattle. WiUi the middle notes of the musical 
register, this result occurs when the number of beats comes 
up to 20 or 30 per 8econd,^the musical interval between 
the two interfering notes being then« Between half and 
> whole tone. Helmholtz attributes the disagreeable im- 
F'^sinu of beats on the ear, to the same physiological cause 



to which is due the painful effect on the eye of a faint 
flickering light, as, for instance, the light streaming through 
a wooden paling with intervening openings ^en the 
individual affected is passing alongside. In this case, the 
retina, which, when continuously receiving the same smoont 
of light, thereby loses its sensitiveness in a great degree, is 
unabl^ to do so. 

It is, however, remarked by the above-mentioned author 
that the same number of beats, which has so irritating so 
effect when due to two notes in the middle of the register, 
is not attended by the same result when due to notes of 
much lower pitch. Thus, the notes C, D forming a tone 
give together 33 beats per second, while a note two octaves 
lower Sian C also gives 33 beats- with its fifth; yet>the 
former combination forms a discord, the latter a matt 
pleasing condbrd. 

107. Whe^ the number of beats reaches to 132 otmttm- 
upwards per second, the result is a continuous and Dot^«>- 
uhpleasing impression on the ear, and it was formerly held 

that the effect was always equivalent to that of a note 
having that number of vibrations. Helmholtz has shown 
that this opinion is inaccurate, except when the interfering 
tones are very loud, and consequently accompanied by 
very considerable displacements of the particlee of the 
vibrating medium. These resultant tones being, as to 
their vibration-number, equal to the difference between the 
numbers corresponding to the two primaries, are termed 
difertnce-tonea, and may be best observed with the double 
syren. The same author was led also^ on theoretioal 
grounds, to surmise the formation of summaUonrtonet by snn^ 
the interference of two loud primaries, the number dttcaioi 
resultant vibrations being then equal to the sum of the 
numbers for the two components, and appealed for experi- 
mental prqof to his syren. But, at the last meeting of the 
British Association (1872), Koenig, the celebrated Parisiao 
acoustician, maintained that the notes of the syren, thus 
held to be summation-tones, were in reality the diifermi» 
tone* of the harmonics. 

108. By reference to the laws of the interference of RdT. 
vibrations, Helmholtz has been enabled to offer a highly ^f''^ ] 
satisfactory explanation of the cause whence arises dif- ^^^ 
ference of qusdity or timbre or acoustic colour between c^>c^ 
different sounds. He has shown conclusively that there 

are but few sounds which are of a perfectly eimple character, 
that is, in which the fundamental is not accompanied by 
one or more overtones. Now, when a note is simple, there 
can be no jarring on the ear, because there is no room for 
interference of sound. Hence, the softness of the tuning- 
fork when its fundamental is reinforced by a resonant 
cavity, and also of the flute. The same character of soft- 
ness belongs also to those instruments in which the powerful 
harmonics are limited to the vibration ratios 2« 3 . . • G 
(§ 57, 80) \ because the mutual interference of the fonda^ 
mental and their harmonics give rise to oonoorda onfy. 
The piano, the open organ pipe, the violin, and Uie softer 
tones of the human voice, itfb uf this class. But if the odd 
harmonics alone are present, as in the narrow stopped 
organ pipe, and in the clarionet, then the sound is poor, 
and even nasal , and if the higher harmonics beyond the 
sixth or seventh are very marked, the result is very 
har^ (as in reed-pipes) 

109. The human voice (for a description of the organ in Voici 
which it originates, we refer to Art Pkydolog^f'-'Vcke and 
Speech)ia regarded by the best authoritiosas being analo^ooa 
to a reed-pipe, the vocal chords forming the'ceedf and the 
cavity oi the mouth the pipe, and, Uke the reed, is rich in 
harmonics, as many as sixteen having been detected in a baaa 
voice. But their number and relative intensities differ mnch 
in different individuals, or even in the same person at dif- 
ferent times ; and it is on this variety that, agreeably to H^nfe>> 



ACOUSTICS 



119 



boltz's theorjT of'tunbre, the pecnliarities depend by which 
anj one ▼oice may be unmistakably distinguishod from 
ereiy other. Voices in whicfi overtones abound are sharp, 
sad even rough; those in which they are few or faint, are 
loft and sweet In ^svesry voice, however, -the number and 
relative intensity of the overtones depend on the form 
Bssmned by thte cavity of the mouth, which acts relatiyBly 
to the vocal diords precisely as a resonator does to a 
tuning-fork, or a pipe to a reed. This may be easily tested 
by holding a tuning-fork before the open mouth, when, 
by giving to the cavity a suitable form, the fundamental 
or some overtone of the fork may bjs hoard distinctly 
reverberated from the interior of the moutlLi Each vowel 
sound, as Hehnholtz has shown, is simply- the result of 
the reinforcements by the air in the cavity of the mouth, 
and its prolongation towards the larynx, of one or in some 
esses two overtones of determinate pitch, oontained in the 
sound which proceeds from the vocal chords. Koenig 

sssigns thefoDowing notes as characteristic of the _n 

simpler vowel sounds (adopting the foreign im>- Jf^ 



nundation):— To U, the note Bb below the line 
in the O clef, corresponding to 225 vibrations 
per second; to O, the next higher octave, consequently of 



I double the number of vibrations, and thence ^MOSBdiqg 
by octaves for A, £, and I, the last of which ia^thenfora 
chanu^rised by a.note of 3600 vibrations per second. 

The above theory of vowel sounds may be satisfactorily 
confirmed by means of tuning-forks, vibrating in front oC 
resonant cavities, which can, by suitable combination, be 
made to utter any vowel sound. 

Worki anJcoiutiet, 

Chladni, TraUS tTAecmOique. Puis, I80d. 

HeEBchd, £fir John,* £ncpeL Metrop,, ait ''Sound.* Lon. 

don, 1830. 
Tyndall, LeOurtt en Sound, 2d edit Ltadon, 1869. 
Helmholtg, Die Lekre von der Tonempftndungen, 3d edit 
Braunschweig, 1 870, of which there is a French tnuia- 
lation, and an English one is promised. 
Besides the above, some account of the subject is to be 
found in such general works on Physics as G^snot's, 14th 
edit, Paris, 1870, of which a translation is published by 
Longmaos/ London ; Deschanel's * Natural FkUo$ophf^ 
tiao^ated by Prol Everett, London, 1873; Jamin, Coun 
d$ Fhysique, 8d edit, Fkria, 1871; Wiilner^ Fhytik, 2d 
edit, Leipzig, 1870. (d. t.) 



ALPHABETICAL INVDEX. 
The numerals refer to ike sections. 



Air, cBMotial for hearing, « • 


8 


velocity of scrand in, . 17,16,22 


Amplitude of vibrationa, 


4 


BttxSf how produced, . 


102 


examples of; 


lod 


application to finding » for 




any note, 


104 


tanin^-by. 


105 


rapid eflect of, on ear. 


106 


BeUinvocvo, 


3 


Chemical bannonioeo, . 


87 


Chladni's figures, 


«9tD71 


CommanicatioD of ▼ibrationi, 


92,98 


De la Tour^s syren. 


49 


Density, variations in, by longita* 
dinal yibrationa. 




14 


Diatonic scale, , - . 


46 


Difference tones, .... 


106 


Dove's syren, . • . 


60 


Echoes. 


38 


Elsstidty, 


15 


Flames, singing .... 


89,90 


Flame maaomet4jr. 


91, 103 


Fondaiountal note, 


67 


Gas hannoniOB, .... 


87, 103 


Gases, velocity of sound in^ 


11,84,98 
57 to 60 


Harmonics in strings, . 


rods. 


67 


pipes^ , 


77 to 80 


Hsnnony, laws of, . . . 
H«amholtz, bis double syten. 


45, 46 
51,99 


on resoltaat toiMta^ 


107 


on timbr^ 


108 


Intensitv of sound— 
at different distaneea^ 




29 


in air of diiferent densities, 


30 


pomoted by sheet of «ater,'ft6., 
depends en ampUtode of vibra- 


39 


tions, . . . . . 


41 


Interfeienos 4>f soond— 




Uvsof, . . 


94, 95 


examples of; .... 
InUnralii, mnsical. 


98 to 100 


.45 


Koenig's phonantogaaph, 

flame manometer, . 


•53 
91. 100 




Knndt's experiments, . 


98 


Upkeeps oorseoted velocity d 


f 


aoondinair. 


16 


Lenae8,-acoQStic . 


84 


Liquids, velocity of sound to« 
l^ogitudinal vibrations, . 


. 2.1 
9,28 



Loudness (vid. injtensity). 
Mclde's experiments on vibrating 

brings, . 
Membranes, vibrations of, 
MoBical-soDnds and noises, 

notes, vibration-ratios of; 
liewton's investigation of velodly 

in air, . 
Nodes. . . . , 
Noises and musical sounds, . 
Overtones {vid. harmonics). 
Fantbolio reflectors, . 
Phase, .... 
Phonautograpb, . 
Pipes, Bernouilli's theory of, 
stopped (at both ends), 
open, 

stopped, . 
harmonics in, . 
open and stopped, of equal 

lengths,, 
influence of length o^ on pitch, 
length of C pipe, 
defects of theory, 
iUustrstious by 
Pitch, depends on n, . 
Plates, square, vibrations oj; 
circular, do. 
interferenee in, 
Rankine's inyestigBiion of veloeity 

of sound, .... 
Reeds and reed-pipes, . 
Reflexion, laws of, 
total, . 
Refraction, laws of; 
RodSb transversal vibrations of; 
longitudinal vibrations of; 
Savart's toothed wheel apparatus. 
Scales, diatonic and-chxomatic, 
Seebeck's syren, . 
Solids, vekHnty of sound in (longi' 
tudinal), ..... 
Solids, velocity of sound in (trans- 
versal), «... 
Solids, velocity tf sound in, KundV 

method, . 
Stationary waves. 
Strings, musical. laws of, 

fundamental and 

overtones of, . 57, 58 
overtones how 
obtained from. 59 



W 
72 
U 
^ 

15 
54 
ii 

87 

7 
50 
75 
77 
78 
79 



81 
82 
88 
86 
91 
42 

69,70 
71 

96,97 

15 

86 to 88 

85 to 39 

33 

81 to 34 

67 

74 

47 

46 

48 

25,26 

27,28 

92 

54,54 

56 to 65 



'8t(liigi»miuloBl, oomparison of fun* 



due to trans- 
venal and Ion- 
Iptudinal vih* 
rations, . » 
influence on pitch 
of Isuffth, tctt 
sion, &c., 
Melde*s osrperi- 
mental * iilus- 
tiationi^ 7 
Spheroidal leflecton^ , 
Summation tones, • 

Syren of Seebeck, , 
«f De la Tour, • 
•of Dove, . 
ofHehnhdts, * 
Thunder, xoU of; . 
Timbre, » . .' . 
Tones, m^or, minor, sjid semi^ 
Transversal vibrations, • 
Tuning by beats, . 
Tuning-forks, mode of vibmtioiit 
interferenee in 
beats in, 
y enl^ segments, « 

Vibrations^ sound due to^ . 
lawstf, . 
«f pendulum, . 
O ttransmission of, 

longitudinal and tram 

venal, .' 
relation between fre- 
quency of,and length 
ofwa<^ 
communication of, 
number of, for auv note 
determined by beats, 
Yibrograph, ... 
Voice, its seat in vocal chords. 
Vowel sounds, how accounted for, 
Watet, velocity of sound in. 
Waves of displacement, 
of velocity, 
of condensation and rare- 

faction, 
lengths of, . *. 

relation of, to ft, 
propagation of, . 
Weber's theoiy of reed-pipe% 



61 



106 
48 
49 

6a 

51 

4& 

48,108 

46 

9,28 

105 

68 

97 

10& 

.64t 

21 

4,5] 

4- 



18 
99^93 

104 

52 

109 

10» 

10, 12 

11,12 

141 
10? 
IS 

is; 
8« 



120 



A C Q- A C R 



ACQUI, a town of Northern Italy, in the province of 
Alessandria, 18 miles S.S.W. of the aty of that name, oa 
^e left bank of the Bormida. k is a place of greift 
antiquity; and its hot sulphur baths, which are still much 
frequented, were known to the Romans, who gave the place 
the name of Aqua StatteLlcB. There -ace still to be found 
numerous ancient inscriptions, and- the lemains of a Roman 
ttqneduct The town is the seat of a bishop, and has a fine 
«ttdiedral, several oonvents, and a royal cdllege Good 
wkob It fffoduced in the vineyards of the district, and great 
tStaotioD ia-gyven to the rearing of silk-worma There are 
also •onsiderable silk manufactures. Population, S600. 

ASHE, a measure of surface, being the principal deno- 
mination of land-measure used m Great Britaiil? The 
word (akin to the Saxon acer, the German acker ^ and the 
Latm ager^ a field^did not ongmally signify a determinate 
quantity of land, but any open ground. The £ngli& 
standard of imperial acre contains 4840 square yards, or 
10 square chauis, anc^ is also divided into roods, of which 
it contains 4, the i-ood again being divided in 40 perches. 
The imperial aero has, by the Act 5 Geo. IV c 74, super- 
seded the acres, of very different extent, that were m use 
tn different parts of the country. The old Scottish acre 
was equal to 1*26118345 impenal acres: The Insh acre 
«iontains 7840 square yards. The acre is equivalent to 
'4046t7, t.f., about §ths, of the French hectare (now the basis 
of superficial measurement in Germany, Italy, and Spam, 
as well as in France), '7 of the Austrian joch, '37 of the 
Russian desdtine, and 1*62 ancient Roman jugera. The 
hectare corresponds to 2 acres I rood 35 '38 perches. 

A€RE, Akka, or St Jean D'Acre, a town and seaport 
of Syna, and lu ancient times a celebrated city. No town 
has expenenecd greater changes from political revolutions 
and the calamitieft of war. According to some this was the 
Accho of the Scnpturcs, and its great antiquity is proved 
by fragments of houses that have been found, consisting of 
that highly sun-burnt bnck, with a mixture of cement and 
sand, which was only used m erections of the remotest 
ages. It was known .among the ancients by the name of 
Ace, but it is only from the period when it was taken po8.ses- 
sion of by Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, and received 
from him the name of 'Ptolemais, that histpry gives any 
certain account of it When the empire of the Romans 
began to extend over Asia, Ptolemais came into their pos- 
session. It 18 mentioned by Strabo aa a city of great 
importance; and fine granite and marble pillars, monu- 
ments of its ancient grandeur, are still to be seen. During 
the Middle Ages Ptolemais passed into the hands of the 
Saracens. They were expelled from it in 11 10 by the 
Crusaders, who made it their prmcipal port, and retamed 
It until 1187, when it was recovered by SaladiiL In ^'91 
it was retaken by Richard I. of England and Philip of 
France, who purchased this conquest by the sacrifice of 
100,000 troopa They gave the town to the knights of St 
John of Jerusalem, from whom it received the name of St 
Jean D'Acra In their possession it remained for a century, 
chough subject to continual assaults from the Saracena 
It wais at this time a large and extensive city, populous and 
wealthy, and contained numerous churches, convents, and 
hospitals, of which no traces now remain. Acre was finally 
lost to the Crusaders in 1291, when it was taken by the 
Saracens after a bloody siege, during which it suffered 
•everely From this time its prosperity rapidly declined. 
Id 1517 it fell into the hands of the Turkish sultan, Sehm 
L , and in the beginning of the 18th century, with the 
exception of the residences of the French factors, a>mosque, 
and a few poor cottages, it presented a vast scene of min. 
Towards the end oi that century Acre was much strength- 
ened and improved by the Turks, particularly by Djezzar 
Pacha, and again rose to some importance. It is uiotiio.' - 



able in modem history for the gailantiy with which it w&» 
defended m 1799 by the Turks, assisted by Sir Sydney 
Smith, against Bonaparte, who, after spending sixty-one 
days before it, was obhged to retreat It contmued to 
enjoy an increasing degree of prosperity till 1832. Though 
fettered by imposts and monopolies, it earned on a con- 
siderable foreign trade, and had resident consuls from most 
of the great states of Europe On the revolt of Mehemet Ali, 
the pacha of Egypt, Acre was besieged by his son, Ibrahim 
Pacha, in the winter of 1831-32. The siege lasted five 
months and twenty-one days, and, before the dty was 
taken, its pubhc and private buildings were mostly destroyed 
Its fortifications were subsequently repaired and improved 
by the Egyptians, in whose hands it remained until dd Nov. 
14)40, when the town was reduced to ruins by a^hree hours' 
bombardment from the British fleet, acting as the aUies of 
the sultan. The Turks were again put in possession of it 
m 1841. 

Acre is situated on a low promontory, at the northern 
extremity'of the Bay of Acra The bay affords no shelter 
in bad weather; and the port is scarcely capable of «ontain- 
mg a dozen boats. Vessels coming to this coast, therefore, 
generally frequent the anchorage of O&iffa, on the south 
side of the bay. Acre is -80 miles N.N..W. of Jerusalem, 
and 27 S. of 1^. Population, 10,000. 

ACROBAT (from dxpo/JaTcw, to walk on tiptoe), It rope- 
dancer. Evidence exists that there were very akUful per- 
formers on the tight-rope (funambuli) among the ancient 
Romans. Modem acrobats generally use a long pole, 
loaded at the ends, and by shifting this are enabled to 
maintain, or readily to recover, their equilibrium. By ai> 
extension of the meamng of, the term, acrobatic feata now 
uiclude trapeze leaping and similar performances. 

ACROOERAUNIA, m Ancient Geography , a promoO' 
tory m the N.W of E^irus, which termmates the Jblontes 
Ccraunii, a range that ruiis S.E. from the promontory 
along the coo^st for a number of miles, and is supposed to 
have derived its name from bemg often struck withjZight- 
ning. The cape (now called Glossa by the Greeks, end 2i n- 
guetta by the Italians) is in lat 40"* 25' N. 

AOROGENiE is the name applied to a divisioB of acoty* 
ledonous or cryptogamous plants, m which leaves ere pre- 
sent along with, vascular tissue In the higher divisions of 
Acrogens,as ferns and lycopods, the tissue consists of scalari- 
form vessels, while m the lower divisions spiral cells are 
observed, which take the place of vessela The <«nn Acro- 
gen means summit-grower, that is, a plant in which the 
stem increases specially *by the summit This is not, how- 
ever, strictly accurate. 

ACROLITH (dxpo'Xidoc), statues of a transition period 
in the history of plastic art, m which the trunk of the 
figure was of wood, and the head, hands, and feet of 
marble. The wood was concealed either by gilding or, 
more commonly, by drapery, and the marble parts alone 
were exposed. Acroliths are frequently mentioned by 
Pausanias, the best known specimen being the Minerva 
Areia of the Platseans. 

ACRON, a celebrated physician, bom at Agrigentum 
in Sicily, who was contemporary with Empedocles, and 
must therefore have lived ii> the 6th century before Christ. 
The successful measure of lighting large fires, and puriiV- 
mg the air with perfumes, to put a stop to the pestilence 
that raged in Athens -(4 30 B.a}, is said to have original ed 
with him ; but this has been questioned on chtonological 
grounds PUny is mistaken m saying that Acron was the 
founder of the sect of the Empiiici, which did not exist 
until the 3d century before CSiiist. The error probably 
arose from ^desire on the part, of the sect to establish for 
itself a greater antiquity than that of the Dogmatici 
Suidaa givcs-the titles of several works WTitten by Acnmj 



AC E — AC T 



121 



on medical subjects, in the Doric dialect^ but none of 
these now exist 

ACROPOLIS ('AxpoiroXts), a word signifying the upper 
town, or chief place of a city, a citadel, usually on the 
Rummit of a rock or hilL Such buildings were common in 
Greek cities; and they are also found elsewhere, as in the 
cose of the Capitol at Rome, and the Antonia at Jerusalem ; 
but the most <^ebrated was that at Athens, the remains of 
vhich still delight and astonish travellers. It was enclosed 
by walls, portions of which show traces of extreme antiquity. 
It had nine gates; the principal one was a splendid struc- 
ture of Pentelican marble, irf noble Doric architecture, 
which bore the name of PropyUiia. Besides other beauti- 
ful edifices, it contains the Uapdtywv^ or temple of the 
vu-gin goddess Athene, the most glorious monument uf 
aacient Grecian architecture. 




Ground phtu of the Acropolis of Athens. 



• PedesUl of Rome tnd AngnMua 
b c, d. Sites of templet of Mincrra. 

DtAiM, and Venaa. 
r. Erectbeium. 
/ Diooyaiac theatve. 
9. Odeoo nf HerodeA 
A and 0. Grotto^ 
I. KoiBcd moaqua 



k. L Care aod portica 
m. Chorame monamcnt of ThraaydeiL 
now church of oar lady of the gniUo. 
a, a, RemaiDt o( Pelaafric waU 
p. u, Walla of oocworki. ^c 
u Gate to PropyUaa. 
q. r. c Porta. 
M, V, Aadent valla. 



ACROSTIC (from ourpoc and crrtxoc, meaning literally 
the extremity of a verse), is a species of poetical composi- 
tion, so constructed that the initial letters of the lines, 
taken consecutively, form certain names or other particular 
worda This fancy is of considerable antiquity, one of the 
most remarkable examples of it being the verses cited by 
Lactantius and Eusebius in the 4th century, and attri- 
buted to the Erythraean sibyl, the initial letters of which 
form the words 'Itjcrovs Xpicrros 0cov vc^ aturrfp : " Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, the Saviour/' with the addition, 
according to some, of <rravp<k, "the cross." The initials 
of the shorter form of this again make up the word IxOw, 
to which a mystical meaning has been attached (Augustine, 
JJe CwUcUe Dei, 18, 23), thus constituting another kind 
of acrostic. The arguments of the comedies of Plautus, 
with acrostics on the names of the respective plays, are 
probably of still earlier date. Sir John Davies (1570- 
1626) wrote twenty-six elegant Hynau to Astrcea, each an 
icrostic on ** Elizabetha Regina;" and Mistress Maiy Page, 
in Fam^s BauU, 1637, commemorated 420 celebrities of 
her time in acrostic vecses. The same form of composition 
Is often to be met with in the writings of more recent 
versifiers. Sometimes the lines are so combined that the 
final letters as well as the initials are significant. Edgar 
Allan Poe, with characteristic ingenuity, worked two 
aame8-H)ne of them that of Frances Sargent Osgood — ^into 
verses in such a way^hat the letters of the names corre- 
sponded to the first letter of the first line, the second letter 
Df the second, the third letter of the third, and so on. 



Generally speaking, acrostic verso is not of much vaiue, 
and is held in slight estimation. Dr Samuel Butler says^ 
in his " Character of a Small jPoet," '^ He iiaes to lay the 
outsides of hiS' verses even, like a bricklayer, by a Ime of 
rhyme and acrostic, and fill the middle with mbbiBL*' 
Addison (Spectator, No. 60) found it imp^aaible to decide 
whether the inventor of the anagram or the acrostic were 
the greater blockhead; and, hi describing the latter, says, 
** I have seen some of thei^ where fhe verses have not only 
been edged by a name at each extremity, but have had the 
same name running down like a seam through the middle 
of the poem." And Dryden, in Mac FUobiioe^ scomfuUy 
assigned Shadwell the rule of 

" Some peaoeftil province in aoonic land.** 

The name acroeti^: is also applied to alphabetical or 
<• abecedarian" versea Of these we hftye instances in tome 
of the Hebrew psahna (e.^., Pa. xzv. and xxxiv.), the 
successive .verses of which begin with the letters of the 
alphabet in their order. The stmctoze of Pk cxiz. is still 
more elaborate, each of the verses of each of the twenty- 
two parts commencing with the letter which stands at the 
head of the part in our English translation. Alphabetical 
verses have been constructed with every word of the suc- 
cessive lines beginning with the succeiBsive letters of th« 
alphabet 

By an extended use of the term acrostic, it is applied 
to the formation of words from the initial letters of other 
words. 'Ix^> referred to above, is an illustration of this. 
So also is the word *' Cabal," which, though it was in use 
before, with a similar meaning, has, from the time of 
Charles II., been associated with a particular ministry, 
from the accident of its being composed of Clifford, Ashley, 
Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale. Akin to this 
are the names, by which the Jews designatsd their 
Rabbis; thus Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (better known 
as Maimonides), was styled '' Rambam," from the initials 
R M. B. M.; Rabbi David Kimchi (R D. K.), « Radak " kc 

A species of puzade, scarcely known twenty years ago, 
but very common now (see EngUtk Catalogue, 1863-7 1 , «. v. 
Acrostics), is a combination of enigma and double acrostic, 
in which words are to be guessed whose initial and final 
letters form other words that are also to be guessed. Thus 
Sleep and Drecun may have to be discovered from the first 
and last letters of Sound, Lover, Europe, Elia. and F^m, 
ail expressed enigmatically. 

ACT, in Dramatic LiUraiure, signifies one of those 
parts into which a play is divided to mark the change of 
of time or place, and to give a respite to the actors and to 
the audience. In Greek plays there are no separate acts, 
the unities being strictly observed, and the action being 
continuous from beginning to end. If the principal actors 
left the stage the diorus took up the argument, and con- 
tributed an integral part of the play, .though chiefly in the 
form of comment npon the action. When necessary, 
another drama, which is etymologicaUy the same as an act, 
carried on the history to a later time or in a different place, 
and thus we have l^e Greek trilogies or groups of three 
dramas, in which the same characters reappear. The 
Roman poets first adopted the division into acts, and sua* 
pended the stage business in the intervals between them. 
Their nnmber was usually five, and the rule was at last 
kid down by Horace in the Are Foetica — 

** Neve minor, neu sit aninto pixxiuctior actu 
Fabcda, qua posd vult, et ipectatft reponi." 

*« f f yon would have ycfoi play deserve suooen^ 
Give it five acta complete, nor move nor len." 

'•I/^raneit. 

On the revival of letters this nile was almost universilly 
observed by dramatists, and that there is an inherent **r^rx. 



1—7* 



122 



A C T — AC T 



venienoe and fitness In the number five is evident from the 
fact that Shakespeare, who refused to be trammelled by 
merely arbitrary rules, adopts it in all his plays. Some 
critics have laid down rules as to the part each act should 
sustain in the development of the plot, bat these are not 
essential, and are by no means universally recognised. In 
comedy the rule as to the nimiber of acts has not been so 
strictly adhered to as in tragedy, a division into two jacts 
or three acts being quite usual since the time of Moli^re, 
who first introduced it. 

It may be well to mention here Milton's Samstm AgonUCes 
as a specimen in English literature of a dntoiatio work 
founded on a purely Greek model| in whiobi consequently, 
there is no division into acts. 

ACT, in Law, is an instrument in writing for declaring 
Ht justifying the .truth of anything; in which sense records, 
decrees, sentences, reports, certificates, &c., are called acts. 
The origin of the legal use of the word Act is in the cKta 
of ^e Boman magistrates or^people, of their courts of law, 
or of .the senate, meaning (l) what was done before the 
magistrates, the people, or the, senate; (2) the records of 
«uch public proceedings. 

ACT OP PARtlAMiaTT.^ An Act of Parliament may 
be regarded as a declaration of tlie Legislaturei enforcing 
certain rules of conduct, or defining rights and conferring 
them upon or^thholding them ^m certain persons or 
olasses of persons. The collective body of sudi dedarar 
tions constitutes tiie statutes of the reahn or written law 
of the nation, in the widest sense, from Anglo-Saxon times 
to the present day. It is not, however, till Magna Charta 
that, in a more limited constitutional sense, the statute- 
book is generally held to open, and the Parliamentary 
records only begin to assume distinct outlines late in the 
reign of Edward L The maladministration of the common 
law by the royal judges had gradually taught the people 
the necessity of obtaining written declarations of their 
rights— often acknowledged, still oftener violated. Insen^ 
iibly almost, the Commons, whose chief function it origin- 
ally was to vote supplies to the crown, began to couph^ 
their grants with petitions for the redress of grievances? 
The substance of these petitions and of the royal responses 
was in time made the groundwork of Acts which, as framed 
by court redactors, and appearing annexed to proclamation- 
writs after the dissolution of Parliament, were frequently 
found seriously to misrepresent its wHL To check this 
evil an Act was passed (8 Henry IV.), authorising the 
Commons to be represented at the engrossing of the Par- 
liament roll; but even this surveillance was not enough, 
for in the begmning of the reign of Henry Y. it was enacted, 
et the instance of the Commoxis, that in regard to their 
petitions the royal prerogative should in future be limited 
to granting or refusing them simplicUer, In this way it 
became a Exed constitutional principle that an Act of Par- 
liament, to be valid, must express concurrently the will of 
the entire Legislature. It was not, however, tiU the reign 
of Henry YL that it became customary, as now, to intro- 
duce bills into Parliament in the form of finished Acts; and 
the enacting clause, regarded by constitutionalists as the 
first perfect assertion, in words, of popular rig^t, came into 
general use as late as the reign of Charles IL It is thus 
expressed:— "Be it enacted by the King's most excellent 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in this present Par- 
Hament assembled^ and by the authority of the same." 
The use of the preamble with which Acts are usually pre- 
faced, is thus quaintly set forth by Lord Coke, — "The 
(rehearsal or preamble of the statute is a good meane to 
find out the meaning of the statute, and, as it were, a key 
to open the understanding thereof." Originally, the col- 
lective Acts of each session formed but one statute, to 



which a general title was attached, and 'for this reason an 
Act of Parliament is always cited as the chapter of a pav^ 
ticular statute—*.^., 24 and 25 Vict c, 101. Tillee wer% 
however, prefixed to individual Acts as early as 148& 
Since 33 Qeo. HL c. 13, an Act of Parliament is com* 
plete whenever it receives the royal assent, and takes effect 
from that date, unless the Act itself fix. some other. British 
ActsTequire no formal promulgation, for it is presumed that 
every subject of the realm is cognisant of the resolutions 
of Parliament, either by himself or his Fepresentative 
therein. 

Modem Acts of Pailkment aie—l. Puilie. Th^se ate hindiAg on 
all dtizens, and are ex officio cognisable bv the judges. Since 1850 
every Act is held to be public nnless the contrary be expressly declared. 
2. PrivaU Acts. These relate to particular classes, persons, or places. 
Private Acts are (1.) Personal, viz., those which relate to nazoe, 
naturalisation, estate, &c., of particular persons. (2J Local, affect^ 
ing bridges, canals, docks, turnpikes, railways, &c To prevent such 



Acts from being unduly passed^ the promoters of private bills are 
required to comply with the standing orders of the two Houses, by 
which private bill procedure is re^iulated.- Acts of Parliament, for 
oonvemence of reference, are classified as Public Genial Acts, Local 
and Personal Acts declared Public^ Private Acts printed, and Private 
Acts not printed. Public General Acts (if no exception be expressed), 
extend to Gr^at Britain and Ireland, exclusively only of the Channel 
Islands and the Isle of Man. 

The first complete edition of English Acts of Parliament published 
t>y state authonty appeared between the years 1810 and 1824. It 
includes the early charters, and ends with the reign 6f Queen Anne. 
Many private editions of the statutes had appeared previous to that 
of the Becord' Commissioners. The practice of printing Acts of Par- 
liament commenced in the reign of Kichard IlL The charters and 
Acts were written in Latin tin the SUUutum <U Soaecario, 61 Heno' 
UL (1266), whi(^ is in French. The Acts of Edward I. are indis- 
criminately in Latin or French ; but from the fourth year of Henry 
YII. Acts are exclusively in English. 

Scotch Ads.— Tht earliest attempts at a written record of the pro- 
ceedings of the Parliament of Scotland consisted of detached instni- 
ments or indentures, and the next step was the entering of these 
detached instruments on a roll for more permanent preservation. 
No such record, however, is preserved before the disputed succes- 
sion, y which commenced in 1289. The earliest roll of plaeiia in 
parliommto is dated 1292 ; but the Blak Buik, containing a series 
^fAprooeedings in Parliament from 1857 to 1402, is the most im- 
ortant of the earliest records of Parliament The original books of 
_ srliament of Ihe reigns of James I. and James II. are not preserved, 
but from the year 1466 down to the Union a voluminous, but not 
unbroken, senes has been preserved. Down to the reign of James 
v., scarcely any Act in the original registers is distinguished by a 
title or rubric ; and even after that period the practice has not in 
this respect been uniform. In like manner there is no numeratioB 
of the Acts of Parliament during this period. Tht language of the 
earliest Scotch records is in Latin ; but as early as 1898 some of the 
proceedings of Parliiiment or the Council-General were written in 
Soots, and subsequently to 1 424 always In that language. Unlike the 
English Acts, Ircnch was never used in Scotch legialation. In 1041 
a sdection of the Acts of James Y. was printed. The first edition of 
the Acts was publi^ed in 1566, the second in 1597f the third in 
1681 ; and the great national work, the complete record of Pulia* 
ment, has just been completed, with a general index to thewhue 
Acts from 1124 to 1707, which forms the great repertory of tho 
legal, constitutional, and political' history of Scotlana. In 1540 a^ 
Act was passed lequiring all the Acts of Parliament to be pronounced 
in presence of the king and the estates,— the assent of the king 
being indicated by his touching them with the sceptre ; and in 1641 it 
was ordained that the Acts passed in 16 40^be published in the king a 
name, and with the consent of the estates. But during the civil 
war tho Acts of Parliament were passed in name of the estates alone. 
These Acts, however, were rescinded after the restoration of Charles 
IL by Act 1661, c. 126, because "the power of making laws is an 
essential privilege of the royal prerogative." In 1467 an Act way 
passed for prod&iming the Acts of Parliament in tiie shires asa 
bmghs, that none be imorant; and in 1681 it was ordainedtnat 
Acts need not be proclaimed at the market-cross of the head buign 
of each shire, but at the market-cross of Edinburgh only, the h^ges 
obeying them forty days thereafter. The clerk of lecister was 
always bound to give extracts of Acts to the lie|B;eB in tteir part- 
cular affairs. In 1425 a committee, consisting or an equal number 
of each estate, was appointed to amend the books of law; and in 
1567 a commission was issued to codify the laws, civil and muni- 
cipal, dividing them into heads like the Roman Jaw, —the headsiw 
they are ready to be brought to Parliament to be confinned. Lom 
Bacon recommisnded the Scotch Acts for their "excellent brevity. 
His lordship's praise api^lies veiy properly to the Acts down to tQO- 



A C T — A C T 



123 



Tpijjn of Qiieen Mary and the early part of the reign of Jaincs VI. ; 
but the logomachy of subsequent legi&latlon is intolerable to the 
consulter. 

Iruk Acts may be said to commence a.i>. 1310, in the reign of 
Edward II., and to close with the union with the British Parlia< 
meDt in 1801. , From the former date, however, there is a break 
till 1429. In 1495 Poyning'a Law provided that no bill should 
be introduced into the Irish Parliament which has not pre- 
viously received the royal assent in England; and till 1782 the 
Parliament of Ireland remained in tutelage to that of 'JBngland. 
Since 1801 it has be^ incorporated with the Parliament of Great 
Britain. 

ACT OF SEDERUNT, in Scotch, Lauf, &il ordinance for 
fegolating the forms of procedure before the Court of 
Swsion, passed by the judges in Virtue of a power con- 
ferred by an Act of the Scotch Parliament, 1540, c 93. In 
former times this power was in several instances clearly 
exceeded, and such At^ts of Sederunt required to be rati- 
fied by the Scotch Parliament; but for more than a century 
and a half Acts^of Sederunt have been almost exclusively 
tonfiDed to matters relating to the regulation of judidid 
procedure. Many recent statutes contain a clause empower- 
ing the court to make the ne^issary Acts of Sederunt A 
quorum of nine judges is required to pass an Act of 
Sedenmt. 

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, the fifth among the 
c&nonical books of the New Testament. What has to be 
said on this book will naturally fall under the following 
heads: The state of the text; the authorship; the object 
^f the work ; the date and the place of its composition. • 

The State of the r&r/.—The Acts is found in two MSS. 
generally assigned to the 4th century, tJie Codex Sinai- 
ticus, in St Petersburg, and the Codex Vaiicanue; in Borne; 
in one MS., assigned to the 5th« century, the Codex Alex- 
andrinus, in the British Museum ; in two MSS. belonging 
to the 6th century, the Codex BezcB, in Cambridge, and 
the Codex Laudianus, in Oxford ; and in one of the 9th 
century, the Codex Falimpsestus Porfirianut^ in St Peters- , 
burg, with the exception of chapter first and eight verses 
of chapter second. Large fragments are contained in a 
MS. of the 5th century, the Codex Uphraimi, in Paris. 
Fragments are contained in five other MSS., none of which 
is later than the 9th century.' These are all the uncial 
MSS. containing the Acts or portions of it. 

The MSS. in Oxford and Cambridge differ widely from 
the others. This is especially the case with the Cambridge 
MS., the Codex Bezce, which is said to contain no less 
than six hundred interpolations. Scrivener, who has edited 
this MS. with great care, says, " While the general course 
of the lustory and the spirit of the work remain the same 
as in our commonly received text, we perpetually encounter 
long passages in Codex Bezos which resemble that text 
only as a loose and explanatory paraphrase recalls the 
original form from which it sprung ; save that there is no 
difference in the language in this instance, it is hardly an 
exaggeration of the facts to assert that Codex D \i.e.y 
Codex Bezce] reproduces the textus receptus of the Acts 
much in the same way that one of the best Ohaldee 
Targums does the Hebrew of the Old Testament, so wide 
are the variations in the diction, so constant and inveterate 
the practice of expanding the narrative by means of inter- 
polations." Scrivener here assumes that the additions of 
the Codex Bezos are interpolations, and this is the opinion 
of nearly all critics. There is one, however, Bornemann, 
who thinks that the Codex Be^4E contains the original 
text, and that the others are mutilated. But even sup- 
posing that we were quite sure that the additions were 
interpolations, the Codex Bezos makes it more difQcuIt to 
determine wlwit the real text was. Scrivener, with good 
reason, supposes that the Codex Bezoe is derived from an 
original which would most likely belong to the third cen- 
tury at the latest 



AutJhorskip of tJie Worh — lu treating this subject we 
begin with the external evidence. 

The first mention of the authorship of the Acts in a well- 
authenticated book occurs in the treatise of Irenaeus against 
heresies, written between the years 1S2 and 188 a.d. 
IrensBus names St Luke as the author, as if the fact were w^cll 
known and undoubted. He attributes the third QoSpel to 
him, and calls him '* a follower and disciple of apostles " (II. 
iii IQ, 1). He states that "he was inseparable from Paul, 
and was his fellow-worker in the gospel" {II. in. 14, 1). 
The next mention occurs in the Stromata of Clemens 
Alexandrinus, written about 195 A.D., where part of St 
Paul's speech to the Athenians is quoted with the words, 
" Even as Luke also, in tne Acts of the Apostles, records 
Pfeul as saying" (Stronu v. xii 82, p. 696, Pott). The 
Acts of the Apostles is quoted by Tertullian as Scripture, 
and assigned to St Luke {Adv. Mar, v. 2 and 3). Origeu 
speaks of " Luke who *wrote the Gospel and the Acts " 
(Eus. H. E. vi. 25) ; and Eusebius includes the Acta of 
the Apostles in his summary of the books of the New 
Testament {Hist. Ecd. iil 26). The Muratorian canon, 
generally assigned to the end of th&> second or beginning of 
the third century, includes the Acts of the Apostles, assigns 
it to St Luke, and says that he was an eye-witness of the 
facts recorded. There is thus unanimous testimony up to 
the time o! Eusebius that St Luke was the author of the 
Acts. Thii^ unanimity is not disfurbed by the circum- 
'stance that some heretics rejected the work, for they did 
not deny the authorship of the book, but refused to 
acknowledge it as a source of dogmatic trutL 

After the time of Eusebius we find statements to the 
effect that the Acts was little known. "The existence 
of this book," Chrysostom says, " is not known to many, 
nor the person who wrote and composed it" And Photiua, 
in the ninth century, says, "Some maintain that it was 
Clement of Rome that was the writer of the Acts, others 
that it was Barnabas, and others that it was Luke the 
Evangelist" 

Irens&us makes such copious quotations from the Acta 
that we can feel sure that he had before him substantially 
our Acts. We cannot go further back than Irenaeus with 
certainty. If, as we shall see, the writer of the Acts was 
also the writer of the third Gospel, we have Justin Martyr's 
testimony (about 150 a.d.) for the existence of the third 
Gospel in his day, and therefore a likelihood that the Acts 
existed also. But we have no satisfactory evidence that 
Justin used the Acts, and there is nothing in the Apostolic 
Fathers, nor in any work anterior to the Letter of the 
Churches of Vtenne and Lyons, written probably soon after 
177 A.D., to prove the existence of the Acts. 

The weight of external evidence therefore goes entirely 
for St Luke as the author of the Acts. But it has to be 
noticed, that the earliest testimony is more than a hundred 
years later than the events described in the Acts. We 
have also to take into account that Irenaeus. was not 
critical We find him calling the Pastor of Hernias Scrip- 
ture; Clemens Alexandrinus also calls the Pastor inspired; 
and Origen not merely attributes inspiration to the work, 
but makes the author of it the Hennas mentioned in the 
Epistle to the Romans. All scholars reject the testimony 
of Irenaeus, Clemens Alexandrinus, and Origen in this 
matter. The question arises, How far are we to trust 
them in others of a similar nature 1 

We turn to the internal evidence. And in the very 
commencement we find the author giving himself out as 
the person who wrote the third Gospel This claim haa 
been alnwst universally acknowledged. There is a remark- 
able similarity of style in both. The same peculiar modes 
of expression continually occur ia both; and thronghowl 
both there exist continual references backward and for* 



124 



ACTS OF- THE APOSTLES 



Ward, avhidi imply the same authorship. There are some 
di^culties in the v/ay of this conclusion. Two of these 
tleseive special noticei If we turn to the last chapter oi 
the Gospel, we find it stated .there (ver. 13) that two dis- 
ciples met Jesus on the day of the resurrection, as they 
were going to Emmaus. Towards nightfall (ver. 29) he 
entered the village with them; and as he reclined with 
them, he became known to them, and disappeared. 
Whereupon " at that veiy hour" (ver. 33) they rose up and 
returned to Jerusalem. They found the eleren assembled, 
and told them what had happened to them. *^ While they 
were saying these things, he himself stood in the midst of 
them" (ver. 3Q). The apostles gave him a piece of fish, 
and he ate it. "But he said to them" (ver. 44), so the 
narrative goes on, and it then relates his speech; and at 
ver. 50 it says, " He led them out to Bethany," and then 
disappeared from them. This disappearance was final; 
and if the words used in the Gospel make us hesitate in 
determining it to be his ascension, such hesitation is 
removed by the opening words of the Acts. According 
to the Gospel, therefq^, all the events now related took 
place, or seem to have taken place, on the day of the 
resurrection, or they may possibly have extended into the 
next morning, but certainly not later. The Acts, on the 
contraiy, states that Jesus was seen by the disciples for 
forty days, tyid makes him deliver the speech addressed to 
his disciples and ascend into heaven forty days after the 
resurrection. The other instance is perhaps still more sin- 
gular. In the Acts we have three accounts of the conversion 
of St Paul — the first by the writer himself, the other two by 
St Paul in his speeches. The writer states that (ix. 4, 7) 
when the light shone round Paul, he fell to the ground, 
" but the men who were journeying with him stood dumb." 
St Paul himself says (xxvi. 14) that they all fell to the 
ground. The writer says (ix. 7) that St Paul's com- 
panions heard the voice, but saw no one. St Paul himself 
says (xxii 9) that his companions saw the light, but did 
not hear the voice of him who spake to lum. And finally, 
all these accounts differ in their report of what was said 
on the occasion. Notwithstanding these differences, even 
these very accounts contain evidence in them that they were 
written by the same writer, and they do not destroy the force 
of the rest of the evidence. The case would be quite different 
if Baur, Schwegler, and Wittichen were right in supposing 
that the Gospel of Luke contained documents of opposite 
tendencies. It would then be necessary to assume different 
aUthore for the different parts of the Gospel, and still an- 
other for the Acts. But this theory faUs to the ground if 
the Tubingen theory of tendencies is rejected. 

The Acts iteelf claims to be written by » companion of 
St Paul. In chap, xvi 10, the writer, without any previous 
warning, passes from the third person to the first. St Paul 
had reached the Troad. There he saw a vision inviting 
him to go to Macedonia. " But when he saw the vision, 
straightway we sought to go out into Macedonia." The 
n^c of the " we" cx>ntinues until Paul leaves Philippi. In 
chap. XX. Paul returns to Philippi, and the "we" is 
resumed, and is ke^t up till the end of the work. Irensus 
(H. iii. 14, 1) quotes tiiese passages as proof that Luke, 
the author, was a companion of the apostle. The minute 
character of tihe narrative, the accurate description of the 
various joumcyings, the unimportance of some of the 
details, and the impossibility of contriving all the inci- 
dents of the shipwreck without experiencing them, are 
strong reasons for believing that we have the narrative of 
an eye-witness. And if we allow this much, we can 
scarcely help coming to the conclusion that this eye-witness 
was the author of the work; for the style of tliia eye-witness 
is exactly the style of the writer who composed the previous 
portions. Some have supposed that we have here the per- 



sonal narrative of Timothy or of Silas; but this suj^position 
would compel us to believe that the writer of the Acts tras 
so careless as to tack dociunents together without remem- 
bering to alter their form. $uch a procedure on the part 
of the skilful writer of the Acts is unlikely iu'the highest 
degree. The "we'' is introduced intentionally, and can 
be accounted for only in two ways : either by supposmg 
that the writer was an eye-witness, or that he wished to 
be thought an eye-witness, and borrowed the narrative of 
an eye-witness to facilitate the deception. Zeller has 
adopted this latter alternative; and this ktter alternative 
is the only possible one for those who assign a^eiy late 
date to the Acta. ^ 

We may test the writer's claim to be regarded as a com- 
panion of St Paul by comparing his statements with those 
of the other books of the New Testament As might be 
expected, the great facts recorded in the Gospels are repro- 
duced accurately in the Acts. There is only one marked 
difference. St Matthew says (xxvii. 5, 7) that Judas cast 
the traitor's money into the temple, and the priests bought 
with it a field for the burial of strangers. St Peter iu Acts 
(i. 18) says, that Judas himself purchased a field with the 
reward of his iniquity. St Matthew says that he went and 
hanged himself, St Peter that he fell headlong and burst in 
the middle. St Matthew says^ or rather seems to say, that 
the field was called the field of blood, because it "was pur- 
chased with blood-money; St Peter seems to attribute the 
name to the circumstance that Judas died in it ^ 

The Acts is divided into two distinct parts. The first 
deals with the church in Jerusalem, and especially narrates 
the actions of St' Peter. We have no external means of 
testing this portion of the narrative. The Acts is the only 
work from which information is got in regard to these 
events. The second part pursues the history of the apostle 
Paul ; and here we can compare the statements made in the 
Acts with those made in the Epistles. Now here again we 
have a general harmony. St Paul travels in the regions 
where his Epistles show that he founded churches. The 
friends of St Paul mentioned in the Acts are also the 
friends acknowledged in the Epistles. And there are 
many minute coincidences. At the same time, we learn 
from this comparison that St Luke is not anxious to give 
minute details. Timothy probably visited Athena while 
St Paul was there. This we learn from 1 Thess. iii 1, but 
no mention is made "of this visit in the Acta Agpin, we 
gather from the Epistles to' the Corinthians that St Paul 
paid a visit to Corinth, which is not recorded in the Acta. 
Moreover, no mention is made of Titus in the Acts. These, 
however, are slight matters; and it must be allowed that 
there is a general agreement But attention has been 
drawn to two remarkable exceptiona These are the ac- 
count given by St Paul of his visits* to Jerusalem in the 
Epistle to the Galatians and that given by St Luke; and 
the character and mission of the apostle Paul, as they 
appear in his letters and as they appear in the Acts. 

In regard to the first point, St Paul himself says in the 
Epistle to the Galatians, that after his conversioa straight- 
way he held no counsel with fiesh and blood, nor did he 
go* up to Jerusalem to the apostles who were before him; 
but he went away to Arabia and returned to Damascus; that 
then after three years he went up to Jerusalem to seek for 
Cephas, and he remained with him fourteen days. He at 
that time saw only two apostles, — Peter, and James tfce 
brother of the Loxd. He then went away co Syria and 
Cilicia, and was unknown by face to the churches of Judesv. 
He says that fourteen years after this he went up to Jeru- 
salem with Barnabas, taking Titus with hinL On this 
occasion he went up by revelation. St Paul introduces 
these facts for a purpose, and this purpose is that he 
might prove his independence as an apostle. He had aeted 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 



125 



Solely on the revelation given to himself. *He had neither 
required nor obtained sanction ' from the other apostles. 
He was an apostle, not sent forth from men nor through 
men, but Uiroagh Jesus and Ood. When we turn td thq 
Acts, we find that no mention is made of the journey to 
Arabia. Be stayB some days at Damascus, and then 
(begins to preach the^gospeL He continues at this work a 
considerable time; and then, in consequence of the plots 
•of the Jews, he secretly withdraws from Damascus and 
proceeds to-Jerusalem. The^brethren there are suspiaous 
in -regard to him, and their fears are not qmeted until 
Barnabas takes him to the apostles; and after this intro- 
duction he goes m and out amongst them, and holds dis- 
cussions wl£ the Hellenists. Fiimlly, ^hen the Hellenists 
cttempt to kill him, the brethren send him^ taTarsua In the 
Gpistle to the Qalatians St Paul -does everythmg for him- 
«elf, instigated by his inward feelinga In the Acts he is 
'forced out of Aniioch, and sent by the^brethren to Tarsua In 
the Galatians St Paul stays only a fortnight, and seesonly 
St Peter and St James of the apostles, and wasjcmknown ty 
face to the churches of Judea In the Acts Barnabas takes ^ 
him to the apostUa^ and he continues evidently tor a penod i 
much longer 'than a fortnight, going m and out amongst 
them. Then m chap. zi. 30, he goes up a second time to 
Jerusalem, — a visit which seems inconsistent with the narra- 
tive m the Epistle to the Galatiana And finally, when he 
goes up to Jerusalem, the Acts does not represent him 
going up by an mdependent revelation, but as being sent 
op; and It says nothing of bis takmg an mdependent part, [ 
but represents him as submitting to the apostlea 

This, however, leads us to the. treatment of the character 
of St Paul by the writer o( the Acta Some of the 
Tubingen critics assert that the writer shows ill-will to St 
Paul, but they are evidently wrong. On the contrary, the 
character of the apostle as given in the Acts is full of grand 
and noble traits. Yet still there are some smgular pheno- 
mena m the Acta St -Paul claimed to be an apostle by the 
will of Ood He had as good a nght to be an apostle as 
St Peter or St Jamea Yet the writer of the Acts never 
caUs him an apostle m the stnct sense of the term. He 
IS twice c^ed an apostle, namely, m Acts ziv 4 and 
14 On both occasions his fellow-apostle is Barnabas, 
but Barnabas was not one of the twelve, and not an 
apostle in the strict sense of the term And even in 
these verses the reading is doubtful The Codex Beta 
omits the word apottU m the !4tb verse, and makes 
the 4th liable to suspicion by msertmg an addition to it 
St Luke also brings prominently forward as the proper mark 
of an apostle, that he should have compamed wifh the Lord 
from las baptism to his ascension, and describes the filling 
up of the number of the twelve by the election of Matthias. 
A.nd if St Luke's narrative of St Paul's conversion 1)0 
muiutely exammed, it will be perceived that not only does he 
not mention that St Paul saw Jesus, but the circumstances 
OB related scarcely permitted St Paul to see Jesus. He 
A-as at once dazzled by the light, and fell to the ground. 
In this prostrate condition, with his eyes shut, he heard the * 
voice; but at first he did not know whose it was. And 
when be opened his eyes, he found that he was bimd. The 
words of Ananias imply that St Paul really did see Jesus, 
but St Luke abstsuns from any such statement And St 
Paul IS not treated by the Jewish Christiana m the Acts as 
an mdependent apostla He^ is* evidently • under submission 
to the apostles at Jerusalem 

Furthermore, the point on which St Paul speciaUy insists 
m the Epistle to the Galatians is, that he was appointed the 
apostle' to the Gentiles as St Peter was to the circumcision, 
and that circumcision and the observance of the Jewish law 
were of no importance to the Christian. St Paul's words on 
this point in all his letters are strong and decided But m 



the Acts it is St Peter that opens np the way fof the Gentiles. 
In St Peter's mouth occurs the strongest language in regard 
to tlte mtolerable nature of the law. Not- a word is said of 
the quarrel between St Peter and St P^uL The brethren m 
Antioch send St P&ul and Barnabas up to Jerusalem to ask 
the opmion of the apostles and elders. St Paul awaits the 
decision of the apostles, and St Paul and Barnabas carry 
back the decision to Antioch. And throughout the whole 
of the Acts St Paul never stands forth as the champion 
of the Gentiles. Ho seems continually anxious to reconcile 
the Jewish Christians to himself, by observmg the law of 
'Moses. He circumcises Timothy, and he performs his 
vows m the temple And he is particularly careful in hi' 
speeches to show how deep his respect for the law oi 
Moses IS. In this regard the letters of St P^ul are vcr> 
different from his speeches as given m the Acts. In the 
£pi9tld to the Galatians he claims perfect freedom for him- 
self and the Gentiles from the observance of the law , and 
neither in it nor in the Epistle to the Connthians does 
he take any notice of the decision to which the apostles 
are said to have come in their meeting at Jerusalem. And 
yet the narrative of St Luke impUes a different state of 
affairs from that which it actually states in words , for why 
should the Jews hate St Paul so much more than the other 
apostles if there was nothing special m his attitude to- 
wards them t 

We 'fnay add to this, that while St Luke gives a rather 
nunute account of thesitffenngs of St Peter and the church 
in Jerusalem, he has not brought prominently forward the 
perils of St Paul St Paul enumerates some of his suffer- 
ings in the second Epistle to the Corinthians (chap, zl 
23-28). St Luke has omitted a great number of Uiese 
Thus, for instance, St Paul mentions that he was thrice 
shipwrecked. St Luke does not notice one of these ship- 
wrecks, that recorded m the Acts having taken place after 
the Epistles to the Cormthians were writtea Some also 
thmk that St Luke details several occurrences which are 
scarcely m harmony with the character of St Paul. They 
ttuy that the dismissal of John Mark, as recorded in the 
Acts, IS a harsh act St Paul's remark, *' I wist not that 
he IS the high pnest" (zxiii 5), they regard as doubtful in 
point of honesty And the way by which he gained the 
Pharisees to his side, in opposition to the Sadduceea, they 
describe as an expedient unworthy the character of this 
fearless apostle (xxiii. 6^ 

St Luke occasionally alludes, in the Acts, to events which 
took place outside of th'^church. We can test his accu- 
racy m recordmg these events by companng his narrative 
with the narratives of historians who treat of the same 
penod These histonans are Josephus, Tacitus, and 
Suetomua Now, here agam we find that the accounts in 
the Acts generally agree Indeed, Holumann hss noticed 
that ail the external events mentioned in the Acts are also 
to be found in Josephua We may therefore omit Tacitus 
and Suetonius, and confine ourselves to Josephus. Three 
narratives deserve minute examinatioa The first is the 
death of Herod Agnppa Josephus says (Ant xix. 8, 2) 
that Herod was at Cesarea celebratmg a festival m honour 
of the Caesar. On the second day of the spectacle, the 
king put on a robe made entirely of silver, and entered the 
theatre early m-^the day The sun's rays -fell upon the 
silver, and a strong impression was produced on the people, 
so that his flatterers called out that he was a god. He 
did not check their impiety, but soon, on looking np he 
saw an owl perched above bis head on a rope He at 
once recognised in the bird the harbmger of evU. Imme- 
diately he was attacked by violent pains in the bowelsy aud 
after five days' illness died. The Acts says that Herod 
was addressing a deputation of Tynans and .Sidonians in 
Caesarea, seated on the .tribunal and arrayed m a n>yaJ 



126 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 



robe. Tto pooplc called out. " Tbo voico of a god, and hot 
of a man." " Immediately an angel of the Lord struck him 
because he gave not God the glory, and becoming worm- 
eaten, he died" (xiL 21-23). Both accounts agree in 
representing Herod as suddenly struck with disease be* 
cause he did not check the impiety of his flatterers, but 
they n!^roo in almost nothing else; and it is difficult to 
conceive that the one writer knew the account of the other. 
Which account is most to be trusted, depends upon the 
answer given to the question which is the more credible his- 
torian. 

The second case i^tes to the Egyptian mentioned in 
lie question of the tribune to St Paul, in Acts xzi 38, 
^ You are not then the Egyptian who, some time ago, made 
a dilsturbonce, and led into the wilderness the four thousand 
of the sicariil" Joscphus mentions this Egyptian, both in 
his Antiquities (xx. 8, 6) and in theJeunah War (iL 13, 5). 
In i\iQ Jewish War (iL 13, 3)i Joseph us describes the sicarii, 
and then passes on, after a- short section, to the Egyptian. 
He states that he collected thirty thousand people, led them 
out of the wilderness " to the mount callc^d the Mount of 
Olives, which," he says (Ant, zz. 8, 6) in words similar to 
those in Acts L 12, ''lies opposite to the city five furlongs 
distant." On this Felix attacked him, killed some, cap- 
tured others, and scattered the band. The Egyptian, 
however, escaped with some followers. Hence the question 
in the Acta. There are some striking resemblances between 
the words used by both writers. The numbers differ; but 
St Luke gives the numbers of the sicarii, Josephus the 
numbers of the entire multitude led astray. 

The third case is the one which has attracted most 
attention. In the speech which Gkimaliel delivers, in Acts 
V. 35-39, it is said, ^* Some time before this, Theudaa rose 
up, saying that he was some one,, to whom a number of 
about four hundred men attached themselves, who was cut 
off, and all who followed him were broken up and came to 
nought After him rose up Judas the Galilean, in the days 
of the registration, and he took away people after him; 
and he also perished, and all that followed him were scat- 
tered." On turning to Josephus we find that both Theudas 
and Judas the QalSean are mentioned. The oiroumstances 
related of both are the same as in the Acts, but the 
dates are different According to Josephus, Theudas 
gave himself out as a prophet, in the reign of Claudius, 
more than ten years after the speech of Gamaliel had been 
delivered, while* Judas appeared at the period of the 
registration, and therefore a considerable time before 
Theudas. To explain this difficulty, some have supposed 
that there may have been another Theudas not men- 
tioned by Josephus, or that Josephus is wrong in his 
chronology. Others suppose that St Luke made a mis- 
take in regard to Theudas, and is right in regard to 
Judas. Keim maintains that ^t Luke has made the mis- 
take, and suggests that possibly it may be based upon the 
passage of Josephus; and Holtzmann has gone more 
minutely into this argument Holtzmann draws attention 
to the nature of the sections of Josephus which contain the 
references to Theudas and Judas {Ant. xx. 6, 1, 2). He 
says that nearly ail the principal statements made in these 
short sections emerge somewhere in the Acts : the census 
of Quirinus, the great famine, Alexander as a member of a 
noble Jewish family, and Ananias as high priest More- 
over, St Luke has preserved the order of Josephus in men- 
tioning Theudas and Judas; but Josephus says *' the sons 
of Judas," whereas St Luke says " Judas." " Is it not 
likely/' Holtzmann argues, " that St Luke had before his 
mind this passage of Josephus, but forgot that it was the 
sons of Judas tlukt wore after Theudas, and not the fathcrl" 
He adds also, that in the short passage in the Acts there 
are five peculiar earpressions, identical or nearly identical 



with the expressions used by Joscphus, and comes to th^ 
conclusion tiiat St Luke know the works of Josephus. Ha 
finds further traces of this knowledge in the circumstance 
that, in Acts xiii. 20-21, St Luke agrees in his statements 
with Josephus where both differ from the Old Testament 
He also adduces certain Greek words which he supposes 
St Luke derived from his reading of Josephus. Max 
Krenkel, in making an addition to this argnmcnt, tries to 
show, from a comparison of passages, that St Luko had 
Josephus before his mind in the narrative of the childhood 
of Christ; and he supposes that tho expedient attributed 
to the apostle Paul, of setting the Pharisees against the 
Sadducces (Acts xxiii. G), is based upon a similar narrative 
given in Josephus (Btll. Jud. iL 21, 3, and ViXa^ 26 ff.). 
The importance of this investigation \& great; for if Holtz- 
mann and Rrenkol were to prove their point, a likelihood 
would be established that the Acts of the Apostles, or at 
least a portion of it, was written after 93 A.D., the year 
in which the Antiquities of Josephus was published, accord- 
ing to a passage occurring in the work itself. Meanwhile, 
tho fact that important portions of the narrative must have 
been written by an eye-witness of the events recorded, 
combined with the unity of style and purpose in the book» 
are cogent arguments on the other side. 

The speeches in the Acts deserve special notica The 
question occurs here, Did St Luke follow the plan adopted 
by all historians of his age, or is he a singular exceptioni 
Tho historians of his age claimed the liberty of working 
up, in their own language, the speeches recorded by them. 
They did not dream of verbal accuracy ; even when they 
had the exact words of the speakers before them, they 
preferred to mould the thoughts of the speakers into their 
own methods of presentation. Besides this, historians do 
not hesitate to give to the characters of their history speeches 
which they never uttered. The method of direct speech is 
useful in producing a vivid idea of what was supposed to 
pass through the mind of the speaker, and therefore is 
used continually to mako the narrative lively. Now it is 
generally believed that St Luke has followed the practice 
of his contemporaries. There are some of lus speeches 
that arc evidently the summaries of thoughts that passed 
through the minds of individuals or of multitudes. Others 
unquestionably claim to be reports of speeches reaUy 
delivered. But all these speeches have, to a large extent, 
the same style as that of the narrative. They have passed 
to a large extent through tho writer's mind, and arc given 
in his words. They are, moreover, all of them the merest 
abstracts. The speech of St Paul at Athens, as given by 
St Luke, would not occupy more than a minute' and a half 
in delivery. The longest speech in the Acts, that of the 
martyr Stephen, would not take more than ten minutes to 
deliver. It is not likely that either speech lasted so short 
a time. But this circumstance, while destroying their 
verbal accuracy, does not destroy their authenticity; and 
it must strike all that, in most of the speeches, there is a 
singukr appropriateness, there is an exact fitting-in of 
the thoughts to the character, and there are occasionally 
allusions of an obscure nature, which point very clearly to 
their authenticity. The one strong objection urged against 
this inference, is that the speeches of St Peter and St 
Paid show no doctrinal differences, such as are said to 
appear in tho Epistles; but the argument has no force^ 
unless it be proved that St Paul's doctrine of justiffcation 
is different from the creed of St Peter or St James. 

Not the least important of the questions which influence 
critics in determining the authorship of the Acts is that of 
miracles. Most of those who think that miracles are im- 
possible, come to the conclusion that the narratives con- 
taining them are legendary, and accordingly* they main tarn 
that the first portion of tho Acts, relating to the carl/ 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 



127 



dnrdi in Jenuakm and to St Peter, is in the hi^iest 
degree nntrostworthy. The writer, it is maliitalnf>d| had 
ao personal knowledge of those early days, and leceiyed 
the stories after they had gone through a long process of 
transmutation. They app^, for instance, to the account 
of the Pentecosty where the miracle of speaking with tongues 
a described. They say that it is plain, on a comparison of 
the Epistle to the Corinthians wiitt the Acts, that St Paul 
meant one thing by the gift of tongues, and the writer of 
the Acts another. And the inference is at hand that, if 
the writer had known St Banl; he would have known what 
the gift of tongues was; and the possibility of such a 
mistake, it is said^ impiias a considerable distance from the 
time of the apostles and the primitive church. Tliey 
pdnt also to the carious paralleliBm between the mfnicJes 
of St Peter and those of St PauL St Peter begins his 
Beiies of miracles by healing a hime man (iiL 2); so does St 
Ptol (xiv. 8). St Peter exorcises evil spirits (v. 16 ; viii 7) ; 
80 does St Paul (six. 15; xvL 18). If St Peter deals with' 
the magician Simon^ St Paul encounters filymas. If St 
Peter punishes with death (v. Iff.), St Ptol punishes with 
blindness (xiiL 6ff.). If St Peter works miracles by his 
shadow (v. 15), not less powerful are the aprons and nap- 
kms of St Paul (ziz. 12). And, finally, if St Peter can 
raise Tabitha from the dead (iz. 36), St Paul is equally 
Buccessful in the case of Eutychus (xz. 9). It is easy to 
see, also, that since there is no contemporary history with 
which to compare the statements in the Acts, and since 
many of the statements are of a summary nature, and very 
few dates are given, a critic who believes the narratives 
legendary will have no difficulty in finding many elements 
in the narratives confirmatory of his beliedP. But to those 
who believe m miracles the rest of the narrative seems 
plain and unvarnished The parallelism between the 
oiiracles of St Peter and St Paul is accounted for by the 
fact that they acted m similar circumstances, and that 
actual events were at hand on which to base the paral- 
lelism. At the same time, some who believe m the possi- 
bility of miracles thmk that the Acts presents peculiar 
difficultws in this matter. They say that the healing by 
nic&ns of shadows and aprons is of a magical nature; that 
:hz death of Ananias and Sapphira, and the other destruc- 
tive miracles, are out of harmony with the rest of the 
miraclea of the New Testament , and that the earthquakes 
that release St Peter and St Paul seem purposeless. The 
difficulties on this head, though real, are not however of 
great importance, nor do they tell very seriously against 
the received opimon that St Luke is thejauthor of the work. 
We have thus given a general summary of the questions 
which come up in investigating the authorship of the Acts, 
and of the arguments used in settling this point The 
conclusions baaed upon Uus evidence are very different. 
Some join the traditional opinion of the church to the 
modern idea of inspiration, and maintain that St Luke 
was the author of the work, that every discrepancy is 
merely apparent, and that every speech contains the real 
and genmoe words of the speaker. Others mamtain that 
St Luke is the writer, and that the book is justly placed 
in the canon ; that the narrative is, on the whole, thoroughly 
trustworthy, and that neither its canomcity nor credibility 
la affected by the existence of real discrepancies m the 
nanative Others hold that St Luke is the author, but 
that we have got in the book an ordmary narrative, with 
portions credible and portions mcredible, that for the 
early portions of the work he had to trust mainly to his 
memory, dulled by distance from the scene of action and 
by lapse of time, and that he has given what* he knew 
with the uncriticad indifference to minute accuracy in time, 
circomstance, and word, which characterises all his con- 
temporaries. Others maintam that St Luke is the authoi^ 



bat that, being a credulous and nnaeientific CSiiistian, be 
recorded indeed in honesty all that he knew, but that he 
was deluded in his belief of miracles, and is often inaoco- 
rate in his statement of facts. Others think that St Luke 
was not the author of the work. He may have been the 
original author of the diary of the Apostle Paul's travek 
in which the "we'' occurs; but the author of the Acts 
did not write the diary, but inserted it into his narrative 
after altering it for a special purpose, and the narrative 
was written long after St Paul and St Luke were dead. 
Others think that in the Acts we have the wo^ of Timothy 
or of Silas, or of some one else. A considerable number 
imagine that St Luke had different written documents 
before him while composing, and a very few think that the 
work is the work of more than one writer. But as we 
havei intimated, the weight of testimony is in favour of St 
Luke's authorship. 

jPurpoM, — ^We have seen that the Acte of the Apostles 
IS the work of one anthor possessed of no inconsiderable 
skill This author evidently omito many things that he 
knew; he gives a short account of others of which he 
oonld have supplied accurate details, and, as in the case of 
St Saul, he has brought forward one side of the charaeter 
prominently, and thrown the other into the shada What 
motive could have led him to act thus 9 What olgect had 
he in inserting what he has inserted, and omitting what he 
haa omitted t Most of the answers given to these questions 
have no important bearing on the question of the author- 
ship of the Acts. But the case is diiSerent with the answer 
of the Tubingen school The Tiibingen school maintaina 
that St Paul tought that the law was of no avail to Jew 
and Qentile, and that, therefore, the observance of it was 
unnecesaary ; thafSt Peter and the other aposUes taught 
that the observance of the law was necessary, and that 
they separated from St Patd on this point ; and that the 
early Christians were divided into two great classes — ^those 
.who held with St Paul, or the Qentile Christians, and 
those who held with St Peter, or the Jewish Christians. 
They further maintam that there prevailed a violent con- 
troversy between these two parties in the church, until a 
fusion took place towards the middle of the second half of 
the second century, and the Catholic Church arose. At what 
stage of this controversy was the Acts written 1 is the ques- 
tion they put St Peter, we have seen, is represented in 
the Acts as opening the church to the Qentilea. St Peter 
and the rest of the aposties at Jerusalem admit the 
Gentiles on certain gentle conditions of refraining from 
things offered to idols, from animals suffocated, from blood, 
and from fornication. What could be the object of such 
statemente but to convince the Jewish Christians that 
they were wrong in pertinaciously adhering to their entke 
exclusion of the Gentiles, or insisting on their observance 
of the entire lawt But St Paul is represented as observ* 
ing the law, as sent forth by St Peter and Uie other 
apostles, as going continually to the Jews first, and as 
appearing in the temple and coming up with collections 
for the Jerusalem churcL Was not this also intended to 
reconcile the Jewish Christians to St Paul) Then the 
great doctrines of St Paul all but vanish— free grace, justi> 
fication by faith alone, redemption through the blood of 
Christ, — all that is charactensticof St Paul disappears, except 
his univeraahsm, and that is modified by the decree of the 
apostles, the circumcision of Timothy, and St Paul's observ- 
ance of the law. The object of all thiis, they affirm, must be 
to reconcile the Jewish part^ by concessions. But there is 
said to be also another object, of minor importance indeed, 
but still quite evident and falling in with the other 
Thronghout the Acts St Paul is often accused of tiimit.e$ 
the world upside down and causmg disturbances* The 
Jewish Christians may have thought that St Paul ii-as to 



128 



A C T — A C T 



bilame in this matter, and *tbat St Paul's opinions were 
peculiarly calculated to stir up peraecution against the 
Cknstians. The stories in the Acts were devised to con- 
vince them that th^ were mistaken in this supposition. 
On every occasion in which St Paul is accused before 
magistrates, and especially Roman magistrates; he is ac- 
quitted. Qallio, the town-derk of Ephesus, Lysias, Fehx, 
and Festus, all declare that St Paul has done nothing con- 
trary to the law. And while the Romans thus free him 
from all blame, it is the Jews who are always accusing him. 

We have here re^Mtxiuced the argument of Zeller, who 
has given the most thorough exposition of an opinion held 
also by Baur, Schwegler, and oUiezs. The argument bdh 
to have effect if the assumption that St Ftol and St Peter 
differed radically is rejected. It also suffers from the cir- 
cumstance, that there is no historical authentication of the 
church being in such a state in the first half of the second 
century, that this attempt at reconciliation could take 
place within it Moreover, the writing of a fictitioua 
production seems an extraordinary means for any one to 
employ in order to effect reconciliation, especially ii^ as 
Zelier imagines, the chur£ in Rome ^was spedally con- 
templated. The church in Rome and the other Cihii^ian 
churches had St Paul's Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, 
and Qalatians before them. They oooM be in no doubt as 
to what were his sentiments. T£ey must also hayo had 
some histoTjr of his career ; and' no object couldlio'effected 
l^ attemptmg to palm upon them a 'deqre6 of awisUes 
which never existed, or a history of St Peter and St PkQ 
contradicted by trhat they knew ofl)0tii^ 

Overbeck, ftiding tiiis solution of Zeller unsatisfiaetosy, 
tliinks that the olject of the Acts is to help the Qentilo- 
Christian Churchof the ^nt half of the second century, now 
far removed from Paulinism and strong influenod by 
Judaism, to form a dear idea of its own past^ especially ol 
its own origin ai^d of its founder St Paul It is thus, he 
maintains, an historical' novel, somewhat like the Clemm-' 
tinea, devised to realise the state of the church at an earlier' 
period. 

It would be tedious to enumerate aD the other objects 
which have .been set forth as the special aim of the Acta. 
Some think that it was a work written for the ^livatie use of 
Theophilus, and aimed, therefore, at giving hun the special 
information which he required. O^ers think that it is 
intended to describe the spvead of the gospel from 
Jerusalem to Rome. Others believe that the writer wished 
*to defend the character of the Apostle PftuI Some of the 
more recent members of the Tubingen school think that 
it was intended to distort the character Df St Paul, and 
that the image of him given in the Acts is an intermediate * 
Stage between the real Paul and the caricature supposed 
by them to be made of him under the name of Simon in 
the CUmeniineL 

^a<e.«— There are no sure data for determining the date. 
Appeal used to be made to Acts viii 26, ''Unto the way 
which goeth down from Jerusalem to Gaza, which is 
desert" But most probably it is the way which is here 
said to be desert or lonely. But even if the word " desert " 
or ''lonely'' be applied to Gaza, we get nothing out of it 
Accordingly, in the absence of data very various dates 
have been assigned. Some think that it was written at 
the time mentioned in the last chapter of Acts, when St 
Paul had been two years in Roma Some think that it 
must have been written after the fall of Jerusalem, as they 
believe that the gospel was written after that event 
trcnaeus thought that it was written after tiie death of St 
Peter and St Paul (II. iii. 1). Others think that St Luke 
must have written it at a late period of his life, about the 
year 80 A.p. The Tubingen school think that it was writ- 
ten some time in the second century, most of tbem agree- 



ing on the second or third decade of that century, abotu 
125 A.D. They argue that a late date. is proved by the 
nature of the purpose which occasioned the work, by the 
representation which it-givea of the relation of the ChxiAtaaiis 
to the Roman state, and by the traces of Qnosticism (xil 
29), and of a hierarchical constl^Btion of the chucb 
(L 17, 20; Tin 14, £^i XV. 28; b. 17, 28} lo.be found 
in the Acts. 

Blaee. — There is no satisfactoiy evidenoe by which to 
^ settle the place of composition. Later- fathers of the 
chuich and the snboiriptions of late MS8. mention Achaia, 
Attica, Alexandria, Macedonia, and Romei And these 
plaoea have all lu4 their supporters in modem timea 
Some have also tried to ahow tiiat it was wzxtten in Asia 
Minor, probably at Ephesus. The most likely supposition 
b that it was written at Rome; Zeller has aligned with 
great plausibility for this oottclud<»L 

There is a lai^ literatnie on the subject of this article, 
but the most important treatises are those of Schwanbeck, 
Schneckenburger, Lekebusch, Zello; Trip. Elostermann, 
and GSrteL ^BUer^s work deserves special praise for its 
thoroughness. Various other writers hspre discussed the sub- 
ject in works dealing with this among others; as Baur in his 
Pauhu; Schwegler in his NachapotMiKheiZeUaUer; Ewald 
in his HUhry qflmtd; Renan in his ApoOUs; Hausrath 
in his ilTtfw TettamaU Ektary; and,inamore oonservatiTe 
mannar, Neander, Bawmgartenj Leohler, Thiersch, and 
Langai, .Of oonanantariee, the best on the Tubingen side 
b that ot De Wetty, remodelled by Overbeck, and that of 
the more oonaervative Meyer is especially ^[ood. In English 
we have an able treatment of the subject in Pr Davidson's 
IwtrodMeHim to the Study of tkelfew TettametU; we have com' 
mentaries by Bisooe, Humphry, Hackect, Cook, Words* 
worth, Alfora, and Gloag; and dissertations t^ F^ey, 
Birk^ Lewin, Conybeare, and Howsom 

There are various othdr treatises daindng to be Acts 
of Apostles. One or two of these must have existed at an 
early date, though, no doubt, tf^ ^▼o since received 
large interpolations. But most of them belong to a late 
period, and all of them are acknowledged to be apocryphaL 
They are edited by Tischendoif in his Acta ApogtoUrrum 
Apocrypha (LipsiA, 1851), and have been translated, with 
an inlroduction saving infoimation as to. their origin and 
dates, by Mr Walker, in toL xvL of the Ant^-IfieeM 
Library, (j. D.) 

ACTA CONSISTORn, the edicts of the consistory or 
council of state of the Roman emperors. These edicts were 
generally expressed In such terms as these: ** The august 
emperorsy Dtodetian and Maximian, in council declare, tfliat 
the children of decnrions shall not be exposed to wild beasts 
in the amphitheatre.** — ^The senate and soldiers often swore, 
either through flattery or on compulsion, nyaa the efcts 
of the emperor. The name of a senator was erased by 
Nero out of the register, because he refused to swear upon 
the edicts o f Aug ustuai 

ACTA DIURNA, called also Acta Populi, Acta Publico^ 
and simply Acta or Diuma^ was a sort of Roman gazette, 
containing an authorised narrative of the transactions} worthy 
of notice which happened at Rome — as assemblies, edicts 
of the magistrates, trials, executions, buildings, births, 
marriages, deaths, accidents, prodigies, &c Petronins has 
given us an imitation spedmen of the Acta Diuma, one or 
two extracts from which may be made to show their style 
and contents. The book-keeper of Trimakhlo pretends to 
read from the Acta Urbis:-^" On the 30th of July, on the 
Cuman farm, belonging to Trimalchio, were bom 30 -boys 
and 40 girls; there were brought into the bam from 
the threshing-floor 125,000 bushels of wheat; 000 0x0:2 
were broken in. — On the same day the slave Mithridatcri 
was crucified for having slandered the tutelar deity of our 



A T — A C T 



129 



friend QaiuL — On the same day 100,000 sesterces, that 
could not be invested, were put into the money-box. — On 
ibe same day a fire broke out in the gardens of Pompey, 
which arose in the steward's house," iK. The Ada differed 
£roin the AnnaU (which were disoontinned in &a 133) in 
this respect, among others, that only the greater and more 
important matters were given in the latter, while in the 
former things of less note also were recorded. The origin of 
the Acta is attiibuted to JiUins Csesar, who first order^ the 
keeping and publishing of .the' acts of the people, by pablio 
officers. Some trace them back as far as Servius Tullins, 
who it was believed ordered that the next of kin, on occa- 
sion of a birth, should register the event in the temple of 
Venus^ and on occasion of a death, should register it in 
the temple of Libitina. The Acta were drawn op from day 
to day, and exposed in a public place to be read or copied 
by all who chose to do so. After remaining there for a 
reasonable time they were taken down and preserved with 
other public documents. 

ACTA SENATUS, among the Romans, were minutes 
of the discussions and decisions of the senate. ' lliese were 
also called ComMentarU Senatus, and, by i^jQreek name, 
vro/onjyMinL Before the consulship of Julius' Cnsar, 
minutes of the proceedings of the senate were written and 
' oocasionairy published, but unofficially. Gsesar first 
ordered the minutes to be recorded and published autho- 
ritatively. The keeping of them was continued by 
Augustus, but the pubU^on was forbidden. Some pro- 
minent senator was usually chosen to draw up these Acta. 

ACTiEON, in Fabvloui Hittary^abn of Anstsus and 
Autonoi^, a'famous hunter. He was torn to pieces by his 
own dogs. Various accounts are given of this occurrence; 
but the best known story is that told b^ Ovid, who re- 
presents him as accidentallv seeing Diana as she was 
bathing, when she changed him into a stag, and he was 
pursued and killed by Ids do§^ 

ACTIAN GAMES, in Roman Antiquity, solemn games 
instituted by Augustus, in memory of Hb victory over 
Antony at Actium. See Actiuu. 

ACTIKIA, a genus of coelenterate animals, of^ which the 
tearanemone is the type. See Actinozoa. 

ACTINISM (from 6atU, a ray), that property of the 
solar rays whereby they produce chemical effects, as in 
photography. The actinic force is greatest in the blue and 
violet rays of the spectrum. 

ACTINOMETER (measurer oj solar row), a thermo- 
meter with a Urge bulb, filled with a dark-blue fluid, and 
enclosed in a box, the sides of which are blackened, and 
the whole covo^d wiUi a thick pkte of ghaa. It was the 
invention of the late Sir John Herschel, and was first 
descrfted in the Edinburgh Journal of Science for 1825 
It is used for measuring the heating power of the sun's 
rays, the amount cl which ii ascertained by exposing the 
bulb for equal intervals of time in sunshine and shade 
alternately. 

ACTINOZOA, a group of animals, of which the most 
f<»ni1tfty examples are the sea^memones and " coral insects'* 
of the older writers. The tenn was first employed by 
de Blainville, to denote a division of the Ammal Kingdom 
having somewhat different limits from that to whioi its 
application is restricted in the present article, in which it 
is applied to one of the two great divisions of the Ozlen- 
TESATA, the other being the BydroeooL 

The AeUnMoa agree with the Hydroaoa in th<) primitive 
and fondamental constitution of the body of two membraocs, 
an ectoderm and an endoderm, — ^between which a middle 
layer or mesoderm may subsequently arise, — ^in the absence 
of a completely differentiated alimentary canal, and in 
possessing thread cdls, or nematocysts; but they present a 
somewhat greater complexity of structure. 



This is manifest, m the first place, in their visceral tube, 
or " stomach," as it is often called, which is continued from 
the margins of the mouth, lor a certain distance, into the 
interior cavitv of the body, but which is always open at its 
fundus into that cavity. And, secondly, in the position of 
the reprodnctivo elements, which, in the Hydrosoa^ are 
always developed in parts of the body wall which are in 
immediate relation with the external surface, and generally 
form outward projections; while, in the Actinosoa, they are 
as constantly sitoated in the lateral walls of the chambers 
into which the body cavity is divided In consequence of 
this arrangement^ the ova, or sexually generated embryos, 
of the Actmosoa are detached into the interior of the body, 
and usually escape from it by thd oral aperture; while those 
of the Hydrotoa are at once set free on the exterior surface 
d that part of the body in which they are formed 

The Aetinowa comprise two groups, which are very 
different in general appearance and habit, though really 
similar in fundamental structure These are — 

I. The Coralligena or sea«nemonee, coral AJ^'mAl^^ and 
sea-pens; and 2. The Cten/iphora, 

(I.) The Coralhgtna. — A common sesrenemone presents 
a subMcylindrical body, terminated at each end by a disk. 
The one of these discoidal ends serves to attach the 
ordinarily sedentaiy animal, the other exhibits in the 
centre a mouth, which is usually elongated in one direction, 
and, at each end, presents folds extendiAg down into the 
gastric cavity. TUs circumstance greatly diminishes the 
otherwise generally radial symmetry of the disk, and of th« 
series of flexible conical tentacles which start from it; 
and, taken together with some other circumstances, raises 
a doubt whether even these anrfnais are not rather bilntor- 
ally, than ladially, symmetrical Each tentacle is hollow, 
and its \M6ft communicates with one of the chambers 
into which the cavity of the body is divided, by thin 
membranous JameUae, the so-called mesenteries, which 
ladiate from the oral disk and the lateral waUs of the 
body to the parietes of the visceral tube. The infenot 
edges of the mesenteries are free, and arcuated in such 
a manner as to leave a central common cbapiber, into 
the drcumferenoe of which all the inteimesenteric spaces 
open, while above, it communicates with the visceral 
tube. The tentacles may be perforated at their extremi- 
ties, and, in some cases, the body wall Itself exhibits aper- 
tures leading into the intermesenteric spacea The free edges 
of the mesenteries present thickenings, like the hem of a 
piece of Unen, each of which is much longer than the distance 
between the gastric and the parietal attachment of the 
mesentery, and hence is much folded on itself. It is fuJi 
of thread ceUa The mesodenn, or middle layer of the 
body, which lies between the ectoderm and the endoderm, 
consists of a fibrilhted connective tissue, containing fusi- 
former stellate nucleated cells, and possesses longitudinal and 
circular muscu lar fibres. These are prolonged into the mesen- 
teries, and attain a great development in the disk of attach- 
ment, which serves as a sort of foot like that of a limpet 

The question whether the Coralligena possess a nervous 
system and organs of sense, hardly admits of a definite 
answer at present It is only in the jictinidos that the 
existence of such organs has been asserted ; and the nervous 
circlet of Actinia, described by Spix, has been seen by no 
later investigator, and may be safely assumed to be non- 
existent. Bnt Professor P. M Duncan, F.RS., in a paper 
" On the Nervous System of Actinia,'* recently communi- 
cated to the Royal Society, has affirmed the existence of 
nervous apparatus, consisting of fusiform ganglionic ccUs, 
united, by nerve fibres, which resemble the sympathetic 
nerve fi)>rils of the VertebratOt and form a plexus, which 
appears to extend throughout the i/cdal duk, and very 
probably into other parts of the body. In some o/ 



130 



A C T IN OZO A 



the AetinidcB (e.g., Actmid me $ e m h r f mU kmim\ brightly 
coloured bead-like bodies are ntuated on the orol disk oat- 
aide the tentades. The Btroetiixe of these ''ohromato- 
phoree," or *' boursee oaliit^naleSy" has been carefully investi- 
gated by Schneider and RoUekem, and by Ptofessor 
Duncan. They are diverticula of the body mii^ the sor^ 
face of which is composed of dose-set ''bacilli/' beneath 
whioh lies a layer of strongly-refracting spherules, followed 
by another layer of no less strongly refracting cones. Sub- 
jacent to these Professor Duncan finds ganglion cells and 
nerve plexuses. It would seem^ therefore^ that these bodies 
are radimentaiy eye& 

. At the breeding season the ova or spenpatozoa are 
evolved in the thickness of the mesenteries, and are dis- 
charged into the intermesenteric spaces, the ova undergo- 
ing weir devdo}>ment within the body of the parent The 
yelk, usually, if not elways, endosed in a vitelline membrane, 
nndergoee complete division, and the outer waH of the 
dliatcd blastodermic mass which results becomes invagi- 
nated, the e&ibiyo being thereby converted into a double 
waJled sac— the eztenud aperture of whidi is the future 
mouth, while the contained cavity represents the bo^cavity. 
In tins stage the larval iletMita represents the Oaslrula con- 
dition of sponges and Hydrotoa, The edges of the oral 
aperture grow inwards, giving rise to a circular fold, wluch 
is the rudiment of the visceral tube. This is at first oon- 
neoted with the body wall by only two mesenteries, which are 
eeated at opposite ends of one of the transverse diameters of 
the body. As the mesenteries increase in number, the ten- 
tades grow oat as diverticula of the intermesenteric spaces. 

In all the Corott^ena, the devdopment of whidi has 
been observed, the embryo is converted into a simple 
acdnosoon \xl a similar manner; but from this point they 
diverge in two directions. In one great group, the mesen- 
teries, and the tentades whidi arise from the intermesen- 
terio chambers, increase in nuipber to six; and then, in the 
great minority xA cases, the intermesenteric spaces undeigo 
solxUviBion by the development of new mesenteric^ accord- 
ing to curious and somewhat complicated numerical laws, 
nntfl their number is increased to some multiple of ^y9 
or six. In these HegomoraUa (as they have been termed 
by Haedcd) the tentades also nsually remain rounded and 
conioed. In the other group» the OctceoraUOf the meeen- 
teries and the tentades increase to dght^ but do not sur- 
pass that number; and the tentades become flattened and 
serrated at the edges, or take on a more or less pennatifld 
character. 

There are no Octocoralla which retain the simple indivi- 
duality of the young actinozoon throughout life; but all in- 
crease by gemmation, and. give rise to compound organisms, 
which may be arborescent, and fixed by the root end of the 
common stem, as in the Alcyonidm and Oorffcnida; or may 
possess a central stem whidi is not fixed, and gives off 
lateral branches which undergo comparativdy HtUe sub- 
division, as in the FmnattdidcB. 

The body cavities of the sooids of these compound 
OctoeoraUa are in free communication with a set of canals 
which ramify through the amosare, or common fabric of 
the stem and branches by which th^ are borne, and which 
play the port of a vascular system. 

Except in the case of Tubtpara, the zodids and the super- 
ficial ccenosarc give rise to no continuous skdeton; but the 
deep or inner substance of the coenosarc may be converted 
into a solid rod-like or branching stem. 

In the ^exacoralla, on the other hand, one large' 
group, that of the Aettnidce, consists entirdy of simple 
organisms, — organisms that is, in which the primitive 
actinozoon attains its adult condition without biulding or 
fission; or if it bud or divide, the products of the operation 
separate fron» one another. No true skdeton is formed. 



an are to some extent locomotive,<«Lnd some {Mmyas) float 
fredy by the hdp of their contractile pedal region. Th' '. 
most remarkable form of this gronp is the genns CertcaUkiu 
which has two circlets, each composed of numerous tentades 
one immediatdy around the oral aperture, the other at 
the margin of the disk. The foot is dongated, subconical, 
and generally presents a pore at its apex. Of the diametral 
folds of the oral aperture, one pair is madi longer than tiie 
other, and is produced as far as the pedal yote. The larra 
is curioudy like a young hydrozoon with free tentades, 
and at first .possesses four mesenteries, whence it may be 
doubted whetiiet Cereantkui does not rather bdong to the 
Octoooralla, 

The ZacmlhidtB differ from the AdMiia in little more 
than their multiplication by buds, whidi remain adhoent, 
either by a common connecting mass cor ocBnosajo or by 
stolons; and in the possession of a rudimentary, spiculsi 
skeleton. 

On the other hand, the proper stone-corals (as oontrir 
distinguished from the re4 coral) are essentially AdtMa^ 
wluch become converted into compound oiganisms by 
gemmation or fission, and devdope a continuous skdeton. 

The akdetal parts^ of the AdvMna^ to which reference 
has been made, consist either of a substance of a homy 
diaracter; or of an organic btilsis impregnated with earthy 
salts (chiefly of lime and magnesia), but which can be 
isolated by the action of dilute adds; or finally, of eal- 
caieouB salts in an almost crystalline state, forming cods 
or eoipusdes, whidi, when treated with acids, leave <mly 
an inappredidile and structuvdess film of organic matter. 
The hard parts of all the Aporoaa, FerforcOOf and Tdbth 
kUa of Milne Edwards are in the last^mentioned eoiidition; 
while, in the Octoeoro^ (except 2^K&^M>m) th^ 
and Zoantkidtg, the skeleton is either homy, or comnsta, al 
any rate, to b^in with, of definitdy f orm^ spicula, vdddi 
contain an organic basis, and frequenti^ present a laminated 
structure. ' la the organ coral (Tuhipora), however, the 
skdeton has the character of that of the ordinary ston^ 
corals, except that it is perforated by numerous minute 
canals. 

The skdeton appears, i& all cases, to be depodted within 
the mesoderm, and in the intercellular substance of that 
layer of the hodj. Even the definitdy shaped i^neala of 
the OctoeoraUa are not the result of the metamorphosis, 
of cdls. In the simple aporose corals the cnlcifieatioa 
of the base and side walls of the body gives rise to 
the cup or theea; from this the calcification radiates bt> 
wards, in oorrespondence with the mesenteries, end gives 
rise to as many vertical «6p^ the spaces* between which 
are termed loctUi; while, in the centre, either by unjion of 
the septa or independentiy, a pillar, the eolumeUa^ grows 
up. From the sides of a4jacent septa scattered processes 
of calcified substance, or iynapHeidas, may grow out 
toward one another, as in the Fungida; or tiie intermp- 
tion of the cavities of the loculi may^be more complete vy 
the formation of . didves stretchmg from septum to 
septum, but lying at different heights in a4|ac6nt loeoli 
TheaeaiewterH^aldisatpimentB. Finally, in the ^a5ti£a^ 
horizontal pktes, which stretch completdy across the cavx^ 
of the theca, are formed one above thejother and ednstitute 
tabulcfr diuqnmeiUi^ ' - - -*- 

In the ApcTota the theca and septs'aie atmoet invariably 
imperforate; but in the Ferforaia they present ^wrtoxes, 
and in some madrepores the whole skdeton is fedDce4 
to a mere network of dense calcareous snbstance. When 
the SexaooraUa multiply by genmiation or. fisdon, and 
thus give rise to compound massive or aborasoent aggre* 
gations, each juewly-formed'coral pdype devdopes a akdetoo 

* 8m EdUiker^ft lamn EitMogUti^ 1866 



ACTINOZOA 



131 



d its owDi wld€h is either confluent with that of the 
othecsy or is united with them hj calcification of the con- 
necting sabstance of the common body. This intermediate 
skeletal layer is then termed cosnetichi/ma. 

The Odocanralla (excepting Tvbipora) give rise to no theoiB 
and their dependencies, the skeleton of each polype, jand 
of the superficial portion of the polyparium, being always 
composed of loose and independent spicula. But in many, 
as the Gorgonidas, PeiiPMUuUd4B (and in the Aniipaikid(B 
among" the SextieoraUa), ih» central port of the common 
stem of the compound oigani^ becomes 'hardened, either 
by oonyetsion-into a mere hqtny ads 0rfiich may be more 
or less impregnated with caRaieboil saItii)'without spicula; 
or the ' Qomification may be accompanied by a massiye 
development of spicula^ either contumoualy or at intenrals; 
or the- main feature of the skeleton may, tcom the firsts be 
the deFelopmtint of s^ScuIa, which become soldered together 
hj a sobcryfatelline intennediate deposit, as in the red 
conl-^commdrce'fCrora^ttfnirrtt^rt^). 

Itffiaa seemededyisable to say thuffmuch ooncenmig tihe 
haid parts Gt'\M&AcUnozoa in this place, but the details 
of the 'Structure and deyelopment of the skdeton of the 
Corailiffena will be discussed under Cobals and Cosal 
Keefs. 

The TabukUa, or Millepores, and the JS'ugosa, an extinct 
and ahnoetexdusiTely Palaoozoio group of stone-coral form- 
ing animals, are usually referred to the CcraUigeiuu Judg- 
ing by the figures given by Agassii^ of living Ifillepores, the 
polypes wrhich cover its surface are undoubtedly much more 
ainular to coiyinform Hydtozoa tl^m they are to any 
IcHjiatocn. But it is to be observed, firstly, that we have 
no sufficient knowledge of the intimate structure of the 
polypes thus figured; and, secondly, Ihat the figures show 
not the letot indication of the extehial reproductive organs 
which are so conspicuous in the Hydrotoa, and which 
stuely must have been present in some one or other of the 
Killq^res examined, were they really ffydro^xu As re- 
gards the Stiffoaa, the presence of septa is a strong 
aigoment' against their belonging to any group but the 
AdinosxMj though it is not to be forgotten that a tendency 
jto the development of 'septif orm prominence is visible in 
the walls of the^ g^^stricr passages of certain ^calcareous 
spongea 

Phenomena anaibgouff to £he""attemation of generations," 
which is so coupon: among the Jlydrozod, are unknown 
among the gre&t majority of the AetkunocL But Semper' 
has recently described a process of sexual multiplicakon 
in two species of Fungj^^ which he ranks under this 'head. 
The FungioB bud out from a branched stem, and then 
become detached and free, as is the habit of the genus. 
To make' the parallel with the production of a Medusa 
from a ScypM^oma complete, however, the stem should be 
nonxished by an asexual polype of a different character from 
the forms of FitnguB which are produced by gemmation* 
And this does not appear to be the case. 

Dimorphism has oeen observed by KoUiker to occur 
eztenaivdy among the FennattUidce. Each polypaiy pre- 
sents at least two difflorent sets of sooids, some being 
folly developed, and provided with sexual organs, while 
the others have neither tentacles nor generative organs; and 
exhibit some other peculiarities.' These abortive zooids 
are* eifher scattered irregularly among the others (e.^., 
SoTGophyton^ Veretilltm)^ or may occupy a definite position 
(e.^, Virgularia), 

(2.) liie Ctenophhra. — ^These are all freely swimming. 



* CantrOnOwM to Vu Natural History qf the United Stale*, VoL 
^ Plata XT. 

' CTefter OmerdtioM'Wechad let SleinkordUen, Leipcig, 1872. 

* Ahkamdhmigen der Senhenbergischen Naturfarscheiuien Oeadl' 
kMTZ, ba. vii TilL 



actively locomotive, marine animals, which do not multiply 
by gemmation, nor form compoivid organisms such as 
the polyparies of the CoraUigena, Like the latter they 
are composed of a cellular ectoderm and endoderm, between 
which a mesoderm, containing stellate connective tissue 
corpuscles and musodai: fibres, is interposed. But, in most 
parts of the organism, the mesoderm acquires a great thick*' 
ness and a gelatinous consistency; so that the ^y of one 
of these aimnals differs in this respect from that of an 
Actinia in the same way as the body of a CyanoBa differs 
from that of a Hydra. The bilatc^ symmetry, whidi 
is obscure in most of the CoraUigena^ becomes obvious in 
the Ctmophora^ in -which the parts are disposed eymmetri- 
cally on each side of a vertical plane passing through 
the longitudinal axis of the body. The oral aperture 
.is situated at one end of this axis (or its oral pole), while 
at the opjk)site extremity (or aboial pcJe) there is very 
generally situated a sac containing solid mineral peitides--! 
ibj^lUhocytt 

'' The oral aperture^leads into a visceral tube, which 
undoubtedly performs the funeti<»B of a stomach, l^eyeis 
thelees, as in the ConMigtaM^ it is open at its aboral end, 
and its cavity is thus placed in direct communication with 
a^chamber, whence caiuds are given off which penetrate fhe 
gelatinous mesoderm. Of these canahf, one continues the 
direction of the axis of tiie body, and nsually ends by two 
apertures at the aboral pole. The others take a direction 
in a plane more or less at right angles with the axis; and 
after branching out, terminate in longitudinal canals, 
which lie beneath the series of locomotive p^ddlw^ or 
come into relation with the tentacles when such organs 
are developed In addition to these, iwa canals frequently 
extend along the sides of the stomach towards the oral pole. 
The paddle>like locomotive plates are disposed in eight longi- 
tudinal series (^^enopAore^ ) on the outer surface of the body. 
They are thick at the bflEse; thin and, as it were, frayed out 
into separate filaments, at their free edges; and each plate 
is set transversely to the long axis of the series of which it 
forms a part IDie ovaria and testes are developed in the 
side walls of the longitudinal canals. It is clear, therefore, 
that these canals answer to the intermesenteric spaces of 
an Actinia; that the common cavity into which they and 
the stomach opeir answers to the common cavity of the 
body of the Actinid; that the apertures at the aboral pole' 
answer to the terminal aperture of Cereanthus; and that 
the wide interspaces between the longitudinal canals repre- 
sent the mesoderm of the Actinian mesenteries immensely 
thickened. 

In their development the Ctenophora resemble the 
CaraHigena in all essential respects, though they differ 
from them in some details. Thus the process of yelk 
division goes on at & different rate in the two moieties of 
the egg, so that the vitellus becomes divided into one set 
of small and another set of large cells, whereof the latter 
become overlaid by the former, and give rise to a laige- 
ccUed hypoblast, enclosed within a small-celled epiblast 
But in the manner in which the body cavity ia formed, and 
the visceral tube (which becomes the stomach) is developed, 
the Ctenophora resemble the Actinia!, The paddles xnake 
their appearance at four points of the circumference of the 
body, in the form of elevations beset with short cilia; but 
each of these divides into two, and thus the eight defini* 
tive series are constituted^ 

- There is a general £^greement among anatomists respect* 
ing the structure of the Ctenophora thus far; but the 
question whether they possess a nervous system and sensory 
organs or not, is, as in the case of the Coralligenaf one 
upon which there exists great diversity of opinion. Qrant 
originally described a nervous ganglionated ring, whence 
longitudinal cords proceed in Cydippe (FUurobrachia); . 



132 



A C T—A C T 



but his obeerratioo has not been verified by subsequent 
investigationa. According to Biilne Edwards, follow^ by 
others (among whom I most include myself), the nerrous 
system oondsts of a ganglion, situated at the aboral pole 
of the body, whence nerves radiate, the most conspicuous 
of which are eight cords which run down the correspond- 
ing series of paddles; and a sensory organ, having the 
characters of •an otolithic sac, is seated upon the ganglion. 
'Agassis and Kolliker, on the other hand, have denied that 
the appearances described (though they really exist) are 
justly interpreted. And again, though the body, described 
as an otoli^ic sac, undoubtedly exists in the position indi- 
cated in all, or most, of the Ctenophora^ the question, has 
been raised whether it is an auditory or a visual organ. ^ 
\ These problems have been recently rehvestigated 
with great care, and by the aid of the refined methods 
«f m^em histology, by Dr Eimer,^ who describes a ner- 
vous system, coxisisting of extremely delicate varicose ulti- 
mate nerve fibrils, which traverse the mesoderm in all 
directions, and are connected here and there with gan- 
gtioBio coipnsdes. These nerves are only disoemihle .with 
u:^ magnifying powers, as they are for the most part 
isolated, and are odUected into bundles only beneath the 
longitadinal eanala.- ^^ The mass wkichr lies beneath ',thp 
litluKsyst is composed bf cells, bat these have none of the 
special characters of nc^e cells. ^ Eimer states that he has 
traced the filaments, which he considers to be nerves, into 
direct continuity with muscular fibres; and, around the 
mouth, into subepidermal bodies, which he regards as 
rudimentary formi^of tactile corpuscles. The litSocyst is 
recogmsed as an amkitory organ, and, injMldition, eye-spots 
are described. ^ j 

With a fundamental similarity of orgamsation,''the form 
of the body varies extraordinarily in the Ctei^ophora, • One 
of the genera which is commonest on our coasts — Cydippe 
{PUwbrachia) — ^is spheroidal ; others (Beroe) are more ovate ; 
others are provided with large lobular processes (Ettekaru)^ 
while an extreme modification, in which tlie body ib 
ribbon shaped, is seen in Cettvm, 

The OUnophora are divisible into two voiy unequal g^npe :* 
I. Buqfliomiata, in which the Io»e oral apertoie occapiea the tnm- 
catod extremity of the ovalbody. 

1. BeroiMf, 

It SUnoatomcUa, in which the oral apertore and the gastric aac are 
^ small rektively to the sixe of the body. ' " ' 

2. SaxatcB, 
^ 8. LobatcB. 

i. TixniatcB, 

1. BtroJdoB, . _ _ , 

The body is ovate, truncated at the oral pole, the aboral being 

more or less acuminate and mobile. The digestive cavity ocoapies 

a laige portion of the body. Theoral maigin is simple in jBsro^ and 



Idyla; cmt in Bangia the intemdial spaces are notched, and in each 

a short process projects. The radial cam 

drcumoml tamaL Ko tentacles are present The ctenophores of 



canals are connected by a 



fiomdara do not extend over more than half the body, as in the 
fl^nbcyoa of Oyd^fps. The development of the Btiroldm is onao- 
companied by metamorphosia 

% SaeeaUa. -. ^ , 

The drcomoral canal is absent^ The oral apertore is laterally 
compressed, its long axis being at right angles to the plane of the 
tentade^ which are present in all the genera, and whicn are either 
simple (Gifit^S'^)f or fomiahed with lamellar and filamentous 
appendages {Mormiphora). The ctenophores are equal in lensth, or 
the lateral ones are mlly developed, while the intermediate are shorter. 

3. Labium, 

The oral and aboral pole, or the oral only, bear lobato annenUagcs. 
Bdind has a pair of oral lappets, into which the radial canals are pro- 
longed. The ctenophores corresponding to these lobes are the longest, 
while the middle ones are much shorter, and are prolonged on to an 
auride or finger-like lobe. The tentacles are re]»rc8ented by a tuft 
of short prooesBes on either side of the mouth. The voung BolinA 
ihas the Tonn of Oifdippe, and like it bears a pair or long-fringod 

' SSoologigche Stiidien anf Capri. 1873. 
* Ilftockel, " Generelle MorpkoUtyie^*' ii. IzL 



tentadea. The aborsl rq^ion, bearing the lateral ctenophores, grom 
more rapidly than the oral, so as ultimately to project in tvo 
principal looe% by which the similar outfrowth of the modiaa 
aboral regiona with its ctenophores is arresteo, the auricles beiiicths 
dwarfed representatives of these regions. These aurides in Budiam 
are longer, so that the ctenophores are all of equal length. The 
tentadea of this genus are placed at the oral pole ; the oral lobeiuc 
equivalent to the median ctenophores of 0jfdipp9, Eurhamjikn 
has the oral lobes small, the body dongatad, terminOed by tvo 
conibal projectiona, on which the median ctenophores an proloDged. 

% The body of Ctttitm. Is laterally compressed end dongated in a 
direction which corresponds to one of the transverse diameten of 
Cydippe^ the nbbon-like band thua fonned being sometimes thies 
or even fonr feet long. The tentacles are near the oral pole ; t& 
canals an ten in number; the medio-lateral canals terminate b 
trunks which follow the Oral margin of the ribbon, and thUs 
correspond to the drcolar canal of BeroL 

yiany Admotoa {FermahUicUB, Ctawphora) are phos- 
phorescent; but the conditions Which determine the evolu- 
tion of light have not been determined. 

All Aetinotoa are marine animals, and the distributioa 
of many of the fsihilies {AetvMdoB^ TuHfMidai, PewMtw 
lifkBi BemdoB) is extremely wide, and bears uq ascertain- 
able relation to climate. \^ (t- H- h.) 
"^ ACTION, m Zaw, is the process by which redress is 
sought in a court of justice for ^e violi^on of a legal 
right Theword is used by jurists in three different senses. 
Sraietimes it is spoken^of as a right — the right, namdy, 
of inslituting the legal process; sometimes, and more pro- 
perly, it means the legal process itself; and sometimes the 
particular form which it assumes. The most universally 
recognised division of actions is the division established 
by the Roman lawyers into actions tit rem and in penonanu 
Aq action in rem asserts a right to a particular thing aa 
against all the world; an action in pertonam asserts a i^t 
only aa against a particular person. For the sake of con^ 
venience, the law relating to actions ought to form a 
separate section by itself in a properly constructed ood& 

In Boman law the action passed through three historical 



In the first period, which was brought to an end by ^ Zees JBbtOia^ 
about 678 A.U.O., the system ff Ugia aetiones prevailed. These 
wen five in number, — ^the adto sacramfnti, per judieU pothtla- 
tUmcm, per eondicUonenit par nuiiua it^ectumtM, per pignaris anh 
iioMm, The flnt was the primitive and characteristic actian of the 
Roman law, and the othen were little more than modes of aj^pl^g 
it to cases not contemi)lated in the original fonn, or of carmng the 
result of it into execution when the action had been dedded. 

Acfn<Mf , in JSngliah Law, means the form of civil pro- 
cess hitherto observed in the Courts of Common'Law. The 
procedure in the Court of Chancery is totally distinct, but 
some account of the former may be desirable in order to 
explain the new form of action intcoduced for all the civil 
courts by the Judicature Act of 1873: — 

Actions at law are divided by Blackstone into three classes, 
according to the rdiof which they an respectivdy intended to 
obtain. RecU actions an those " whereby the plaintiff daims title 
to have any lands or tenements, rents, commons, or other heredita- 
ments. " in penowU actions the claim is " for debt or persooal duty, 
or damages in lieu thereof,'* or for "satisfaction in damages for 
some iiyury done to peraon or proper^." Mixed actions wen sup- 
posed to partake of the natnnof both of these ; that is to aay, then 
was a demand both for real property and for pmonal damages, aain 
the case of an action for a'aste. Th e distinction has long ceased to be 
of any value. Blackstone speaksof real actions aa being in hia time 
pretty j^eraily kid aside, and successive enactmeota have oblite- 
rated the distinctions altogether. The statute Zki WiD. IV. c. 27, 
abolished all tiio real and mixed actions, except three real actions, 
and ejectment, which was a mixed action. The Common Law Pro- 
cedure Act of 1860 has assimilated the procedure in the former to 
an ordinary action, and the dommon Law Procedure Act of 18S2 
now regulates the proceedings in qjectment In these and other 
respects the three Common Uiw E^rocedure Acts of 1852, 1854, and 
1860, very greatly simplified the proceedings in an action at law. 
The first of these renaered it unnecessary any longer to adect a 
form of action in T)rosecuting a claim, and aodishra niany of the 
technlcalitios whiob hod accompanied the older forms. The divi. 



A C T — A D A 



133 



lions now oltserred may be r^gaMed as IndlestiDg, not so mncb 
fonns of action in tlje old sense, as tha character ottbe injury sus- 
tained and the relief sought. 

Action (ander the Supreme Court of Judicature Act, 
1873). By this Act» which establishes one supreme court 
in place of the Superior Courts of Common Law and tne 
High Court of Chancery, action is the name given to 
the proceeding in the High Court of Justice, which takes 
the place of the old actions at common law, suits insti- 
tuted by bill or information id the Court of Chancery, 
causes in rem in the Court of Admiralty, or by citation in 
the Court of Probate. For these various modes of obtain- 
ing redress the Act substitutes one uniform proceeding,, 
which retains most of the essential features of the common 
law action. The form of action established by the Act is in 
some measure a compromise between the old action at law 
and Chancery suit It may be described as putting an end 
to the unintelligible and even misleading formulae of the 
one and reducing the prolixity and r^undance of the 
other. (b-b.) 

ACTIUM, in Andent Geography ^ a promontory in the 
north of Acamania, at the mouth of the Sinus Ambracius, 
opposite the town of Nicopolis, built by Augustus on the 
north side of the strait Eastwards from the prombntoiy 
the strait widens out and forms a safe harbour. On the 
promontory was an ancient temple of Apollo /who is hence 
called by Virgil Aet^^), which was enlarged by Augustus. 
Actium became famous on account of Augustus's victory 
over Antony and Cleopatra (&c. 31), and for the quin- 
quennial games he instituted there, called Actia or Ludi 
AUiaeL Aettaea jEra was a computation of time from the 
battle of Actium. There was on the promontory a small 
town, or rather village, also called AaiuvL 

ACTON, a large village in Middlesex, about eight miles 
west of St Paul'a It was once much frequented because 
of its saline springs, but these have long lost their repute. 
Acton being near the metropolis and easily accessible by 
the Great Western Railway, and the price of building land 
being low, numerous villas have been erected in the neigh- 
bourhood. The population of the pansh increased from 
5151 in 1881 to 8306 m 1871. 

ACTON, Sir Jou^I Francis Edward, son of Edward 
Acton, who practised as a physician at Besan^n, was bom 
there in 1 736, and succeeded to the title and estates in 1 791, 
on the death of his cousin in the third degree. Sir Richard 
Acton. He served in the navy of France, and afterwards 
in that of Tuscany, and commanded a frigate in the joint 
expedition of Spain and Tuscany against Algiers in 1774. 
His gallantry in rescuing three or four thousand Spanish 
soldiers from slavery led to his advancement Entering 
the Neapolitan service, he gained the favour of Queen Mary 
Caroline, became commander-in-chief of the land and sea 
forces, then minister of finance, and ultimately prime 
minister. His policy was devised in concert with the 
English ambassador Hamilton, and, of course, was hostile 
to France and to the French paiiy in Italy. He has been 
held responsible for the arbitrary and despotic measures 
which, in I798-D9, filled the prisons of Naples with poli- 
tical prisoners, and even brought some of them to the 
scaffold. In 1803 Acton was for a short time deprived of 
the reins of government at the demand of France; but he 
^^tts speedily restored to his former position, which he held 
till, in Feb. 1806, on the entry of* the French into Naples, 
he had to flee with the royal family into Sicily He died 
at Palermo on the 12th Aug 1811, leaving by his wife 
(eldest daughter of his brother, Ocnerai .loseph Eldward 
Acton, whom he had married by papal dispensation) three 
children, of whom the second, Charles J an nanus Edward, 
'Was made Cardinal Santa Maria dclla Pace in 1842. It 
CDdy bo well to state that Sir John has very frequently 



been confouncleS ^Ui his abore-menfioned l>ToChei; bom 
in 1737, who was also employed in the Neapolitan service. 

ACTUARY, in ancient Rome, was the name given to the 
clerks who recoxxied the Acta Pvhlica of the Senate, and also 
to the officers tvho kept the militaiy accounts and enforced 
the due fulfilment of contracts for military supplies. In its 
English usage the word has undergone a gradual limitation 
of meaning. At first it seems to have denoted any clerk 
or registrar; then more particularly the secretaiy and 
advisor of any joint-stock company, but especially of an 
insurance company ; and it is noV applied specifically to 
one who makes those calculations as to the probabilities oi 
human Ufe, on which the practice of life assurance and the 
valuation of reversionary interests, deferred annuities, &c., 
are based. The first mention of the word in law ib in the 
Friendly Societies Act of 1819, where it is used in tho vague 
sense, " actuaries, or persons skilled in calculation." The 
word has been used with predsion since the establishment 
of the <* Institute of Actuaries of Great Britain and L-c- 
land" in 1848. The ** Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland" 
was formed at Edinburgh in 1856, and incorporated by 
royal charter in 1868. The registrar in the Lower House 
of Convocation is also called the actuary. i 

ACUNA, Christoval d', a Spanish Jesuit, bom at 
Burgos in 1597. He was admitted into the society in 1 6 1 2, 
and, after some years silent in study, was sent as a mis-' 
sionaiy to Chili and Peru, where he became rector of the 
College of Cuen9a. In 1639 he wos appointed by the 
Jesuits to accompany Pedro Texeira in his second ezplora* 
tion of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, 
and draw up a report that might be sent to Spain. Tho 
journey lasted for ten months; and, on their arrival at 
Peru, no ship being ready to convey tho explorer to Spain, 
Acuna employed hLnself in the preparation of a narrative 
of his journey. This was nnblished at Madrid in 1641, 
uj)der Uio title Nuetfo DesevhriniusnJto del Gran Rio de las 
Amasonas, dee. The King of Spain received Acuiia coldly, 
and, it is said, %ven tried to suppress his book, fearing 
that the Portuguese, who had revolted from Spain, would 
avail themselves of the information which it contained. 
A translation into French was published by Qomberville in 
1682i and a translation from the French into English 
appeared in 1698. After occupying tiio positions of procu- 
rator of the Jesuits at Rome, and ealificador (censor) of the 
Inquisition at Madrid, Acuiia returned to South Amcrija, 
where he died, probably soon after the year 1675. 

ACUPRESSURE, in Surgerv (acus^ a needle, premo, I 
press), a method of restraining haemorrhage, introduced in 
1869 by the late Sir J. Y. Simpson. The closure of the 
vessel near the bleeding point is attained by the direct 
pressure of a metallic needle, either alone or assisted by a 
loop of wira The advantages claimed by the originator of 
this method over the old silk ligature were, that the needles 
can be removed within forty-eight hours after introduction, 
aUowing the wound to heal rapidly ; and that^ being metallic 
and non-porous, they do not cause irritation and suppura- 
tion like the silk ligature. The catgut ligature, which is 
rapidly absorbed, is graduaUy superseding both the silk 
ligature and the acupressure needle. A volume entitled 
Acupressure, by Sir J. Y. Simpson, was published in 1864. 

ACUPUNCTURE, the name of a surgical operation 
among the Chinese and Japanese, which is pesdarmed by 
prickmg the part affected with a silver needle They 
employ this operation in headaches, lethaigies, convulsions^ 
coUcs, &C., and it has more lately been introduced into 
British practice for the cure of some forms of neuralgia. 

ADAPUDIA, a large town of Western Africa, in' the 
country of the Felattais, in 13* 6' N. kt, 1" 3' E. long., 
about 400 miles S.E. of Timbuctoa It is surrounded by 
a mud wall. The neighbouring country is 'xich and 



134 



A D A — AD A 



(ertila. The trade in natiye merchandise is said to t>e 
as great as that of Abomey, the capital of Dahomey; and 
there is also a considerable traffic in slaves. Popolation, 
about 24,000. 

ADAlL, a region in Eastern Africa, with a coast line 
extending, between IT 30' and Id"" 40' N. lat., from the 
Gulf of Tajurrah to the neighbourhood of MassowaL For 
about 300 miles it borders on the Red Sea, the coast of 
which iB composed of coral rock. It stretches inland to 
the mountam terraces, to the west of which lie tlie Abys- 
sinian table-lands of Shoa and Tigr^, with a breadth near 
Massow&h of only a few miles, but widening towards the 
south to 200 or 300 miles. The northern portion of this 
region, knowu as the Afar country, is traversed by two 
routes to Abyssinia — ^the one from Zulla near Massowah, 
and the other from Amphilla Bay The former of these 
was selected for the British Abyssinian expedition of 1868, 
Annesley Bay bemg the place of debarkation and base of 
operations. There is a third route to Abyssinia through 
Ada], that from. Tajurrah to Ankobar, the capital of Shoa, 
said to be preferred for trading purposes, as bemg less 
steep than the others. The nvcr Hawash flows through 
the southern district of Adal m a N E. direction, but is 
lost in Lakes Abbebad and Aussa. Near this river is 
Aussa, the chief towu of the country. Volcanic rocks 
oconr in various parts of this district; and two mountains, 
4000 feet high, are mentioned, which have sent down 
streams of lava on all sides to the distance of 30 miles. 
The country contains two great salt plains or basins, — ^that 
of Asali in its northern portion, and Aussa in the soutL 
The remarkable salt lake of Bahr Assal, near Tsgurrah, is 
570 feet below the level of the sea. The country 
as a whole is barren and uncultivated. A little barley 
is reared on the higher terraces, and some districts 
afford pasturage for domestic animals, large quantities^ of 
butter being annually sent to Massowah. In some parts 
of Adal the elephant is not uncommon. The salt of Asali 
and Aussa is a valuable article of commerce. There is no 
fixed government, the country being inhabited by various 
independent tribes, all speaking the Afar language and 
professing the Mahometan religion, and meet ot them of 
nomadic habits. 

ADALBEHT. BAnrr, one of the founders of Christianity 
Id Germany, knowu as the Apostle of the Prussians, was 
boro of a noble family in Slavonia, about 955 ; was educated 
at the monastery of Magdeburg; and, in 983, was chosen 
Bishop of Prague The restraints which he tried to impose 
on the newly-coifverted Bohemians by prohibiting poly- 
gamy, clerical mcontinency, and similar sins, raised against 
him so strong a feeling of hatred, that he was forced, in 
988, to retire to Rome, where he resided at the monasteries 
of Monte Basino and St Alexis. In 993 he returned to 
his flock, m obedience to the command of the Pope. Find- 
ing little amendment, however, in their course of living, he 
soon afterwards went again to Rome, and obtained permis- 
sion from the Pope to devote himself to missionary laboure, 
which he earned on chiefly in North Germany and Poland. 
While preachmff m Pomerania (997), he was thrust through 
the heart by a heathen pnest 

ADALBERT. Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg, 
bom of the noble Saxon family of the Counts of Wettin, 
was one of the most remarkable ecclesiastics of the 11th 
century Through the fnendship of the emperor Henry 
in. he was elevated m 1043. when only about thirty 
Tears old, to the see of Bremen and Hamburg, which 
Included the whole of Scandmavia, and he accompanied 
the monarch in his journey to Rome (1046) Here it is 
said that he was offered and that he refused the papal 
throne. The refusal certainly cannot have ansen from 
lack of ambition; for on his return in 1050, with a com- 



mission as legate to the northern courts from Pope Leo 
IX., he immediately set about carrying out the emperoi'a 
wishes by establishing .himself in an independent pattv- 
aichate of the north. , For this purpose he sought by evciy 
means to augment his already great influence, he adorned 
his two cathedrals, and enlarged and fortified the town of 
Bremen so that it might rival Rome. There was much in 
his favour, and he might even have succeeded in entirely 
separating the church of the north from the see of Rome, 
hflud it not been for the death of Henxy IIL, and the oppo- 
sition of Cardinal Hildebrand. Henry IV. being a minor 
at the time of his father's death, Adalbert was associated 
with Archbishop Hanno of Cologne as guardian and regent; 
and during the absence of the latter on a mission to Rome, 
he sought, by granting every indulgence, to gain the 
favour of the young prince, and so to be able to exendse 
an absolute power in the state ( 1 062-65). The Archbishops 
of Mayence and Cologne secured his banishment from 
court after the government had been assumed by Henry in 
person (1066); and about the same time his diocese was 
invaded by the " natural enemies" of Bremen, the Saxon 
nobles. In 1069, however, he was recalled, and reinstated 
in his former position. He died at Goslar in 1072, having 
done inuch during his last years to inflame the Saxons' hatred 
of Henry, which resulted soon afterwards in their revolt 

ADAM, o-^K^ an appellative noun, meaning the first man. 
In Genesis ii. 7, 25, iii 8, -20, iv. 1, ^ Jt assumes the nature 
of a proper name, and has the article, the man^ the only 
one of his kind ; yet it is appellatire, correctly speaking. 
In Genesis 1 26, 27, v. 2, it is simply appellatiYe, being 
applied to both progenitors of .the human race i not to 
the first man alone as in the second, third, and fourth 
chapters. The etymology of the word is uncertain, but 
it is probably connected with a root signifying redy so that 
the idea is one rtd or ruddy. 

The early part of Genesis contains two accounts of 
man's creation. These narratives need not be examined 
at present farther than man's origin is concerned In 
Genesis L 26, 27, we read, " And God said, Let us make 
man in our image, after our Likeness ; and let them have 
dominion over 3is fish of the sea, and over the fowl of 
the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and 
over every cropping thing that creepeth upon the eartL 
So God created man in his cwn image ; in the image of 
God created he him ; male and female created he them.** 
'At the end of the siith day of creation man appears, the 
noblest of earth's inhabitants. In Genesis iL 7, 8, we also 
read, "And the Lobd formed man <^ the dust <tf the 
ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life ; 
and mai} became a livins souL And the Lobj> God 
planted a garden eastward in Eden ; and there he pat the 
.man he had formed." The woman's creation is thus 
narrated in subsequent verses of the same chapter — ^20, 21, 
22, 23, "And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the 
fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field : bat for 
Adam there was not found an help meet for him. And 
the LoBD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, 
and he slept : and he took one of his ribs, and dosed up 
the flesh instead thereof. And the rib, which the Lobd 
God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brou^t 
her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of 
my bones, and flesh of my flesh * she shall be caUed 
Woman* because she was taken out of man." Between 
these accounts some discrepancy exists. The first repre- 
sents the man and woman to have been created together, 
after the vanous creatures which the earth sustains on its 
surface; the second makes Adam to have been created 
first, then the vaiious animals, with the woman last of all. 
The creation of animab separates the origin of the man 
and the woman. The first narrator states that man iras 



ADAM 



135 



miide in the image and form of Gk>d, without explaining 
his meaning more particularly. Hence interpreters diifer 
in attempting to define it. The language need not be 
restricted either to man's '«pm^ or to his hodtft but may 
refer to his united whole, including spiritual qualities and 
bodily form. The ancient Hebrew did not tlunk of God ' 
without a certain form, but transferred the human one to 
him^ divesting it of grossness, and giving it an ethereal 
luminousness of surpassing gloiy. The image of lefod, 
therefore, in which Adam is said to have be^ created, 
includes the whole man, with special reference to the 
spiritual nature within him. We cannot tell whether the 
writer thought of immortality ^ involved in the Qod- 
likeness. He may have 'done sa But the second account 
teacher that man was only mortal at first, because he is 
sent out of Paradise lest he should become immortal by 
eating of the tree of life. 

The narratiYe in the first chapter is arranged according 
to a definite plan. Six days areaUottodto the creation of 
the heavens and earth, with all their furniture animate 
and inanimate. After due preparation had been made 
by the formation of light, atpdosphere, and land separated 
from water, life is called into existence, first vegetable, 
then animal, terminating in man the lord of this lower 
world. The narrative in chapters ii-iv. does not present 
such orderly progress. In it man is the central figure, 
to whom all is subordinated. SLe is created first For 
him plants aqd trees are made to spring. up. He is^placed 
in a delightful garden. The Lord Ckd perceiving his 
solitary condition creates the beasts of {he field and the 
fowls of the air; but when brought to the protoplast,, 
they were insufficient to supply his mental void, so that 
woman was made,. in .whom he. found a suitable partner. 
A number of questions connected with the first pair, not 
necessarily entering into the writer's main purpose in 
describing man's origin, but complementary and new, 
are, the means by which the ground yielded vegetable pro- 
ductions, the materials from which the man and the woman 
were formed, the cause of their intimate union, the place 
of their abode, the simplicity of their condition, and the 
way in which animals first received their names. By these 
traits preparation is made for the history of what befell 
the protoplasts in their primitive abode. 

According to the second narrative, Jehovah planted a 
garden in £den, eastward, and pat the first man there. 
A spring or stream rising in Eden, and flowing through 
the garden, supplied it with watef. In issuing from ti^e 
gar